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his guests.

south certain epidemics, which of which gratified the palates of they thought proper to ascribe to the sole means which existed to But the enemies of the potatoe, prevent them. The Comptroller though refuted in their attempts General was obliged in 1771 to to prove it injurious to the health, request the opinion of the faculty did not consider themselves as of medicine, in order to put an vanquished. They pretended that end to these false notions. it injured the fields, and rendered

Parmentier, who had learned to them barren. It was not at all appreciate the potatoe in the pri- likely that a plant which is capasons of Germany, where he had ble of nourishing a greater numbeen often confined to that food, ber of cattle, and multiplying the seconded the views of the Minister manure, should injure the soil. by a chemical examination of this It was necessary, however, to anroot, in which he demonstrated swer this tion, and tu consithat none of its constituents are der the potatoe in an agricultural hurtful. He did better still. To point of view. Parmentier acgive the people a relish for them, cordingly published in different he cultivated them in the open forms every thin regarding its fields, in places very much fre- cultivation and uses, even in ferquented. He guarded them care- tilizing the soil. He introduced fully during the day only; and the subject into philosophical was happy when he had excited as works, into popular instructions, much curiosity as to induce peo- into journals, into dictionaries, ple to steal some of them during into works of all kinds. During the night. He would have wished 40 years he let slip no opportuthat the king, as we read of the nity of recommending it. Every Emperors of China, had traced bad year was a kind of auxiliary, the first furrow of his field. His of which he profited with care to Majesty thought proper at least to draw the attention of mankind to wear a bunch of potatoe flowers his favourite plant. at his button-hole in the midst of Hence the name of this saluthe Court on a festival day. No- tary vegetable and his own have thing more was wanting to induce become almost inseparable in the several great lords to plant this memory of the friends of humaroot.

nity. Even the common people Parmentier wished likewise to united them, and not always with engage the cooks of the great in gratitude. At a certain period of the service of the poor, by induc- the Revolution it was proposed to ing them to practise their skill on give Parmentier some municipal the potatoe; for he was aware place. One of the voters opposed that the poor could not obtain po- this proposal with fury :-" He tatoes in abundance unless they will make us eat potatoes,” said could furnish the rich with an a- he, “it was he who invented greeable article of food. He in- them.” fo ns us that he one day gave a

But Parmentier did not ask the dinner composed entirely of pota- suffrages of the people. He knew toes, with 20 different sauces, all well that it was always a duty to serve them. But he knew equally wished to exclude buck wheat, that as long as their education re- which is so inferior, from the few mained what it is, it was a duty cantons where it is still cultivated. likewise not to consult them. He The acorn, which they say nouhad no doubt that at length the rished our ancestors before they advantage of his plans would be were acquainted with corn, is still appreciated. And one of the for- very useful in some of our protunate things attending his old vinces, chiefly about the centre of age was to see the almost com- the kingdom. M. Daine, Intendplete success of his perseverance. ant of Limoges, induced Parmen

The potatoe has now only tier to examine whether it was friends," he wrote in one of his not possible to make from it an last works, even in those can- eatable bread, and capable of betons from which the spirit of sys- ing kept. His experiments were tem and contention seemed anxi- unsuccessful; but they occasionous to banish it for ever."

ed a complete treatise on the acorn, But Parmentier was not one of and on the different preparations those persons who occupy them- of its food. selves exclusivery with one idea. Corn itself was an object of long The advantages which he had per- study with him ; and perhaps he ceived in the potatoe did not make has not been of less service in exhim neglect those offered by other plaining the best methods of vegetables.

grinding and baking, than in Maize, the plant which, next to spreading the cultivation of potathe potatoe, gives the most econo


Chemical analysis having mical food, is likewise a present informed him that bran contains of the New World, although in no nourishment proper for man, some places it is still obstinately he concluded that it was advantacalled Turkey corn. It was the geous to exclude it from bread. principal food of the Americans He deduced from this the advanwhen the Spaniards visited their tages of an economical method of coasts. It was brought to Europe grinding, which, by subjecting the much earlier than the potatoe ; grain repeatedly to the mill and for Fuchs describes it, and gives a the sieve, detaches from the bran drawing of it, in 1543.

