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on a comparison with such rivers, ver heard of any person who had it may be considered to be in a per- seen its termination, and is cerpetual state of flood. The average tain that it does not end any where rising of the Ganges in the rainy in the vicinity of Kashna or Borreason is stated by Major Rennell nou, having resided some time in to be thirty-one feet, being about both those kingdoms."--These the same as that of the Nile; are the grounds upon which the whereas, the difference between the present supposition rests. Arguhighest point of the Congo aboutments founded upon etymological February, and the lowest in Sep- conjectures, supposed resemblantember, is only about nine feet ; ces of names, or affinity of lanand the river, at the latter period, guages, &c. &c. are, for the most has all the appearance to a stranger part, too arbitrary and fanciful, of being in full flood. It is this and liable to too much uncertainty remarkable peculiarity, which dis- to be entitled to any place in distinguishes the Congo from other quisitions of this nature. The great rivers of a similar descrip- same remark is applicable to the tion, and which leads to the most narratives and descriptions given important conclusions with re- by native travellers and merchants, gard to its origin and course. and, in general, to all African eri

In support then, of the hypo- dence whatever, except when supthesis which identifies the Congo ported by collateral proof from with Niger, the following argu- other less exceptionable sources. ments deduced from the preced- Such being the evidence in faing facts and observations, may vour of the hypothesis respecting be alledged :- 1. The great mag- the Congo, the objections against nitude of the Congo. 2. The pro- this theory must be admitted to bability that this river is derived be of some weight. The princifrom very remote sources, and pal of these are, 1. That it supthose considerably north of the poses the course of the Niger to equator. 3. The fact, that there lie through the chain of the Kong exists a great river north of the Mountains (anciently Montes Luequator, (the Niger,) of which ne), the great central belt of the termination is unknown, and Africa. Of the existence of these which may, perhaps, form the mountains there appears to be no principal branch of the Congo.— doubt; and from their situation 4. This hypothesis derives some in the midst of a great continent, additional probability from the they may reasonably be supposed statement of the guide, whom to be of great size and extent ; in Park took down the Niger from which case it is difficult to underSansanding. In Park's letter to stand how the Niger could peneSir Joseph Banks (p.78), he speaks trate this barrier, and force a pasof this person, as “one of the great- sage southwards. 2. The course est travellers in that partof Africa," of the Niger, estimated from its and represents him as stating- source in the mountains of Sene" that the Niger, after it passes gal (supposing it to be the same Kashna, tuns directly to the right- river with the Congo, and to flow hand, or the south, and that he ne- by Wangara and Kashna through


he centre of Africa into the At- Before the editor finally disantic), would be considerably misses the subject of the Congo, nore than 4000 miles. But the he may be allowed to express a course of the Amazon, the great- hope that this distinguished river, est river in the old or new world which hitherto has been only with which we are acquainted, is known as one of the greatest only about 3500 miles ; and, al- marts of the Slave Trade, may though the existence of a river at length be rendered conducive to considerably greater than any yet objects of civilization and science; known, may be within the limits and that some use will now be of physical possibility; yet, such made of this great inlet into Afria supposition ought not to be a- ca, for the purpose of exploring dopted upon slight or conjectural a part of that continent which is reasoning, or upon any thing yet entirely unknown; or, at

much short of distinct and posi- least, of obtaining more com: tive proof. To give such a vast plete and authentic information extension to the Congo upon the relative to the Congo itself, which grounds stated by Mr. Maxwell, must unquestionably be considermight perhaps be considered as ed as a very curious and interestone of those exaggerations, to ing subject of enquiry. Such an which, according to a remark of enterprise, according to the opis D'Anville, geographical writers nion of Mr. Maxwell, would not upon Africa have always been re. be attended with much difficulty. markably prone, en abusant, In a letter to Mr. Park, dated pour ainsi dire, du vast champ Oct. 12, 1804, alluding to the que l'intérieur de l'Afrique y lais- subject of the Congo, he speaks soit prendre.” (Méin. de l'Aca- of an intention which he had demie des Inscriptions, Tom. xxvi. formed some time prior to Park's p. 61.*)

discoveries, of exploring that

• The following scale (taken from Major Rennel's Memoir of a Map of Hindostan, p. 337,) shewing the proportional length of some of the most considerable rivers already known, may be useful to the reader on the present occasion. EUROPE,



