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ON STEAM-BOATS UPON THE CLYDE.
such simple precautions, there is been gradually increased in tonevery reason to believe a number nage as well as in the power of of lives will be saved, and much their engines; and still larger misery prevented. Where candles boats and more powerful engines are employed in the open air in now constructing: among the mines, life is extinguished by others, one of about 100 feet keel the explosion; with the safe-lan- and 17 feet beam with an engine tern or safe-lamp, the light is only of 24 horses' power; and one of put out, and no other inconveni- equal burthen, having an engine ence will occur.
of 30 horses' power. These boats are all neatly fitted up, and some of them even elegantly decorated.
On board all the passage steamBy Robertson Buchanan, Esq. of boats are newspapers, pamphlets, Glasgow.
books, &c. for the amusement of (FromMr.Tilloch's Philosophical Magazine.) the passengers, and such refresh
ments as are desirable on so short So early as the year 1901, a a voyage, a distance of about 26 vessel propelled by steam was tried miles by water, and 24 by land. on the Forth and Clyde inland na- The voyage betwixt Glasgow vigation, but was laid aside, among and Greenock, including stopother reasons, on account of the pages at intermediate places, is injury it threatened the banks of commonly accomplished in from the canal by the agitation of the three to four hours, the vessels water: and as far as I can learn, taking advantage of the tide as the same objection still subsists to far as circumstances will permit: the use of steam-boats on artifi- but as they start at different hours cial canals so narrow as those from the same place, they are usual in Great Britain. That ob- sometimes obliged to go part or jection, however, I should think, nearly the whole of their voyage does not apply to some of those of against the tide. Holland and other countries on The voyage has been accomthe continent.
plished in 24 hours; the tide being The first attempt on any scale favourable, but against a modeworthy of notice, to navigate by rate breeze of contrary wind. steam on the river Clyde, was in At first, owing to the novelty the year 1812. A passage boat of and apparent danger of the conabout 40 feet keel and 104 feet veyance, the number of passenbeam, having a steam-engine of gers was so very small that the only three horses' power, began only steam-boat then on the river to ply on the river. Since that could hardly clear her expenses : period the number of boats has but the degree of success which gradually increased.
attended that attempt soon comBesides three vessels which have manded public confidence. The left the Clyde, there are six at pre- number of passengers which now sent plying on the river, two of go in those boats may seem increwhich carry goods as well as pas- dible to those who have not witsengers. They have on the whole nessed it. Travelling by land has
not only been nearly superseded, adopted by trunk-makers, bookbut the communication very great- binders, and others, who use great ly increased, owing to the cheap- quantities of paste, it would proness and facility of the convey- duce a very material saving of ance. Many days, in fine weather, flour, which in years of scarcity from 500 to 600 have gone from might be of the greatest conseGlasgow to Port-Glasgow and quence. The following formula Greenock, and returned in the used in China was lately commusame day. One of the boats alone nicated to the Right Hon. Sir has been known to carry 247 at Joseph Banks, Bart. by a gentleone time. The increase of tra- man at present in Canton.-Mix velling in consequence of naviga. together bullock's blood and quick tion by steam, may be estimated lime, in the proportion of one by the number that went in the pound of the latter to 10lbs. of the .common passage-boats before the former. It becomes a stiff jelly, in introduction of this agent : at that which state it is sold to the contime, the highest estimate even sumers, who beat it down with an for summer did not much exceed addition of water into a state suf50 up and 50 down, and those ficiently fluid for use. At Canton generally of the lower class of the it will keep five or six days in the people. The number that then hot weather and ten or twenty went by coaches may be thus esti- days in the cold. In Britain it mated : four coaches up and four would probably keep longer. down, which might average six
HEMP AND FLAX.
In the summer, the pleasure of
OF MANUFACTURING the voyage and the beauty of the scenery attract multitudes; and the bathing-places below Greenock
(From the Same.) have, in consequence of the easy passage, been crowded beyond
About two years ago Mr. Lee former example.
took out a patent for obtaining The scenery near Glasgow is hemp and flax directly from the sylvan and beautiful, but becomes plants by a new method. He has bolder and more picturesque as established a manufactory for the the river descends, until it ter- purpose at Old Bow, on the river minates in the rugged mountains Lea, near London, where his meof the west Highlands.
thod, and the result of it may be
I consider Mr. Lee's invention as the greatest improve
ment ever introduced into the (From Dr. Thomson's Annals of) linen business, and as likely to Philosophy.
occasion a total change in the
wholeofour bleach-fields. HitherThe method of making paste in to the only way of obtaining hemp China is much more economical and flax has been to steep the than the mode followed in this plants in water till they begin to country, Were it universally rot. They are then exposed for
some days to the sun spread out it is intended. The advantages upon the grass, after which the of this process are manifold. The woody part, now become very expense of steeping and spreading brittle, is removed by the flax- is saved; a much greater produce Inill, the nature of which is too of flax is obtained ; it is much well known to require any de- stronger ; the fibres may be discription. By these processes the vided into much finer fibres, so as fibres of the flax are weakened, to obtain at once, and in any and a considerable portion of them quantity, flax fine enough for the is altogether destroyed and lost. manufacture of lace. But the The flax, too, acquires a greenish greatest advantage of all remains yellow colour, and it is well known yet to be stated. Flax manufacthat a very expensive and tedious tured in this manner requires only bleaching process is necessary to to be washed in pure water in orrender it white. Mr. Lee neither der to become white. The costeeps his flax, nor spreads it on louring matter is not chemically the grass.
