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between the great powers in the North and East of Europe, was commenced too late in the year for the production of any considerable military operation; thoseimmediate causes which accelerated that event will accordingly be the intro. duction to the narrative of their mutual hostilities in our next volume. Other matters have, for the present, necessarily given way to those of greater importance, and will forin an article of future retrospect.

Our domeftic affairs have not been less carefully attended 10, as we hope the discussion of the commercial ircaiy with France, and other subjects of national importance, will sufficiently testify.

We have been informed by a gentleman not long arrived from Italy, of some misre: re!entation and exaggeration of circumstances, in the account of the new cemetery near Florence, given in our latt volume. We have ever embraced with pleasure every occasion that offered of bestowing due praise upon the excellent government of the Grand Duke; and are too deeply impressed with a regard for the humanity and beneficence of his character, to suffer any thing derogatory from it to appear without concern; and this we ieftified in the palage alludedt , although we could not refule ftating facts which scemed perfe&tlyauthenticated. We are not, however, ignorant that some of his reforms have, as well as the cemetery, been the cause of much dissatisfaction and complaint among bis subjects;and that evenhis admirable code of penal law, notwithstanding the philanthropy and beneficence that breathe through every part of it, has not been received without dislike and censure,and has even been productive of much distress to individuals; a consequence perhaps which no system of general reform, baftily adopted, can ever be entirely free from.

With respect to the matter in question, if we have been imposed upon in the accounts which we received of the cemetery, we are not singular in the impofition; for an English gentleman, whose poetical and literary talents are well known, and who was immediately upon the spot, published a very severe fatire upon the subject, from which it is evident, that it appeared to him in the same light that it was afterwards represented to us.

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Mediation of France and Pruffia in the affairs of Holland. Reasons for
doubling the success of tbar mediation confirmed by the event. Negociations
carried on at Nimèguen and ibe Hague. Conditions laid down by the States of
Holland as the basis of an accommodation with the Stadtholder. Caufes which
rendered these propositions inadmifible. M. de Rayneval suddenly breaks off
the negociation and returns to Paris. Couni de Goeriz receives a letter of recal,
returns

to Berlin. Violent animosity and mutual recrimination of ibe cona
tending parties on the failure of the negociation. The new form of government,
efablished in tbe cily of Utrecht, considered as a model of perfection by the de
mocratical party in other places. Dificult firuation and temporizing conduct of
the States of Holland, wirb respect to sbe prevalent democratic spirit. Sud
den and unaccountable changes in the political conduit and principles of the party
in opposition to the Stadtholder displayed in various places. Stares Friefland
forff waver, and then, from being among the foremost in opposition, appear de.
cidedly in favour of the Prince. M. de Rendorp changes fides in Amsterdam,
and carries over a majority of the senate along with bim. Immediate consequences
of this change; great alarm Spread by it among ibe republican party. Means
pursued by the leaders to remedy the defection of Amsterdam. Procure addresses
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VOL. XXIX.

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from several towns, with a view of gaining thereby a decided majority of vores in the afsembly of provincial pares. Failing in this altempi, obey propose in the allemhly a resulurion 10 suspend the Prince of Orange from bis remaining bigh offices of fladsholder and admiral-general. Foiled likewise in this, they endiavour 10 increase the number of vores in the provincial allembly, by affording a right of representation 10 several new towns; in wbich they are also defeared. Eftimare of the comparative sirengih and numbers of the corriending parties. Retrospect of the measures pursued by Holland, for supporting the city of Utrecht in its contumacious oppofirion to the siates of the province. Unexpected revolution än ihe assembly of ibe Stales of Holland, who, following the example of Am.' Perdam, adapt measures evidently favourable 10 the Stadıbolder's interests. General confternation and critical suuation of the republican party. Defeated in all their late artempes; with now a great majority of the provinces, and a greater of the people decidedly against them. Bold and hazardous measures become acts of prudence. Obliged 10 throw themselves upon the democratical parıy for Support, and 10 call in obe armed burghers 10 new model and settle tbe fiare and confiitution. These surround the senate-bouses of Amfierdam and Rotterdam, purge ibem of 1boje members who were adverse 10 their designs, place all pouer in ibe bands of their own party, and establish a determined majority in the states of Holland. These prepare 10 allis Utrecht by force of arms against the Provina cial States. Sranes general, who bad bisherio preserved a friet neutrality, now take a decided puri in opposing the design of Holland 10 fupport Utrecht by force of arms. Council of fate issue an order strictly forbidding she officers in the ser. vice of Holland from marching their troops into the territories of any other province. Probibilion confirmed by the States general. Reply from the States of Holland. First blood drawn in a skirmish ar Jutphaas, a village near Utrechi. States of Holland order troops 10 tbe succour of Utrecht. Propoje a rest 10 their officers. A great majority refuse the test ; are fufpended and new ones appointed. Suspended officers taken into tbe protection of the States general, and their pay çondinued. Manifesto published by the Stadtholder, amounting nearly 10 a decla. rarion of war again the ruling parry in the province of Holland. Riors at Amsterdam. States genera! i fue an order to general Van Reydel, 10 break up the cordon or line of iroops formed on the frontiers of Holland. Counter orders from ibe fiates of Holland. Colonel Balneavis carries off the regiment which be lately commanded bimself, with a battalion of another, from the fortress of Oudewater 10 rbe Studebol,ler. Tþis example causes a grneral revelt in the troops of Holland. URING the adverse tide of in any degree tend to prevent those

affairs wbich was setting in very irksome and dangerous conso strongly against the interests of sequences, which the present fiate tne ltadtholder, in the United Pro- of things and the violence of the vinces, towards the clofe of the year republican party could not other3786, his brother-in-law, the new will fail to produce. For the atking of l'ruflia, was uncearing in tainment of this purpose he ihewed his endeavours to promote all such himself disposed to try any means measures of conciliation as could in however unpromiting, and to coin

