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was, in addition, crossed with long prayer for our safe return, the consecrated oil overevery joint to which we with great sincerity and limb, or altogether, thirty- answered, “Amen." six times in different parts of his body. After this, he was wrapped in a clean white linen cloth, and placed for a moment in my arms, the priests telling me, that “I

(From the same.) must henceforth consider him verily as my son.” The high

The town of Adowa is situated priest did not take any active part partly on the side, and partly at in this ceremony, but the whole the bottom of a hill, a circumwas conducted with great deco- stance very unusual in Abyssinia; rum, and a due degree of solem- and the houses, which are all of nity. The boy afterwards, ac- a conical form, are pretty regucording to the custom of mostlarly disposed into streets or alof the Eastern churches, was ad- leys, interspersed with wanzy mitted to partake of the Holy trees and small gardens, some of Communion. On return which are cultivated with confrom the church, the high priest siderable care; the town itself accompanied us home, and con- being plentifully supplied with tinued with us nearly an hour. water from three streams, which He paid me many compliments on take their course through the what had passed, and declared, valley below. The number of that “ I had done an act which residents in this place, may, on would for ever be recorded in

à general calculation, be estitheir books; as the baptism of mated at full eight thousand, as the boy most clearly proved, that I reckoned in it more than eight the English were not “ Franks” hundred habitations, each of (alluding to the conduct of the which, on a moderate computaJesuits about baptism,) but that tion, being supposed to contain we adhered to the pure religion ten inmates, would altogether of the Apostles. After some con- amount to a sum probably falling versation of this kind, in which short of the actual population. he expressed the highest opinion Adowa may be regarded as the of our doctrines, he ended by re- chief mart' for commerce on the peating nearly the same words eastern side of the Tacazze, all which he had before used to the the intercourse between the inRas: “ we go on in the dark, not terior provinces and the coast beknowing what is right or what is ing carried on through the merwrong, but I believe we shall do chants residing at that place, in no good until we get a lesson consequence of which the Mahofrom you ;" "and now," he medans there have retained a added, rising from his seat, “ at greater degree of importance the desire of the Ras, and from than in any other part of the emthe friendship I hear you, I have pire, the trade, as I have before to pray to God for your future remarked, resting almost entirely prosperity:" he then recited a in their hands.


The chief production of Adowa being deducted. A great part of consists in a manufactory of coarse the gold coliected in the interior and fine cloths, the former being finds also its way through Adowa; considered unrivalled in any other but this commerce is carried on part of the country, and the latter by the traders with so much sebeing thought little inferior to crecy, that it is impossible to those manufactured at Gondar. form any accurate estimate of the The quantity of cloth made at quantity. The number of slaves Adowa occasions a great demand exported, may be computed anfor cotton, a considerable portion nually at about a thousand, part of which is procured from the of which are sent to Massowa, low countries bordering on the and the rest to the small ports Tacazze, and this is considered of northward of that place, whence a figer quality, and consequently they are privately shipped off by inore valuable, than that brought the natives, for the purpose of up from Massowa. The latter, avoiding the duties levied by the notwithstanding, finds a ready Nayib. The provinces to the sale, and though its importation south of Adowa chiefly abound in be hampered by arbitrary exactions cattle and corn, which, together on the road, and a heavy duty on with the salt procured on the its being landed, fetches a' con borders, constitute their chief siderable profit. The other im- articles of barter. There is a ports, which pass through Adowa manufactory of small carpets car. for the Gondar market, are lead, ried on in the province of Samen, (in small quantities) block tin, some of which were shewn to me copper, and gold foil ; small Per- at Adowa, and they really were sian carpets of a shewy pattern much superior to what might and of low price, raw silks from have been expected, as the proChina, a few velvets, French duction of Abyssinian workman. broad cloths, and different colour- ship. At Axum, and in its neighed skins from Egypt; glass ware bourhood, the inhabitants are ceand beads, which find their way lebrated for the manner in which from Venice, and a number of they prepare skins for making other petty articles, which are parchment, and they likewise par. brought by different conveyances ticularly excel in finishing this to Jidda.

