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founding of Heraut is attributed. number of inhabitants it contains. It is asserted by others, with far. I have always heard that Cangreater probability, to have been dahar was larger than Heraut; but built by Secunder Zoolkurnyne, Captain Christie, who resided for that is, by Alexander the Great. a month at Herant, considers the The traditions of the Persians here numbers of its inhabitants to be agree with the conjectures of Eu- 100,000, a number which I canropean geographers, who fix on not reconcile with the comparison this site for one of the cities called I have heard between Candahar Alexandria.

and Peshawer. The ancient city stood till the The form of Candahar is an obreign of the Ghiljies, when Shauh long square, and as it was built Hoossein founded a new city un- at once, on a fixed plan, it has the der the name of Husseinabad. advantage of great regularityNadir Shauh attempted again to Four long and broad bazars meet alter the site of the town, and in the middle of the town, and at built Nadirabad ; at last Ahmed the place of their junction, there Shauh founded the present city, is a circular space of about forty to which he gave the name of or fifty yards in diameter, coverai Ahmed Shauhee, and the title of with a dome, into which all the Ashrefool Belaud, or the noblest four streets lead. of cities ; by that name and title This place is called the Chaurit is still mentioned in public pa- soo; it is surrounded with shops, pers, and in the language of the and may be considered as the pab court; but the old name of Can- lic market-place; it is there that dahar still prevails among the proclamations are made, and that people, though it has lost its the bodies of criminals are a. rhyming addition of Daurool Kur- posed to the view of the populace. rar, or the abode of quiet. Ahmed Part of the adjoining bazar is also Shauh himself marked out the li- covered in, as is usual in Persia, mits of the present city, and laid and in the west of the Afghaur down the regular plan which is dominions. still so remarkable in its execu- The four bazars are each about tion; he surrounded it with a fifty yards broad; the sides conwall, and proposed to have added sist of shops of the same size and a ditch; ut the Do aunees are plan, in front of which runs an said to have objected to his forti- uniform veranda for the whole fications, and to have declared that length of the street. These shops their ditch was the Chemen of

are only one story high, and the Bistaun (a meadow near Bistaun lofty houses of the town are seen in the most western part of Per- over them. There are gates issian Khorassaun). Candahar was suing into the country at the end the capital of the Dooraunee em- of all the bazars, except the northpire in Ahmed Shauh's time, but ern one, where stands the King's Timour changed the seat of go- palace facing the Chaursoo. vernment to Caubul.

Its external appearance is de · I am utterly at a loss how to scribed as not remarkable, but it fix the extent of Candahar, or the contains several courts, many

buildings

buildings, and a private garden. the world, and to spend their lives All the bazars, exeept that lead- in prayer at the tomb of Ahmeed ing to the palace, were at one Shauh ; and certainly, if ever an time planted with trees; and a Asiatic king deserved the gratitude narrow canal is said to have run of his country, it was Ahmed down the middle of each ; but Shauh. many of the trees have withered, On the whole, Candahar, though and if the canals ever existed, they it is superior to most of the cities are no longer visible. "The city in Asia in its plan, is by no means is, however, very well watered by magnificent. It is built for the two large canals drawn from the most part of brick, often with no Urghundaub, which are crossed other cement than mud. The in different places by little bridges. Hindoos, as usual, have the best From these canals, small water- houses of the common people, courses run to almost every street and they adhere to their custom in the town, which are in some of building them very high. The streets open, and in some under streets of Candaharare very crowch ground. All the other streets run ed from noon till evening, and all from the four great bazars. Though the various trades that have been narrow, they are all straight, and described at Peshawer, are also caralmost all cross each other at right ried on there, except that of waterangles.

sellers, which is here unnecessary, The town is divided into many as there are reservoirs every where, Mohullas, or quarters, each of furnished with leathern buckets, which belongs to one of the nu- fitted to handles of wood or horn, merous tribes and nations which for people to draw water with.. form the inhabitants of the city. Ballad-singers and story-tellers Almost all the great Dooraunees are also numerous in the bazars, have houses in Candahar, and and all articles from the west are some of them are said to be large in much greater plenty and perand elegant.

