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or seller, could very materially labour and unnecessary subdidiffer from the imperfect returns vision of profits, which appear at present obtained: and with re- by the evidence at present to gard to the frauds which your exist. Committee were assured are now That your Committee have practised in making the returns found an opinion to be extremsof the prices of flour, the induce- ly prevalent, that Assize Laws ment to have recourse to them operate beneficially as measures under any regulations of assize of police, and, by removing must be so strong, and the diffic from the bakers to the maculty of detection so great, that gistrates all responsibility for your Committee are of opinion, the price of bread, ensure when that no enactment could avail en- that price is high the tranquillity tirely to prevent them : and gene- of the Metropolis. But your Comrally, with regard to fixing the mittee could not find that any assize of bread by the price of disturbances had arisen, or were four, your Committee beg leare at all apprehended, from the susto point out, that no benefit can pension of the assize in the pobe expected to result from it, be- pulous towns of Birmingham, yond that of fixing a rate upon Manchester, and Newcastle, and the labour and profits of the ba- are of opinion, that the value of the kers, whilst the miller and meal- Assize Laws in this point of view men must be left wholly without is so secondary, as not to counany control ; and your Committee terbalance the evils apparently are distinctly of opinion, that more resulting from them. benefit is likely to result from the That your Committee thought effects of a free competition in it their duty to examine the act their trade, than can be expected of the 53d of Geo. III. ; and they to result from any regulations or observe generally, with regard to restrictions under which they that statute, that it has been so could possibly be placed.

short a time in operation as not Your Committee being thus at this moment to be duly judged led to conclude, that any remedy of, though it cannot fail to be to the evils arising from the liable to the general objections assize could hardly be brought which your Committee have pointabout by an alteration in the law, ed out as applicable to all Assize beg leave also to point out, that Laws. the competition which has arisen, Finally, your Committee came even under the discouragement to the following resolution : of an assize, has already removed Resolved, That it is the opinion a part of the evil ; and your Com- of this Committee, that it is er mittee are of opinion, that if the pedient that the Bread Assize trade was thrown open by the Laws for the City of London, repeal of the Assize Laws, it and within ten miles of the Royal would have the effect of gradually Exchange, should be forthwită drawing persons with capital into repealed. it, of dininishing the waste of 6th June 1813,

EDUCATION

people during the reigns of Charles EDUCATION IN SCOTLAND. and James, which were chiefly oc

cupied in religious persecution. (Froin Appendix to the Memoir of But in the year 1696, some years the Life of Mr. Park.) after the Revolution, the statute

of 1616 was re-enacted nearly in There is no part of Europe, in the same terms, and continues to which education has been a sub- be the law of Scotland at the preject of more general attention or sent time. Connected with this produced more important effects legislative provision are many acts than in Scotland. During little passed by the General Assemblies more than a century, a system of of the church of Scotland, which public instruction established in are binding as to matters of ecthat country, has not only had the clesiastical jurisdiction; and the most beneficial influence upon in- whole together forms' a code of dustry and private morals, but regulations, which is eminently has been the principal cause of distinguished for the reasonable one of the inost remarkable chang- ness and practical good sense of es of national character which has its particular provisions, and which ever yet taken place during so experience has shewn to be pershort a period. At a time when fectly effectual for the important the public attention in this coun- purpose intended. So much contry is so laudably directed towards vinced indeed are the lower classes providing means of instruction in Scotland of the benefits attenda for the poor, a few remarks on the ing this system, that when the effects of a system of general edu- parishes are large, they often form cation in Scotland may not be subscriptions and establish private thought unseasonable. The fol- schools of their own, in addition lowing facts and observations re- to the parochial seminaries. lative to this important subject In the year 1699, about the are principally extracted from the time when this system was estabinteresting Life of Burns, the lished, Fletcher of Saltoun, in one poet, written by the late amiable of his Discourses concerning the afand excellent Doctor Currie. fuirs of Scotland, describes the