article for use. The working of The exports which are carried iron and brass is general throughdown to the coast in return, most out the country, but the more of which pass through the hands highly finished chains, wrought of the traders at Adowa, consist from the last material, are brought of ivory, gold, and slaves; a very in the country from the south, considerable quantity of the first and are said to be manufactured article is procured in the province among the Galla. of Walkayt, and in the low coun- All workers in iron are called try northward of Shiré, and the Búda by the Abyssinians, and a sale of it is so certain at Massowa, very strange superstition is atthat the price at Adowa only dif- tached to this employment, every fers in the expenses of carriage man engaged in the occupation

being supposed to possess a power In spite of all the attempts which of transforming himself at night have been made, and particularly into a hyæna, during which he in latter times by the English, to is thought to be capable of prey- penetrate into the interior of Afriing eren upon human fiesh; and ca, this interior is still very little it is further believed, that if du- known to us, and the city of Tomring the period of his transforma- buctoo,that city which is said to tion he should experience any contain an immense population, bodily injury, a corresponding is still problematical, for we have wound would be found on his nothing on the subject but the proper frame. The credit at- vague and lying assertions of some tached to these fabulous ideas ap- Moorish and African merchants. pears to be inconceivably strong Some of the latter undertake long throughout the country.

voyages, which frequently last

upwards of a month. Being siON THE GOLD OF THE COAST OF

tuated at two or three hundred GUINEA.

leagues from the coast, they pe(By Denys De Montfort. From netrate as much further into the

the Philosophical Magazine.) interior in order to procure gold,

The mountains in the interior slaves, and elephants' teeth, which of Africa contain in their sides they deliver to the European ves. great numbers of gold mines : sels or establishments. In short, they are very seldom wrought, these people are very mysterious however, the natives confining in all their operations, and it is themselves almost entirely to col- very difficult to obtain from them lecting the gold dust which is the slightest intelligence : not found upon washing certain earths only their taciturnity, their rewhich may be termed auriferous. serve and jealousy, are obstacles, In many countries of this vast but their various languages furcontinent the earth is as it were im. nish others, for it requires an inpregnated with gold; and not only terpreter always to make oneself do we meet with it in powder, but understood. Africa is so divided in considerable masses. This gold among tribes without number, has formed and still forms the ob- that we presume it would not be ject of a very extensive and lucra- difficult to reckon more than a tive commerce : the natives of the thousand different languages, interior bring it down to the in- without including the numerous habitants of the coast, and the lat. dialects which are derived from ter sell it in their turn to the Eu- them. It is thus that we see arropeans, who have given it the rive from the source of the river name of the Gold Coast, where it of Volta, the mouth of which is simost abounds. Sometimes the tuated in 5° 55' north latitude, gold-merchants, who are also people who from tribe to tribe, and slave-dealers, treat directly with from interpreter to interpreter, at strangers, but the latter most fre- length fall in with the great island quently purchase gold which has of Malfi, a kind of religious capital, already passed from nation to na- which, placed in the midst of the tion and through several hands. river, is still upwards of 60 leagues from the coast, and the inhabitants precision ; and that there may be of which, almost all brokers, and no fraud, he weighs it himself of course linguists, end by ac- with scales which he always car. companying them to the sea- ries with him. Formerly this shore.

