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dual completion of the works of and the capacities it has developed defence, both fixed and floating,on for the successful co-operation in our maritime frontier, and an ade- the national defence, will give to quate provision for guarding our that portion of the public force inland frontier against dangers to its full value in the eyes of Conwhich certain portions of it may gress, at an epoch which calls for continue to be exposed.

the constant vigilance of all GoAs an improvement on our vernments. To preserve the ships military establishment, it will de- now in a sound state; to comserve the consideration of Con- plete those already conteinplated; gress, whether a corps of invalids to provide amply the unperishable might not be so organized and materials for prompt augmentaemployed, as at once to aid in the tions, and to improve the existing support of meritorious individuals, arrangements into more advantaexcluded by age or infirmities geous establishments, for the confrom the existing establishment, struction, the repairs, and the seand to preserve to the public the curity to vessels of war, is dictatbenefit of their stationary services, ed by the soundest polier. and of their exemplary discipline. In adjusting the duties on imI recomniend also, an enlarge- ports to the object of revenue, ment of the military academy al- the influence of the tariif on maready established, and the estab- nufactures will necessarily present lishment of others in other sec- itself for consideration. Hor. tions of the union. And I cannot ever wise the theory may be, press too much on the attention which leaves to the sagacity and of Congress, such a classification interest of individuals the appliand organization of the militia, as cation of their industry and rewill miost effectually render it the sources, there are in this, as in safeguard of a free state. If experi- other cases, exceptions to the geence has slicwn in the late splen- neral rule. Besides the condition uid achievements of the militia, which the theory itself implies, of the vallie of this resource for the a reciprocal adoption by other napublic defence, it has shewn also tions, experience teaches that so the importance of that skill in the many circumstances must occur use of arms, and that familiarity in introducing and maturing mawith the essential rules of disci- nufacturing establishments, espepline, which cannot be expect- cially of the more complicated ed from the regulations now in kinds, that a country may remain force. With this subject is ulti- long without them, although sufmately connected the necessity of ficiently advanced, and in some accommodating the laws, in every respects even peculiarly fitted for respect, to the great object of en- carrying them on with success. abling the political authority of Under circumstances giving a the union to employ, promptly powerful impulse to manufacturand effectually, the physical power ing industry, it has made among of the union, in the cases desig- is a progress, and exhibited an nated by the constitution.

efficiency, which justify the beThe signal services which lief, that with a protection not have been rendered by our navy, more than is due to the enter


prizing citizens whose interests considerations are strengthened, are now at stake, it will become moreover, by the political effect of at an early day not only safe these facilities for intercommuniagainst occasional competitions cation, in bringing and binding from abroad, but a source of do- more closely together the various mestic wealth, and even of exter- parts of our extended confederacy. ternal commerce. In selecting Whilst the States, individually, the branches more especially en- with a laudable enterprise and titled to the public patronage, a emulation avail themselves of their preference is obviously claimed by local advantages, by new roads, such as will relieve the United by navigable canals, and by imStates from a dependence on fo- proving the streams susceptible of reign supplies, ever subject to ca- navigation, the general Governsual failures, for articles neces- ment is the more urged to simisary for the public defence, orlar undertakings, requiring a naconnected with the primary wants tional jurisdiction, and national of individuals. It will be an ad- means, by the prospect of thus ditional recommendation of par- systematically completing so inticular manufactures, where the estimable a work.

And it is a materials for them are exclusively happy reflection, that any defect drawn fi om our agriculture, and of constitutional authority which consequently impart and ensure may be encountered, can be surto that great fund of national pros- plied in a mode which the constiperity and independence, an en

tution itself has providently pointcouragement which cannot fail to ed out. be rewarded.

The present is a favourable Among the means of advanc, season also for bringing again ing the public interest, the occa- into view the establishment of sion is a proper one for recalling a national seminary of learning the attention of Congress to the within the district of Columbia, great importance of establishing and with means drawn from throughout our country the roads the property therein subject to and canals which can best be ex- the authority of the general goecuted under the national autho- vernment. Such an institution rity. No objects within the cir- claims the patronage of Congress, cle of political economy so richly as a monument of their solicitude repay the expense bestowed on for the advancement of knowthem : there are none, the utility ledge, without which the bless. of which is more universally ascer- ings of liberty cannot be fully entained and acknowledged: none joyed, or long preserved; as a that do more honour to the Go- model instructive in the formavernment, whose wise and enlarg- tion of other seminaries; as a ed patriotism duly appreciates nursery of enlightened preceptors; them. Nor is there any country as a central resort of youth and which presents a field, where na- genius from every part of their ture invites more the art of man, country, diffusing on their return to complete her own work for his examples of those national feelaccommodation and benefit. These ings, those liberal sentiments,


and those congenial manners, in a population rapidly increaswhich contribute cement to our ing, on a territory as productive union, and strength to the great as it is extensive; in a general political fabric, of which that is industry, and fertile ingenuity, the formation.