fection than at Peshawer. There are many caravanserais Contrary to what is the case and mosques; but of the latter, with other cities in Afghaunistaun, one only near the palace is said the greater part of the inhabitants to be handsome. The tomb of of Candahar are Afghauns, and Ahmed Shauh also stands near the of these by far the greater numpalace; it is not a large building, ber are Dooraunees. But their but has a handsome cupola, and condition here bears no resem. is elegantly painted, gilt, and blance to that of their brethren in otherwise ornamented within. It the country. The peculiar instiis held in high veneration by the tutions of the Afghaun tribes are Dooraunees, and is an asylum superseded by the existence of a against all enemies, even the King strong government, regular courts not venturing to touch a man who of law, and an efficient police.has taken refuge there. When The rustic customs of the Afany of the great lords are discon- ghauns are also in a great measure tented, it is common for them to laid aside: and, in exteriors, the give out that they intend to quit inhabitants of Candahar a good deal resemble the Persians; the ness and variety to the prospect ; resemblance is, however, confined and, in the course of a fortnight, to the exterior, for their charac- the numerous gardens and scatters are still marked with all the tered trees were covered with new peculiarities of their nation. The foliage, which had a freshness and other inhabitants are Taujiks, brilliancy, never seen in the perEimauks, Hindoos, Persians, Sees- petual summer of India. Many taunees, and Beloches, with a streams ran through the plain. few Uzbeks, Arabs, Armenians, Their banks were fringed with wiland Jews.

deal

lows and tamarisks. The orchards There are many gardens and scattered over the country, conorchards round Candahar, and tained a profusion of plum, peach, many places of Worship, where apple, pear, quince, and pomethe inhabitants make parties more granate trees, which afforded a for pleasure than devotion. Their greater display of blossom than I way of life is that of the other in- ever before witnessed; and the unhabitants of towns, which has al- cultivated parts of the land were ready been explained.

covered with a thick elastic sod, that perhaps never was equalled

but in England. The greater part PESHAWER.

of the plain was highly cultivated,

and irrigated by many water(From the Same.)

courses and canals. - Never was a

spot of the same extent better The plain, in which the city is peopled. From one height, Lieusituated, is nearly circular, and tenant Macartney took the bearabout 35 miles in diameter. Ex- ings of thirty-two villages, all cept for a small space on the east, within a circuit of four miles.it is surrounded with mountains, The villages were generally large, of which the range of the Indian and remarkably clean and neat, Caucasus on the north, and the and almost all set off with trees. Peak of Suffaidoch on the south- There were little bridges of mawest are the most conspicuous.— sonry over the streams, each of The northern part is divided by which had two small towers for three branches of the Caubul ri. ornament at each end. The greater ver, which unite before they leave part of the trees on the plain were the plain. It is also watered by mulberries, or other fruit trees.the rivulets of Barra and Budina, Except a few picturesque groups which flow from the mountains to of dates, the only tall trees were the river of Caubul.

the Ficus Religiosa or peepul, and When we entered Peshawer in the tamarisk, which last grows March, the upper parts of the moun- here to the height of 30 or 40 tains around were covered with feet. Its leaves, being like those snow, while the plain was clothed of the cypress, and very thick, the with the richest verdure, and the groves coinposed of it are extreme climate was delicious. Most of ly dark and gloomy. The town of the trees were then bare, but Peshawer itself stands on an unenough were in leaf to give rich- even surface. It is upwards of

five miles round; and contains many opportunities of observing about 100,000 inhabitants. The this assemblage in returning from houses are built of brick (general- our morning rides; and its effect ly unburnt), in wooden frames : was heightened by the stillness they are commonly three stories and solitude of the streets, at the high, and the lower story is gene- early hour at which we used to rally occupied by shops. The streets set out. A little before sunrise, are narrow, as might be expected, people began to assemble at the where no wheeled-carriages are mosques to their morning devoused: they are paved, but the tions. After the hour of prayer, pavement sloping down to the some few appeared sweeping the kennel, which is in the middle, streets before their doors, and they are slippery, and incoveni- some great men were to be seen ent. Two or three brooks run going to their early attendance at through different parts of the Court. They were always on town; and, even there, are skirte horseback, preceded by from ed with willows and mulberry ten to twelve servants on foot, trees. They are crossed by bridges, who walked pretty fast, but in none of which, however, are in perfect order, and silence : nothe least remarkable.