trade was much more considerable Whether it is in small grains or than it is now :-we shall see the in dust, the gold of Guinea is ex- reason presently. tremely pale in colour, although The Negroes have in common very pure ; and it greatly resem- with Europeans two ways of probles the filings of yellow copper, curing gold, digging and washing. with which Negroes or other The Negroes of the coast are cheats mix it fraudulently. When washers only, while those who a Negro plays this trick, if he is live among the mountains are esdiscovered (and this is easily done sentially miners. by aqua-fortis), he is instantly The mountains of Guinea, at made a slave: a White man least those which we are acquaintcomes off a little better. But ed with, are in general granitie there is still another fraud which and schistous ; thin masses of a buyer must be upon his guard granite, as their summits prore, against : this is when the gold hare formed by the lapse of time, has not been thoroughly cleaned; and by their detritus, the gneiss and as the sand mixed with it is which forms broad beds on their quartzous, the nitric acid has no lower flanks. In the rainy seaeffect on it: in this case it re- sons, torrents descend from these quires a keen eye, a glass, or even mountains, carrying with them the crucible if it be at hand. The stones and gravel, which being torn gold-dust is the only part of this from the higher rocks present the precious metal which the Blacks same elements. These mountains sell to the Europeans. The lumps, are filled with mines of gold and of which there are some so large iron. The first of these metals that the king of Assianti possesses seems to have been sought for by one requiring four men to lift it, Negroes from time immemorial : (the Negroes call these pieces as to the latter, they do not know "image gold,”') are held sacred, how to use it, and it is not the inand when they do not exceed an terest of Europeans to teach them : ounce in weight are bored to make gold is found in them in a priminecklaces and bracelets for the tive state in narrow stripes, and arms or legs. They know also it is found as usual between two how to work and melt them. The layers of a granite, finer, more principal image or grand deity of compact, and more highly colourAkra is a man's head of solid gold, ed than the rest of the rock: the or perhaps even a naturally form- Negroes have not yet thought of ed mass which has assumed that working the latter, but it is pro

bable that avarice will compel The black merchant is always them to do so, now that the slaveextremely skilful in this com- trade is abolished, and that the merce : he knows the price of excess of population is forced to what he sells with the utmost provide for itself: for, notwith



standing the enormous exportation into a joint stock the fruits of of human beings being stopped, their labours. The earth thrown they have still their helots: these up during the digging is laid in are Negroes who are slaves either heaps on the edges of the fosse, from being taken in war, from where other miners, their wives being insolvent debtors, from and children, receive it in bags having lost their personal liberty and carry it to the nearest river at play, or from being sold by on their heads, for the Negre their parents. As to malefactors never carries any thing on his and rebels, they are uniformly back. They wade into the river sold to Europeans.

up to the middle, and then desteThe Negroes, therefore, work rously dipping in their bags, they only the auriferous sands and the wash and shake its contents, so gneiss or schistous beds and as to make the gold fall to the banks of granite, which constisute bottom: they then pour off the the base of their mountains, and sand and earth, and the gold-dust which being friable are easily dug remains. into. If they attack the sides, As to the gold-finders on the they dig a fosse in the first place banks of rivers and the sea-shore, place from twenty to thirty feet they are less fortunate in their rein depth, on an indeterminate searches, and it is generally women breadth, until they begin to be who are thus employed. They alarmed for the crumbling down conduct themselves precisely like of the earth; the gold, as being the mountaineers, who in their heavier than quartz, schorl, and turn are more fortunate than those feldspar, the constituent principles on the sea-shore : the latter collect of primitive granite, has been in bags the sand thrown up by a deeper seated in their common tempest, and act precisely like the fall : they begin to find it, how- former by washing, &c. In geever, at the depth of three feet: neral the price of gold is fixed in they had no idea of using props Africa, and never fluctuates : in of wood until they were taught by Europe it is supposed to yield 25 Europeans, and nothing in the per cent. profit. world could induce them to make But it is not so considerable a regular pit, or bury themselves now as it has been ; for several under ground. In proportion as African princes more powerful they advance in the work, the than others, and anxious to secure Jumps are put into pouches fixed a monopoly, have compelled the round their waists, and some weaker to renounce all searching miners get very rich, as they only for gold. Thus the sovereign of pay the king a fixed and daily al. Akim, who has been conquered lowance. In 1790, the king of by the king of Assianti, dares Assianti had six hundred slaves at not any longer work his rich work for him, each of whom en- mines : they used to furnish upgaged to supply him with half an wards of 80 ounces of gold per ounce per diem, and some of them week to the coast, i. e. nearly had so much good sense as to 5000 ounces of gold per annum, form a sort of company, and throw From what has been said, it is.


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