which find their ample rewards ; In closing this communication, and in an affluent revenue, which I ought not to repress a sen- admits a reduction of the public sibility, in which you will unite, burthens without withdrawing to the happy lot of our country, the means of sustaining the puband to the goodness of a superin- lic credit, of gradually dischargtending Providence to which we ing the public debt, of providing are indebted for it. Whilst other for the necessary defensive and portions of mankind are labouring precautionary establishments, and under the distresses of war, or of patronising, in every authorisstruggling with adversity in othered mode, undertakings conducive forms, the United States are in to the aggregate wealth and indithe tranquil enjoyment of pros- dividual comfort of our citizens. perous and honourable peace. In It remains for the guardians reviewing the scenes through of the public welfare, to persewhich it has been attained, we vere in that justice and good-will can rejoice in the proofs given, towards other nations, which inthat our political institutions, vite a return of these sentiments founded in human rights, and towards the United States ; to framed for their preservation, are cherish institutions which guaequal to the severest trials of war, rantee their safety, and their li. as well as adapted to the ordinary berties, civil and religious; and periods of repose. As fruits of to combine with a liberal system this experience, and of the repu- of foreign commerce, an improvetation acquired by the American ment of the natural advantages, arms, on the land and on the wa- and a protection and extension of ter, the nation finds itself possess- the independent resources of our ed of a growing respect abroad, highly favoured and happy counand of a just confidence in itself, try. which are among the best pledges In all measures, having such for its peaceful career.

objects, my faithful co-operation Under other aspects of our will be afforded. country, the strongest features of

James Madisox. its flourishing condition are seen, Washington, Dec. 5, 1815.



Account of the late eminent Philo- at the grammar school. He now

logist and Critic, Professor Heyne applied with the greatest diliof Gottingen, from his Life pub- gence, and having acquired a lished in German.

competent knowledge of the

Greek and Latin languages, was HRISTIAN GOTTLOB sent to the university of Leipsic,


scholar and philologist, was born tice of professors Christ, Ernesti, at Chemnitz, in September 1729. and Winkler. On the recommenIn his younger years he had to dation of Ernesti, he obtained the struggle against the pressure of situation of private tutor in the extreme poverty. His parents, family of a French merchant, but who subsisted by the linen manu- only for a short period, and therefacture, were exceedingly indi- fore he was obliged to support gent, and according to his own himself in the best manner he emphatic account, « the first im- could by private teaching. Havpressions on his mind were made ing made choice of the law for a by the tears of his mother, la- profession, he endeavoured to bementing that she was not able to come thoroughly acquainted with find bread for her children.” He the Roman law, literature, and was, however, sent to a common history. The knowledge acquired school in his native place, where in this manner enabled him afterhe shewed great aptitude for learn- wards to give lectures to the stuing, and soon made so much pro- dents of jurisprudence on the Rogress, that in his tenth year he man antiquities, which were regave lessons in reading and writ- ceived with great approbation. A ing to a female child of a neigh- Latin elegy which he wrote on bour, in order that he might ob- the death of Lacoste, preacher of tain money to defray the expense the French reformed congregaof his own education. By the tion, attracted the notice of the friendship of a clergyman, who Saxon minister, Count Bruhl, and had been one of his godfathers, procured him an invitation to he was enabled to enter himself Dresden, to which he repaired in April 1752, elated with hope, and guished. « In the fillse and corexperienced a very favourable re- rupted passages, I have assumed," ception; but though the most flat- says the translator, “ true critical tering promises were made to him, freedom ; and supplied, corrected, they terminated in disappoint- and amended, according to my ment, and his situation would own ideas. In doing this, I enhave been highly unpleasant, had joyed the infinite pleasure, which he not obtained the place of tutor a young critic feels when he to a young gentleman, which ena- thinks he is able to amend." bled him to spend the winter These early productions appeared in comfort, till 1753, when he without his name. His next work was again thrown out of employ- was an edition of Tibullus. It ment. About this time he seems was dedicated to Count Bruhl, to have been reduced to a state of and though it met with no partithe utmost distress. Such was cular notice, either from him or his poverty, that he was obliged the German literati, it excited to sell his books to prevent him- considerable attention in foreign self from starving ; and pea shells, countries, and served to make the which he collected and boiled, name of the critic much better were on many occasions his only known. Ilaving found in the elecfood. As he had no lodging, a toral library a manuscript of Epicyoung clergyman, named Sonn- tetus, which he collated, he was tag, with whom he had formed thence led to a more critical exaan acquaintance, took pity on his mination of the work of that phicondition, and gave him a share losopher, and soon found, partiof his apartment, where he slept cularly by studying the Commenon the bare boards, with a few tary of Simplicius, that an extentooks to supply ihe place of a pil- sive field was here open for the low. At length, after much soli- labours of the critic. His first citation, he was admitted as a co- edition of Epictetus, which appyist into the Bruhlian library, at peared in 1756, afforded a decia bare salary of a hundred dollars sive proof of his profound knowper annum. As this appointment ledge in the Greek, and induced was not sufficient to preserve hiin him to make himself better acfrom want, necessity compelled quainted with the principles of him to become a writer. His first the Stoic philosophy. Though attempt was a translation of a classical literature formed the French novel; and in the same principal object of his research, year he gave a translation of he had not devoted himself to “ Chariton's History of Chærea that branch exclusively. In the and Callirrhoe,” a Greek romance Bruhlean library he found abunbrought to light a few years be- dance of works on the English fore by Dorville, and illustrated and French literature, and he by a learned commentary. It de- read with great attention the classerves to be remarked, that it was sical productions of both these nahere that he first manifested that tions. About this time he became taste for criticism by which he acquainted with the celebrated was afterwards so much distin- Winkelmann, who frequested the


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