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and squalid in their general ap- to the inclination of each indivi. pearance.

dual, and live almost entirely free They are, however, a remark- from the restraint of government, ably honest and harmless people. while the temporary appointment

They are reckoned to amount of a Chelwashtee is sufficient to to 12,000 families. Their govern- provide for the order and safety of ment resembles that of the inde- their marches. The actual situpendent tribes, a circumstance ation of the chief of the Naussers which at first excites some sur- appears to me to afford proofs of prise in a people entirely pastoral; the truth of this supposition. but which is perhaps to be ac- When the people are collected incounted for by the peculiarity of to camps, they are governed by their situation. The effect of their own Mooshirs, without any pastoral habits in introducing des- reference to the Khaun, and when potic power, has long been ob- they are scattered over the counserved by writers on the history of try, they subsist without any gohuman society, and their opinions vernment at all; but when a have been strengthened by the ex- march is contemplated, they imample of almost all the tribes of mediately look to the Khaun, and ancient Scythia and modern Tar- where they have to pass an enetary; but this observation, and my's country, he is appointed the reasonings of the authors who head of the Chelwashtees, assumes support it, appear to be derived an absolute authority, and befrom the practice of countries en- comes an object of respect and tirely pastoral, inhabited by se- anxiety to all the tribe. A proof of veral distinct and independent na- the importance of the Khaun dutions, where the simultaneous ring a march, is shewn by the increase of the flocks of different conduct of the Naussers at one tribes compels each to extend its time when Jurrus Khaun, their limits, and leads to wars, which present chief, refused to accomoblige each tribe to encamp and pany them in one of their migramarch in a body, and to secure tions. He was anxious to remain the co-operation of all its parts in Damaun with 200 or 300 of liis by implicit submission to a com- relations, to assist Surwur Khaun mon head. These reasons do not against the Vizeerees ; but his reexist in a tribe placed in a king- solution occasioned great distress dom chiefly inhabited by husband in the tribe, who declared it was men, and feeding its flocks on impossible to march without their waste lands at a distance from Khaun. So earnest were their rethose adapted to agriculture; and presentations, that Jurrus was at for this reason perhaps it is that last compelled to abandon his we find the Naussers enjoying former design, and to accompany the same liberty as most of the them on their march to Khorasother Afghauns. The established saun, government, and the habits of · The Khaun and all the Moothe nation secure their peace, SO shirs are elected from the head that when stationary they scatter families, and would be deposed if over an extensive tract, according found unfit for their offices. The

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Mullik (or Mooshir) settles all nance a pretension which they disputes, and can expel an offend- often advance to a connection by er the camp without a Jeirga : he blood with the Hotukees. The is also absolute with regard to the Hotukees say that the Naussers movements and stations of the have been their Humsauyahs, but camp; but any four or five peo- not their kindred : some even reple may go and advise him on present them as sprung from the that head, though, if he is re- Beloches ; and though they speak solved, they must abide by his Pushtoo, and strenuously maindecision.

tain their descent from the Af. The Naussers pay a tax to the ghauns, their features and appearKing which is at present allotted ance certainly indicate a race disto Abdooreheem Khaun, and this tinct from that nation. circumstance appears to counte

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as

SOUTH-WEST MONSOON IN INDIA. intermission ; sometimes it only

illuminates the sky, and shows (From Elphinstone's Account of the clouds, near the horizon; at Caubul.)

others it discovers the distant

hills, and again leaves all in dark, HE most remarkable rainy ness, when

in an instant it re-ap

pears in vivid and successive the south-west monsoon,

It ex- Hashes, and exhibits the nearest tends from Africa to the Malay per objects in all the brightness of ninsula, and deluges all the inter- day. During all this time the mediate countries within certain distant thunder never ceases to lines of latitude, for four months in roll, and is only silenced by some the year. In the south of India this nearer peal, which bursts on the monsoon commences about the ear with such a sudden and trebeginning of June, but it gets mendous crash as can scarcely later we advance towards fail to strike the most insensible the north. Its approach is an- heart with awe, At length the nounced by vast masses of clouds thunder ceases, and nothing is that rise from the Indian Ocean, heard but the continued pouring and advance towards the north- of the rain, and the rushing of east, gathering and thickening the rising streams. The next as they approach the land. After day presents a gloomy spectacle : some threatening days, the sky the rain still descends in torrents,

a troubled appearance and scarcely allows a view of the in the evenings, and the mon- blackened fields: the rivers are soon in general sets in during the swoln and discoloured, and sweep night. It is attended with such a down along with them the hedges, thunder-storm as can scarcely be the huts, and the remains of the imagined by those who have only cultivation wbich was carried on, seen that phenomenon in a during the dry season, in their temperate clinate. It generally beds. begins with violent blasts of This lasts for some days, after wind, which are succeeded by which the sky clears, and disfloods of rain. For some hours covers the face of nature changed lightning is geen almost without as if by enchantment. Belore