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cide with any interests, however dif- the greatest cordiality, immediately cordant, that afforded even a possi- appointed M. de Rayneval (who bility of success. Perhaps he thought had already acquired fome confiderit neceffary, at the opening of a new able credit in negociation, particureign, to hold out such inftances of larly in concluding the late treaty moderation, justice, and a desire of of commerce with England) to be preserving the general tranquillity, the French King's representative in as might serve to secure the opi- the office of mediation; and fo hear nions of mankind in his favour, and ty did that court appear in the busito prepare them for that future de- nels, that the French minister arcision which he forefaw would be rived at the Hague before the end inevitable. Perhaps likewise the of November, 1788, where he was character of his predecefior, or the to act in concert with the Baron de public impreffion founded on it, Goertz, the extraordinary, and M. might not have been without its Thulemeyer, the refident minister effect in regulating his conduct up- of Prullia, in endeavouring to acon this occation.

complish the desired fettlement. As the offer of his joint media But fair as these appearances tion with Great Britain had been were, it was little hoped by those fighted by the adverte faction (their who looked closely into the state mutual connections with the stadt- and nature of things, that this neholder, and avowed predilection for gociation thould produce the effect his interefts, affording no small apparently fought by one mediator, room for objecting to their arbitra- and eagerly withed by the other. tion) he endeavoured to remove They could not bring themselves to this impediment, by proposing that believe that France, who they knew France, the avowed friend and to be not only the nurse, protectress, clole ally of the republic, should, and encourager of the adverte tacalong with himself, undertake the tion, but to have been the prime kind office, but arduous taik, of set- fomenter and inftigator of ali tlreir tling and compofing the differences violences, should now at once unby which it was distracted. The do the effects of all her former craft season of the year was favourable, and labour, by becoming the inas the near approach of winter mutt strument of reitoring the prince of neceifarily reftrain the active vio- Orange to any thing near that thare lence of the contending parties, af- of weight and power which he beford leisure for mediation and, as fore held in the republic. This men's minds cooled by inaction, they would have been to facrifice her would become more placable, and own immediate interests to the grabe the better ditpoted to listen to tification of the king of Prullia, to the voice of conciliation.

abandon one of the longest and The proposal being com.nuni- dearett objects of her policy, to miss cated by the Pruflian minifter to the only opportunity that had ever the court of Versailles, was receiv- offered of her ettablishing a fupreme ed in such a manner, as fecmed and permanent controul in the affilattering to the king's discernment fairs of the republic, and for ever in adopting the project. That court to lose, without benefit or efteet, embracing it with every mark of all that gold which the bad for

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from several towns, with a view of gaining thereby a decided majority of voles in the affembly of provincial states. Failing in this attempi, they propoje in the allembly a resulurion 10 Suspend the Prince of Orange from bis remaining bigh offices of sladıbolder and admiral-general. Foiled likewise in this, they endeavour 10 increase the number of vores in the provincial assembly, by affording a right of representation 10 several new towns; in which they are also defeated. Ef mate of ibe compararive sirengih and numbers of the cortending parties. Retrospect of the measures pursued by Holland, for supporting the city of Utrecht in iis contumacious oppofirion 10 the pares of the province. Unexpecled revolution in ibe afsembly of ibe Siares of Holland, wbo, following the example of Am.: Perdam, adope measures evidenıly favourable 10 tbe Stadtbolder's interests. General conjlernation and critical firuation of tbe republican parry. Defeated in all their late attempts; with now a great majority of the provinces, and a greater of the people decidedly against them. Bold and hazardous measures become ails of prudence. Obliged 10 throw themselves upon the democratical party for Suppori, and 10 call in obe armed burghers 10 new model and jerrle ibe fare and conftitution. These surround the senare-boufes of Amfierdam and Rotterdam, purge them of those members who were adverse 10 their designs, place all poter in the bands of ibeir own party, and esiablish a determined majority in the states of Holland. These prepare to als Utrecht by force of arms against the Provincial States. States general, wbo bad hitherto preserved a friet neutrality, now take a decided puri in opposing the design of Holland 10 support Utrecht by force of arms. Council of fate ijsue an order ftrictly forbidding ibę oficers in tbe fer. vice of Holland from marching their troops into the territories of any orber province. Probibinon confirmed by the Stares general. Reply from the States of Holland. Pirft blood drawn in a skirmish ar Jutphaas, a village near Utrechi. States of Holland order troops to ibe succour of Utrecht. Propose a rejt 10 their officers. A great majority refuse ibe teft ; are suspended and new ones appointed. Sujpended officers taken into the protection of ibe States general, and their pay concinued. Manifeylo published by the Stadtholder, amounting nearly 10 4 decla. Tallon of war again be ruling party in the province of Holland. Riots at Amsterdam. Slates genera! ilue an order to general Van Reyfil, to break up the cordon or line of troops formed on the frontiers of Holland. Counter orders from the siates of Holland. Colonel Balneavis carries of the regiment which be lately commanded bimself, with a battalion of another, from the fortress of Oudewater to the Studebol,ler. This example causes a general revolt in the troops of Holland. URING the adverse tide of in any degree tend to prevent those

aftairs which was setting in very irksome and dangerous conso strongly against the interests of sequences, which the present flate tne itadtholder, in the United Pro- of things and the violence of the vinces, towards the clole of the year republican party could not other1756, his brother-in-law, the new uit: fail to produce. For the atking of l'ruflia, was uncealing in tainment of this purpose he ihewed his endeavours to promote all such himself ditpoled to try any means mcasures of conciliation as could in however unpromising, and to coin

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