· 104




- 111


Hoanho (China) • 13}
Kian Keu












9 Burrampooter

94 Ava



• 10



164 It must be observed, however, that the magnitude of a river depends much less upon the length of its course than upon the number of auxiliary streams which fall into it. It is this latter circumstance, which occasions the vast size of the Ganges, compared, for example, with the Nile; although the course of the latter is so much longer. Rivers not led by auxiliary streams, may even become smaller in consequence of the length of their course. The editor is indebted for these observations to Major Rennell,

river. His scheme was to carry it approaches the north eastern out with him from England six extremity of the gulph of Guinea, supernumerary boats, well adapt when it divides and discharges ited for' rowing and sailing; each self by different channels into the being of such a size as to be easily Atlantic; after having formed a carried by thirty people, and great Delta, of which the Rio transported across several catar- del Rey constitutes the eastern, acts, with which the course of the and the Rio Formoso, or Benin river is known to be impeded. River, the western branch. On his arrival at the coast, he Without entering into the demeant to hire about thirty or forty tails of M. Reichard's reasoning black rowers, and to sail up the in support of this hypothesis, Congo with proper arms, pro- which is often somewhat hazardvisions and merchandize, in the ous and uncertain, it may be suffmonth of Hay (the dry season cient for the present purpose to south of the equator) calculating observe, that his principal arguupon an absence from the coast ment is founded on a consideration of about ten weeks. Mr. Max- of the peculiar character belong. well considered this scheme as ing to the tract of country situated perfectly practicable, and likely between the two rivers, which to be attended with no very great consists of a vast tract of low, expense; but he was prevented level land, projecting considerably from executing his intention by into the sea, and intersected by the war of 1793, which made it an infinity of small branches from inconvenient and unsafe for him the principal rivers. In these to encumber the deck of his ves- and other respects, it appears, sel with supernumerary boats. according to the best descriptions

IV. The fourth and last opinion of the coast which we possess, to respecting the termination of the bear a considerable resemblance Niger is that of a German geo- to the Deltas at the mouths of the grapher, M. Reichard, which was Nile, the Ganges, and such other published in the “ Ephemerides great rivers as by depositing large Géographiques," at Weimar, in quantities of alluvial matter preAugust, 180s, and is referred to vious to their discharge into the in a respectable Freneh work, en- sea, form gradual additions to the titled, • Précis de la Géographie coast. For it may

in Universelle, par M. Malte-brun." this place to remark, that the The fourth volume of this work, formation of Deltas, even by which appeared at Paris in the rivers of the first magnitude, is year 1913, (p. 635) represents by no means universal; some of M. Reichard's hypothesis to be, the greatest that are known being that the Niger after reaching without them. Of this the AmaWangarir, takes a direction to- zon, Plata, and Oronoko are wards the south, and being join- mentioned by Major Kemell as ed by other rivers from that part distinguished instances; to which of Africa, makes a great turn may now be added, the Congo. from thence towards the south- The difference appears

to be west, and pursues its course till owing to the depth of the sea at


be proper

'the mouth of the rivers, and per.. Atlantic. But its course is much haps to other circumstances, which more tortuous, and its length, are not quite understood.