It was

even the minutest particles of likewise spread more quickly; flour ; and he proved likewise that and by giving to Italy, and our it furnished, at a lower price, a southern provinces, a new and white, agreeable, and more nutriaburdant article of food, it has tive bread. Ignorance had so misgreatly contributed to enrich them, . understood the advantages of this and i increase their population. method, that laws had long existed

Parmentier, therefore, in order to prevent it, and that the most to encourage its culture, had need precious part of the grain was given only to explain, as he does in a to the cattle along with the bran. very cou plete manner, the pre- Parmentier studied with care cautions w its cultivation re every thing relating to bread; and quires, and the numerous uses to because books would have been which it may be applied. He of little service to millers and


bakers, people who scarcely read new value to our vines at a time any, he induced Government to when the war and the taxes made establish a School of Baking, them be pulled up in many places, from which the pupils would and will not remain less useful for speedily carry into the provinces many purposes, even if sugar all the good practices. He went should again fall in this country himself

to Britanny and Langue to its old price. doc, with M. Cadet-Devaux, in We have seen abore how Parorder to propagate his doctrine. mentier, being by pretty singular

He caused the greatest part of accidents deprived of the active the bran which was mixed with superintendance of the Invalids, the bread of the soldiers to be had been stopped in the natural withdrawn; and by prociring line of his advancement. He had them a more healthy and agreea- too much merit to allow this inble article of food, he put an end justice to continue long. Governto a multitude of abuses of which ment employed him in different this mixture was the source. circumstances as a military apo

Skilful men have calculated thecary; and when in 1788 a conthat the progress of knowledge sulting council of physicians and in our days relative to grinding surgeons was organized for the and baking has been such, that army, the Minister wished to place abstracting from the other vege- him there as apothecary; but tables which may be substituted Bayen was then alive, and Parfor corn, the quantity of corn ne- mentier was the first to represent cessary for the food of an indivi- that he could not take his seat dual may be reduced more than a above his master. He was therethird. As it is chiefly to Parmen- fore named assistant to Bayen tier that the almost general adop- This institution, like many others, tion of these new processes is ow- was suppressed during the period ing, this calculation establishes of revolutionary anarchy, an epoch his services better than a thou- during which even medical suborsand panegyrics.

dination was rejected. But neArdent as Parmentier was for cessity obliged them soon to rethe public utility, it was to be ex- establish under the names of pected that he would interest him- Commission and Council of Health self much in the efforts occasioned for the Armies; and Parmentier, by the last war to supply exotic whon the reign of terror had for luxuries. It was he that brought a time driven from Paris, was the syrup of grapes to the greatest speedily placed in it. perfection.

This preparation, He showed in this situation the which may be ridiculed by those same zeal as in all others; and who wish to assimilate it to su- the hospitals of the army were progar, has notwithstanding reduced digiously indebted to his care. He the consumption of sugar many neglected nothing instructions, thousand quintals, and has pro- repeated orders to bis inferiors, duced immense savings in our hos- pressing solicitations to men in pitals, of which the poor have authority. We have seen him, reaped the advantage, has given a within these few years deploring



the absolute neglect in which a labour much, and perform great Government, occupied in con- services, without receiving any requering, and not in preserving, compense, wherever inen united left the asylums of the victims of to do good, he appeared foremost;

and you might depend upon being We ought to bear the most able to dispose of his time, of his striking testimony of the care pen, and, if occasion served, of which he took of the young per- his fortune. sons employed under his orders, This continual habit of occuprthe friendly manner in which he ing himself for the good of manreceived them, encouraged them, kind, had even affeeted his exterand rewarded them. His protec- nal air. Benevolence seemed to tion extended to them at what dis- appear in him personified. His tance soever they were carried; person was tall; and remained and we know more than one who erect to the end of his life ; his was indebted for his life in far figure was full of amenity; his distant climates to the provident visage was at once noble and genrecommendations of this paternal tle; his hair was white as the chief.