When the plant is combined with the fibre, and ripe,
it is pulled in the usual way. therefore is removed at once by It is then thrashed, by placing it water. It is the steeping of the between two grooved wooden flax and hemp, which unites the beams shod with iron. One of colouring matter with the fibres, these is fixed; the other is sus- and renders the subsequent bleachpended on hinges, and is made to ing process necessary. Thus, by impinge with some force on the Mr. Lee's process, flax and hemp fixed heam; the grooves in the are obtained in much greater one beam corresponding with quantity, of much stronger quaflutes in the other. By a mecha- lity, and much finer in the fibre nical contrivance almost exactly than by the common method, and similar, the woody matter is beaten the necessity of bleaching is altooff, and the fibres of flax left. By gether superseded. The great impassing through hackles, varying portance of such an improvement progressively in fineness, the flax must be at once obvious to erery is very speedily dressed, and ren- one, dered proper for the use for which
ACCOUNT OF A DREADFUL ACCI- The mine was very much sub
DENT AT HEATON MAIN COL- ject to what the colliers call the LIERY NEAR NEWCASTLE.
creep, which is a gradual filling up
of the horizontal passages. It had (From Thomson's Annals of been customary for some time Philosophy.)
past to bore in various directions
upon the lines the men were workTHIS Colliery is situated in ing, in order to ascertain whether
the bed of coal called the any body of water lay concealed high main. It is a considerable in the adjacent cavities. This predepth, about 110 fathoms, and the caution was about to be put in shaft is situated at the lower ex- practice at nine o'clock on Wed. tremity of the mine. The shaft nesday the 3d of May; but before is divided by boarding all the way that time had arrived, (between down, so that the same opening three and four o'clock in the morn. served for the up and down cast ing,) a dreadful rush of water shaft. The seam towards the came through the roof in the rise had been formerly worked as north-west part of the colliery, a colliery, under the name of Hea- and continued to flow with such ton Banks, by shafts distinct from rapidity, that only 20 men and the present working, which shafts, boys were enabled to make their when the colliery was given up, escape. In a very short time, the were covered over with boards water closed up the lower mouth and earth. In the course of time of the shaft; and that night it these old workings had become rose to the height of 24 fathoms. filled with water; and the manag. Some faint hopes being entertainers of the present colliery being ed that the men below would rewell aware of the danger attend- tire to the higher parts of the ing so large an accumulation of workings, which were said to be water, the workings were pro- above the level of the water in the ceeded in with the utmost cau- shaft, every exertion was used to " tion.
open a communication with them
by the old workings. Consider- ANOTHER ACCIDENT AT THE SUCable difficulties, however, pre
CESS COAL-PIT, &c. sented themselves. The rubbish
(From the Same.) which covered and choaked up the mouths of two old shafts, when Another dreadful and destrucdeprived of the support of the tive explosion of carburetted bywater, fell in, dragging along drogen gas took place in the Suewith it some trees which had been cess coal-pit, near Newbottle, in planted round the spot. An old the County of Durham, the proshaft, in front of Heaton Hall, perty of Messrs. Nesham and Co. has not, however, presented a like on Friday, June 2, at half-past impediment, and consequently four o'clock, p. m. by which 57 every exertion is using to open a persons were killed upon the spot, communication by that way.
besides several wounded. They had uncovered the pit, and The immediate cause of this reached the scaffolding on Satur- shocking catastrophe is not clearly day the 6th, which was five fa- ascertained; though it is generally thoms from the surface; and we believed that the pitmen had inunderstand their efforts are likely advertently worked into the old to be successful, if not prevented workings, or some place where by an accumulation of inflamma- there had been a large collection ble air, with which the old work of inflammable air. ings appear to be filled. Ever As all the unfortunate laboursince the accident, three large en- ers were instantly killed, and the gines (one of 130 horse power) explosion and consequent very rahave been constantly employed in pid return of the atmospheric air drawing the water from the pit, after the explosion destroyed the at the rate of about 1200 gallons headings and air courses, the whole per minute, yet on Friday morn- of the colliery became so completeing it was found to have attained ly altered, that no correct idea the height of 31 fathoms up the of the cause from appearances shaft. In the evening, however, could be formed. It is also the the water had decreased about opinion of well-informed persons, three feet, and we understand has who were present at the time of continued to decrease since that the accident, that from some untime ; so that no doubt is now accountable circumstance the atentertained of the colliery being mospheric air could not be sent at some future period again set to down in sufficient quantity, and work. We now come to state the in a proper direction, after the er. extent of the calamity. Mr. Mil. plosion, to those persons who ler (the underviewer, who has might have escaped the destructive left a wife and eight children,) power of the explosion, who 32 workanen, 42 boys, and 37 might live till their scanty supply horses, have perished; and 25 wi- of atmospheric air became esdows, with about 80 children, are hausted. eft to bemoan the sudden death When the explosion took place, of their husbands and fathers. 72 men and boys were at work at