The system of education in lower classes of that kingdom as Scotland, though closely connect- being in a state of the most abject ed with its ecclesiastical establish- poverty and savage ignorance ; ment, owes its first legal existence and subsisting partly by mere begto a statute passed in the year gary, but chietly by violence and 1646 by the Parliament of that rapine, “ without any regard or Kingdom for establishing schools subjection cither to the laws of in every parish, at the expense of the land or to those of God and the landholders, for the express nature.” Some of the instances purpose of teaching the poor. On given by this writer of the disorthe Restoration in 1660 this ex- der and violence of that period cellent statute was repealed; and may remind us of the effects pronothing farther was done or at- duced by a similar state of things tempted for the instruction of the during our own times, upon the

Irish peasantry in the disturbed and common people of Scotland parts of that unhappy country. during modern times : in Done “In years of plenty," says Fletcher, have the instances been more fremany thousands of them meet quent of individuals who, by a together in the mountains, where course of meritorious exertions, they feast and riot for many days, have raised themselves from an and at country weddings, markets, inferior condition of life to ease burials, and other public occasions, and competence, and sometimes they are to be seen, both men and to riches and distinction. women, perpetually drunk, curs- It is impossible to conceive any ing, blasphcming, and fighting situation more happy and respecttogether." Such was the state of able than that of the parent of a Scotland at the time when the well educated family (such as was present system of education was the father of the subject of this established.

memoir, and such as there are It is justly stated by Dr. Cur- now many others among the farmrie that, at the present day, there ers and peasantry of Scotland) enis perhaps no country in Europe, joying the just reward of his pain which, in proportion to its po- ternal cares in the prosperity and pulation, so small a number of success of his children; each of crimes fall under the chastisement whom he sees engaged in some of the criminal law, as in Scot- beneficial pursuit, each bettering land; and he aulds, upon undoubt- his condition in life, and each aded authority, that on an average vanced somewhat in the scale of of thirty years preceding the year society above the situation in which 1797, the executions in that divi- he was born. It is this visible sion of the island did not amount progress and continual improvement to six annually, and that more fe- in the circumstances and condi. lons have been convicted and sen- tion of families, so frequent in the tenced to transportation at one class here particularly alluded to, quarter sessions for the town of which produces the greatest por.. Manchester only, than the average tion of happiness of which any number of persons sentenced to a community is capable ; which stic similar punishment during a whole mulates to intelligent activity, and year by all the Judges of Scotland. useful, persevering exertions; and

But the influence of education which keeps alive and invigorates in Scotland has not been merely that orderly quiet ambition, which negative or confined to the dimi- is the foundation of all private and nution of criminal offences; it has publie prosperity, and the great produced in a very eininent de- civilizing principle of individuals gree those habits of industry and and nations. frugality, upon which all civiliza- It is true that there are several tion and improvement ultimately other circumstances, besides the depend. In no age or country system of public education in have these excellent qualities, the Scotland, which have assisted cardinal virtues of the lower or- in producing that extraordinary ders of society, been more pre- change of national character which valent than among the peasantry has given occasion to the present

remarks.

remarks. But of the varicus lonies and especially the West Incauses which have contributed to dies, are chiefly provided with this change, education is by far clerks, overseers of plantations, the most important, and that, &c. from this source.-3. The prowithout which all the rest would digious number of non-commis.. have been comparatively of no sioned officers in the army, who avail. It is to early instruction, are natives of Scotland, having most unquestionably, that we must been raised from the ranks in attribute that general intelligence, consequence of their knowledge and those habits of thoughtful- of reading and writing, and geness, deliberation and foresight, neral good conduct, is also very which usually distinguish the com- remarkable.—The recollection of mon people of Scotland, where- most readers will probably supply ever they may be found, and them with other examples; but whatever may be their employ- there are two instances somewhat ments and situations; which en- out of the course of ordinary exsure their success in life under fa- perience, which deserve to be parvourable circumstances; and in ticularly mentioned. adverse fortune serve as a protec- In the year 1803, Mr. Matthew tion against absolute indigence, Martin, a gentleman distinguished and secure to them a certain sta- for his active benevolence, having tion above the lowest condition of been for some time engaged, unlife.