the

assumes

the storm the fields were parched the delay in its commencement, up, and except in the beds of the and the diminution in the quantity rivers, scarce a blade of vegeta- of rain, as it recedes from the sea. tion was to be seen : the clearness In the countries which are the of the sky was not interrupted by subject of the present inquiry, a single cloud, but the atmosphere the monsoon is felt with much was loaded with dust, which was less violence than in India, and is sufficient to render distant objects exhausted at no great distance dim, as in a mist, and to make from the sea, so that no trace of the sun appear dull and discolour- it can be perceived at Candahar. ed, till he attained a considerable A remarkable exception to this elevation : a parching wind blew rule is, however, to be observed like a blast from a furnace, and in the north-east of Afghaunisheated wood, iron, and every taun, which, although much fueother lid material, even in the ther

om the sea

Candahar, shade ; and immediately before is subject to the monsoon, and the monsoon, this wind had been what is equally extraordinary, resucceeded by still more sultryceives it from the east. calms. But when the first vio. These anomalies may perhaps lence of the storm is over, the be accounted for by the following whole earth is covered with a considerations. It is to be obsudden but luxuriant verdure : served, that the clouds are formed the rivers are full and tranquil; by the vapours of the Indian the air is pure and delicious ; and ocean, and are driven over the the sky is varied and embellished land by a wind from the southwith clouds. The effect of the west. Most part of the tract in change is visible on all the animal which the kingdom of Caubul creation, and can only be imagin- lies, is to leeward of Africa and ed in Europe by supposing the Arabia, and receives only the vadepth of a dreary winter to start pours of the narrow sea between its at once into all the freshness and southern shores andthe latter counbrilliancy of Spring. From this try, which are but of small extent, time the rain falls at intervals for and are exhausted in the immeabout a month, when it comes on diate neighbourhood of the coast. again with great violence, and in India lying further east, and beJuly the rains are at their height: yond the shelter of Africa, the during the third month, they ra. monsoon spreads over it without ther diminish, but are still heavy: any obstruction. It is naturally and in September they gradually most severe near the sea from abate, and are often entirely sus- which it draws its supplies, and pended, till near the end of the is exhausted after it has past over month; when they depart amidst a great extent of land. For this thunders and tempests as they reason, the rains are more or less came.

plentiful in each country, accordSuch is the monsoon in the ing to its distance from the sea, greater part of India. It is not, except in those near high mounhowever, without some diversity, tains, which arrest the clouds, the principal feature of which is and procure a larger supply of

r

ain for the neighbouring tracts, the sea, where the clouds are than would have fallen to their still in a deep mass, part is disshare, if the passage of the clouds charged on the hills and the had been unobstructed.

country beneath them, and part The obstacle presented to the passes up to the north-west ; but clouds and winds by the moun- part makes its way over the first tains has another effect of no hills, and produces the rains in small importance. The south- Tibet. In the latitude of Cashwest' monsoon blows over the meer, where the hills are conoceau in its natural direction; siderably exhausted, this division and, though it may experience is little perceived: the southern some diversities after it reaches face of the hills and the country the land, its general course over still farther south is watered; and India may still be said to be to- a part of the clouds continue their wards the north-east, till it is progress to Afghaunistaun ; but exhausted on the western and few make their way over the mouncentral parts of the peninsula. tains, or reach the valley of CashThe provinces in the north-east The clouds which pass on receive the monsoon in a different to Afghaunistaun are exhausted manner: the wind which brings as they go : the rains become the rains to that part of the conti- weaker and weaker, and at last nent, originally blows from the are merely sufficient to water the south-west, over the Bay of Ben- mountains, without much affect. gal, till the mountains of Hemal- ing the plains at their base. leh, and those which join them The above observations will exfrom the south, stop its progress, plain, or at least connect the fol. and compel it to follow their lowing facts. The south-west course towards the north-west. monsoon commences on the MaThe prevailing wind, therefore, labar coast in May, and is there in the region south-west of He- very violent; it is later and more malleh, is from the south-east, moderate in Mysore; and the and it is from that quarter that Coromandel coast, covered by the our provinces in Bengal receive mountainous countries on its west, their rains. But when the wind is entirely exempt from it. Furhas reached so far to the north- ther north, the monsoon begins west as to meet with Hindoo early in June, and loses a good Coosh, it is again opposed by that deal of its violence, except in the mountain, and turned off along places influenced by the neighits face towards the west, till it bourhood of the mountains or the meets the projection of Hindoo sea, where the fall of water is Coosh and the range of Solimaun, very considerable. About Delly, which prevent its further progress it does not begin till the end of in that direction, or at least com- June, and the fall of rain is pel it to part with the clouds with greatly inferior to what is felt at which it was loaded. The effect Calcutta or Bombay. In the north of the mountains in stopping the of the Punjaub, near the hills, it clouds borne by this wind, is dif- exceeds that of Delly ; but, in the ferent in different places. Near south of she Punjaub, distant

meer.

both

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