thing was heard, but the sound of There are many mosques in the their feet. But, when we returntown; but none of them, or of ed, the streets were crowded with the other public buildings, de- men of all nations and languages, serve notice, except the Balla His- in every variety of dress and apsaur, and the fine Caravansera.- pearance. The shops were all The Balla Hissaur is a castle of open. Dried fruits, and nuts, no strength, on a hill, north of bread, meat, boots, shoes, saddlethe town: it contains some fine ry, bales of cloth, hardware, readyballs, commands a romantic pros- made clothes, and posteens, books, pect, and is adorned with some &c. were either displayed in tiers very pleasing and spacious gar- in front of the shops, or hung up dens ; but, as it is only the occa- on hooks from the roof. Amongst sional residence of the King, it is the handsomest shops were the now much neglected. On the fruiterers, (where apples, melons, north it presents a commanding plums, and even oranges, though aspect; but a view of it from these are rare at Peshawer, were the side nearest the town, dis- mixed in piles with some of the closes strong signs of weakness Indian fruit); and the cook-shops, and decay. Some of the palaces where every thing was served in of the great are splendid, but few earthen dishes, painted and glazed. of the nobility have houses here. so as to look like china. In the

The inhabitants of Peshawer are streets were people erving greens, of Indian origin, but speak Push- curds, &c., and men, carrying too as well as Hindkee. There water in leathern bags at their are, however, many other inhabi- backs, and announcing their comtants of all nations; and the con- modity by beating on a brazen cup, course is increased, during the in which they gave a draught to King's visits to Peshawer. We had a passenger for a trifling piece of

money.

money. With these were mixed eating-house, or enjoying a smoke people of the town in white tur- of a hired culleeaun in the street. bans, some in large white or dark Amidst all this throng, we geneblue frocks, and others in sheep- rally passed without any notice, skin cloaks ; Persianş and Af- except a salaum alaikum from a ghauns, in brown woollen tunics, passenger, accompanied by a bow, or flowing mantles, and caps of with the hands crossed in front, black sheep-skin or coloured silk; or an application from a beggar, Khyberees, with the straw san- who would call out for relief from dals, and the wild dress and air the Feringee Khauns, admonish of their mountains ; Hindoos, us that life was short, and the be. uniting the peculiar features and nefit of charity immortal, or remanner of their own nation, to mind us that what was little to us the long beard, and the dress of was a great deal to them. the country; and Hazaurehs, not It sometimes happened, that more remarkable for their conical we were descried by a boy from a caps of skin, with the wool, ap- window; and his shout of Ooph pearing like a fringe round the Feringhee would bring all the woedge, and for their broad faces, and men and children in the house to little eyes, than for their want of stare at us till we were out of sight. the beard, which is the ornament The roads in the country were of every other face in the city. seldom very full of people, though Among these, might be discovere they were sometimes enlivened by a ed, a few women, with long white group of horsemen going out to veils, that reached their feet, and forage, and listening to a Pushtoo some of the King's retinue, in the or Persian song, which was shoutgrotesque caps, and fantastic ha- ed by one of their companions.bits, which mark the class to It was common in the country to which each belongs. Sometimes meet a man of the lower order a troop of armed horsemen passed, with a hawk on his fist, and a poinand their appearance was announc- ter at his heels; and we frequented by the clatter of their horses ly saw fowlers catching quails ahoofs on the pavement, and by the mong the wheat, after the harvest jingling of their bridles. Some was far enough advanced. A net times, when the King was going was fastened at one corner of the out, the streets were choaked with field, two men held each an end horse and foot, and dromedaries of a rope stretched across the opbearing swivels, and large wav- posite corner, and dragged it for. ing red and green flags; and, at ward, so as to shake all the wheat, all times, loaded dromedaries, or and drive the quails before it into heavy Bactrian camels, covered the net, which was dropped as with shaggy hair, made their way soon as they entered. The num. slowly through the streets; and bers caught in this manner are almules, fastened together in circles most incredible. of eight or ten, were seen off the Nothing could exceed the civiroad, guing round and round to lity of the country people. We cool them after their labour, while were often invited into gardens, their kcepers were indulging at an and we were welcomed in every

village

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