der the sanction of Governinent, The truth of this remark will be in a laborious inquiry concerning apparent from a few practical in- the “ State of Mendicity in the stances, drawn from the experience Metropolis,” was desired to make of common life, of that general su- a Report upon that subject for periority which is here attributed the information of Government.. to the lower classes of the Scotch, From the statement which he

preas the effect of their superior in- pared on that occasion and laid dustry and intelligence-1. Every before the Secretary of State, it one has remarked the great num- appeared that the number of Scotch ber of professional gardeners from beggars in London was remarks that country, many of whom have ably small, especially in proporbeen common labourers, and who, tion to the Irish beggars, with if they had been no better educat- whom it was natural to compare ed than most English labourers, them. Of 2000 beggars, whose must always have remained in cases were investigated by Mr. that situation. Of this numerous Martin, the following is a sum. class Mr. Dickson, Park's bro- mary: ther-in-law, is a remarkable and most distinguished example.-9. Belonging to home paScotland supplies a considerable rishes

570 number of stewards, confidential Belonging to distant paclerks, book-keepers, &c. from a rishes

336 class of society, which in most Irish

679 other countries furnishes only do- Scotch

65 mestic şervants. The Britisá Co. Foreign

The

The second of the two cases is tage from his education. Yet it is of a still more uncommon nature. probable from this circumstance In the course of the expedition that the intelligence and habits of against Egypt in 1807, the ad- good conduct, which he acquired vanced guard of Major General from early instruction, might reFraser's army having taken pos- commend him to his master, and session of Rosetta and occupied a as domestic slavery admits of position at El Hamed a few miles many mitigations, might procure from that town, was surprised by him kinder and better treatment. a strong corps of Turkish troops, and after an obstinate conflict and the loss of many lives, compelled

THE RIVER XIGER. to surrender. According to the Turkish custom, the prisoners

(From the Same.) taken were sold as slaves, and dispersed over the whole country; The question regarding the tersome of them being sent as far as mination of the Niger is one of Upper Egypt. Great exertions the most doubtful and obscure in were naturally made by the Bri- modern geography, and in the tish governinent to redeem those present defective state of our isunfortunate persons from capti- formation with regard to the invity; and this was happily effected terior of Africa, seems hardly to as to all the prisoners, except a admit of a clear and satisfactory few who could not be traced, by solution. Of the difficulties with the assistance of Signor Petrucci, which the subject is attended, the Swedish Consul at Alexandria. some judgment may be forized

From the authentic documents from the various and even oppo. relating to this transaction, it ap- site opinions which have been pears that the ransoms paid for maintained relative to the course the redemption of the captives dif- of the Niger, since Park's discofered very considerably; the prices veries have ascertained that it varying from between 20 and 30 flows from West to East. As the pounds to more than 100 pounds enquiry is soinewhat curious, a sterling for each man. But it is summary view of these different observable, on comparing the dif- opinions, and of the principal arferent rates, that the highest ran- guments by which they are sup

were paid for those, who ported, may not be uninteresting must be considered, from their to the readers of Park's Life. To names, to have been natives of investigate the question with the Scotland; and who, it may be accuracy and minuteness which is presumed, were more valuable than deserves, would not only very far the rest from being more orderly exceed the limits of a noie, but and intelligent. It could not have would require much more inforbeen easily anticipated that a sol- mation upon the subject than the dier, brought up in a Scotch pa- editor possesses, united with some rish school, was likely, when en- previous habits of geographical slaved by the Turks and a captive disquisition in Egypt, to derive much advan- 1. According to the oldest <

these

soms

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