snow-all these seemed to renBut his activity was not restrict- der this respectable old man the ed to the duties of his place; image of goodness and of virtue. every thing which could be useful His physiognomy was pleasing, occupied his attention.

particularly from that appearance When the steam-engines were of happiness produced by the good established, he satisfied the pub- which he did, and which was so lic of the salubrity of the waters much the more entitled to be of the Seine. More lately he oc- happy, because a man who without cupied himself with ardour in the high birth, without fortune, withestablishment of economicalsoups. out great places, without any reHe contributed materially to the markable genius, but by the sole propagation of vaccination. It perseverance of the love of goodwas he chietly who introduced into ness, has perhaps contributed as the central pharmacy of the hos- much to the happiness of his race pitals at l'aris the excellent order as any of those upon whom Nawhich reigns there; and he drew ture and Fortune have accumuup the pharmaceutic code accord- lated all the means of serving ing to which they are directed.-

them He watched over the great baking Parmentier was never married. establishment at Scipion, where Madame Houzeau, kis sister, all the bread of the hospitals is lived always with him, and semade. The Hospice des Menages conded him in his benevolent lawas under his particular care;

bours with the tenderest friendand he bestowed the most minute ship. She died at the time when attention on all that could alle- her affectionate care would have viate the lot of 800 old persons been most necessary to her broof both sexes, of which it is com- ther, who had for some years been posed.

threatened with a chronical affecAt a period when people might tion in his breast. Regret for

this loss aggravated the disease the termination of the Niger of this excellent man, and ren- (which he supported by very plausdered his last days very painful, ible arguments) he rarely indulgbut without altering his charac- ed in conjecture, much less in hyter, or interrupting his labours. pothesis or speculation. He died on the 17th December, Among the characteristic qua1813, in the 77th year of his age. lities of Park which were so ap

parent in his former travels, none

certainly were more valuable or CHARACTER OF MUNGO PARK ; contributed more to his success,

than his admirable prudence, calmFrom his Life prefixed to the Journal ness and temper; but it has been of his Mission to Africa in 1805. doubted whether these merits

were equally conspicuous during The leading parts of Mungo his second expedition. The parts Park's character must have been of his conduct which have given anticipated by the reader in the occasion to this remark are, his principal events and transactions setting out from the Gambia alof his life. Of his enterprising most at the eve of the rainy. spirit, his indefatigable vigilance season, and his voyage down the and activity, his calm fortitude Niger under circumstances 60 and unshaken perseverance, he has apparently desperate. On the left permanent memorials in the motives - by which he may have narrative of his former travels, been influenced as to the former and in the Journal and Corres- of these measures something has pondence now published. In these been said in the course of the forerespects few travellers have equal- going narrative. With regard to led, none certainly ever surpassed his determination in the latter inhim. Nor were the qualities of stance, justice must allow that his his understanding less valuable or situation was one of extreme difconspicuous. He was distin- ficulty, and admitted probably of guished by a correctness of judg- no alternative. In both cases our ment, seldom found united with knowledge of the facts is much too an ardent and adventurous turn imperfect to enable us to form a of mind, and generally deemed correct opinion as to the propriincompatible with it. His talents ety of his conduct, much less to certainly were not brilliant, but justify us in condemning him unsolid and useful, such as were pe- heard. culiariy suited to a traveller and In all the relations of private geographical discoverer. Hence, life he appear to have been highly in his accounts of new and un- exemplary; and his conduct as a known countries, he is consistent sou, a husband, and a father, moand rational : he is betrayed into rited every praise. To the more no exaggeration, nor does he ex- gentle and amiable parts of his hibit any traces of credulity or en- character the most certain of all thusiasm. His attention was di- testimonies may be found in the rected exclusively to facts; and warm attachment of his friends, except in his opinion relative to and in the fond and affectionate re


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