even when thus reduced, is still a Both of the two rivers, en- considerable difficulty, and a great closing the great alluvial tract incumbrance on the hypothesis. which has been described (the The objection arising from the Rio del Rey and the Formoso), Niger's being conceived to peneare stated to be of considerable trate the Kong Mountains, seems size, being each of them seven or to be nearly of equal weight in eight miles broad at the mouth ; both cases, on the supposition and the supposed Delta, estimated that this vast chain of mountains by the line of coast, is much is of the extent generally imalarger than that of the Ganges : gined. consequently, the two streams, It

may be mentioned as an obif united, must form a river of jection to both of these hypotheprodigious magnitude. But nei- ses, that no traces whatever of ther of the rivers has ever yet the Mahometan doctrines or inbeen explored ; nor has the inte- stitutions are now to be found on rior of the country, to any dis- either of the coasts where the tance from the coast, been accu- Niger is supposed to terminate. rately described by any European In no part of the world has the traveller. Hence, the question spirit of enterprise and proselywhether the two rivers are evertism, which properly belongs to really united, and whether the the Mahometan character, been tract in question is a complete more strikingly displayed, than in Delta or not, still remains to be the extensive regions of North ascertained. With regard also to Africa. Its effects are every the course, or even the existence, where conspicuous, not only in of the great river to which this the religious belief of the greater Delta is said to belong, and which part of the inhabitants, but even M. Reichard supposes to come

where Mahometism is not estafrom the north-east of Africa, blished, in their manners, and there is no vestige or tradition customs, and in the predomiamong travellers or geographical nance of the Arabic language, writers; the whole is purely con- which is almost every where jectural. But the supposition, so grafted upon the native African far as relates to the alluvial origin dialects. These circumstances, of the tract in question and the however, are peculiar to North junction of the two rivers, has Africa; nothing similar", having great appearance of probability. been remarked on the coast of

On comparing Mr. Maxwell's Guinea, and still less on that of hypothesis respecting the Niger Congo and Angola. Mr. Maxwith that of M. Reichard, which well also states in a letter to Mr. we are now considering, the latter Park, that he had made inquiries may be said to have gained some- of a great number of negroes thing in probability, by diminish- who had come down the Congo ing the distance which the Niger from great distances ; but that bas to flow in order to reach the he could never hear of any Ma






hometan priests having visited Sans Souci. This statue was of the countries on the banks of that bronze, and of the most beautiful river. Supposing the Niger really workmanship; it was no less perto flow through the centre offect than the Belvidere Apullo, Africa, and to discharge itself and held that reputation in the any where into the Atlantic, it is north. It was erroneously called reasonable to believe that some of a Ganymede, the pose of the arms the Mahometan colonists would leading to this mistake, but it is a long since have established them- Gladiator giving thanks to the selves on the banks of that river, gods for a victory just obtained. and penetrated to the shores of The Prussians demanded, in the ocean.

1814, the restoration of this statue, of two pieces by Corregio,

and the pictures of St. Cloud, RECLAMATIONS

which had been taken from the apartment of their queen.

The restitution of these objects (Froin Miss Williams's Narrative of the Events in France)

became the subject of a most fas.

tidious negociation between M. The period was now arrived Blacas and the ministers of Austria when a new storm no less hor- and Prussia. It had been agreed rible than unforeseen broodedover at the peace of Paris, that nothing Paris. It appears that the allied should be touched that was then powers, amidst those rapid and exhibited in the Museum, and brilliant successes, which in the M. Blacas wished to extend this year 1814 had rendered them article to all the paintings in the masters of the capital, had not royal palaces. The negociation overlooked the chefs-d'ouvre of failed. Paris preserved its statues art which had been wrested from and pictures, and the Prussians their respective countries by the ther regrets at not having reright of conquest.

gained the trophies stripped from The allied sovereigns, when their queen's apartments. they visited the Gallery of the The allied armies, in 1815, Louvre, beheld pictures and sta- again crowned the hills around tues once their own, and saw Paris, and again a capitulation them noted in the preface of the was asked and granted. The Pro. catalogues, sold at the door, as visionary Government demanded the fruit of French victories, that the Museum should remain The Prussians had not failed to untouched. The allied generals observe that pictures which had wrote with a pencil, on the mardecorated the bed-chamber of their gin of this article, non accordé, beautiful and lamented queen were (not granted). This refusal, it then placed in the royal apart. appears, did not arise so much ments of the palace of St. Cloud. from any decision taken with re

There was also a statue in the spect to the Museum by the Duke Museum which was known by of Wellington, who would not the name of the Ganymede of prejudge the question, but be.


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