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CHAPTER VIII.

Russian and Austrian Troops arrive on the Borders.Their Adrance.

The Chambers remain sitting.Declaration of that of Representatives.

- Message from the Provisional Government, and the Chambers dissolved.-- Entrance of the King into Paris.-Ministry appointed.-Paris occupied by the Allied Armies.--Animosity of the Prussians.- Arrival of the Sovereigns.-Election of new Deputies.- Proceedings of Buona. parte.Goes on board an English Man of War.— Brought to Tor. bay, and embarked for St. Helena.-Progress of the Allies, and submission of the French Generals.Royal Ordinances, and Proceedings against the culpable and disaffected.-Restrictions on Periodical Publications.-Disbanding and re-organization of the Army.- Proceedings against Traitors.-Labedoyere condemned. --The Peerage rendered he· reditary.Disturbances in the South of France.- Protestants persecuted at Nismes.Royal Proclamation.-Change in the MinistryOpening of the Chambers.— The Museum of the Louvre stript of the fruits of conquest.-Letter to the King by the late Ministers. - Reflexions.- Law for the Suppression of Seditious Cries.-Cour Royal opened, and Speech of the President.-Ney's Trial and Condemnation,

- Further Outrages at Nismes.--Final Treaty between the Allied Powers and France.

THE

HE military convention of tria, though their remoteness from

Paris effected no more than the first scene of action had preputting the capital in the hands vented them from contributing to of the allies, and still left a consi- the successes already gained, were derable body of French regular by no means slack in hastening troops at liberty to act as inclina- their troops to the frontiers, and tion or interest should prompt commencing warlike operations. them in thedifferences of their coun. Towards the end of June it was try, besides a number of others, announced from Germany that either in the field under separate Prince Wrede had attacked the leaders, or in garrison at the for- French near Landau, and defeated tified towns on the borders. It them with great loss; that Prince was therefore necessary, in order Schwartzenberg had routed to bring France into that state of French corps near Besançon, and submission which was thought had invested that town and Berequisite for securing the peace of fort ; that Marshal Frimont had Europe, that the whole stipulated passed the Simplon, and that hosforce of the confederates should tilities had cominenced on the be brought to action. The two whole line as far as Basle. The great powers of Russia and Aus- Russian troops were at this time Vol. LVII.

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passing

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passing incessantly through Mentz ment:—“Hitherto we had be. and Frankfort. Alsace and Lor- lieved that the intentions of the rain were presently over-run by allied sovereigns were not unanithe allied armies, against whom mous upon the choice of the there were no French forces in prince who is to reign in France. the field capable of making a stand. Our plenipotentiaries gave us the The peasantry of Alsace, how- same assurances on their return. ever, shewed a spirit of animosity But the ministers and generals of against their Austrian invaders, the allied powers declared yester-, which brought upon them some day in the conferences they had severe chastisement.

with the president of the commisAt Paris the chambers remain- sion, that all the sovereigns had ed assembled after the signature engaged to replace Louis XVIII. of the convention, and flattered on the throne, and that this eventhemselves with the idea that they ing or to-morrow he is to make were still invested with the au- his entrance into the capital. Fothority of the nation. «That of reign troops have just occupied representatives issued a declara- the Thuilleries where the governtion, in which it announced the ment is sitting. In this state of intention of continuing to sit affairs we can only breathe wishes where the will of the people had for the country, and our delibecalled them, and made a solemn rations being no longer free, we appeal to the national guard for think it our duty to separate." their protection. It then declared When this message was read in its full confidence in the honour the chamber of peers, the memand magnanimity of the allied bers rose spontaneously, and repowers, and in their respect for tired without deliberation. The the independence of the nation, so chamber of representatives refus.positively expressed in their ma- ed to consider their mission as nifestoes that the government of terminated, and resolved' to contiFrance, whoever be its chief, nue their sittings till separated ought to unite the wishes of the by force. Both the chambers nation, legally expressed and were, however, shut up on the that a monarch cannot offer sub- following day by order of genestantial guaranties without swear- ral Desolles, commander of the ing to observe a constitution deli- national guard. berated on by the national repre- On July 8th the King re-entersentation, and accepted by the ed his capital, and was received, people. At subsequent sittings according to the authorized acthe chamber passed votes of thanks counts, with demonstrations of to the French armies, and occu joy and attachment which proved pied itself with discussions on the that the mass of population were plan of a constitution. This dis well affected to the restoration of play of independence was, how the Bourbon government. Paris, ever, short-lived. On the 7th however, was no longer her own the following message was re- mistress. The military points of ceived by both chambers from the the city were occupied by the committee of provisional govern- allied troops; and orders had been

given that all disturbers of the in the absolute possession of the public tranquillity should be ar- allies, whose troops so much acrested by the national guard, and cumulated, that the expectation of punished according to law. A its being freed from the quarterroyal order was issued on the ing of soldiers could not be fulsame day that the white cockade filled. The inveterate hatred beshould be the only rallying sign tween the Prussians and the of Frenchmen, and that every French, fostered by so many muother bearing should be regarded tual injuries, displayed itself on as a signal of disorder. On the various occasions, and was aggra9th the King determined upon the vated by an act of power which form of his administration, which might have been spared. One of was to consist of a privy council, the bridges over the Seine, erected and a council of ministers. Of under the rule of Napoleon, was the latter, the following persons named that of Jena, in memorial were nominated :-Prince Talley- of the victory which laid Prussia rand, president of the council, at his feet. Marshal Blucher deand secretary for foreign affairs ; termined to use the right of reBaron Louis, secretary for the tribution in obliterating this trifinances; the Duke of Otranto, umphal monument by blowing up (Fouehe) secretary for the police; the bridge, a fine piece of art, and Baron Pasquier, secretary for the his soldiers had already made exdepartment of justice, and keeper cavations in some of the piers and of the seals ; Marshal Gouvion filled them with gunpowder, and St. Cyr, secretary at war ; Count stripped the bridge of its pavede Jaucourt, secretary for the ma- ment, when an order was given rine; the Duke of Richelieu, se- for putting an end to this democretary for the household. Of lition. The order is said to have those appointed to inferior posts proceeded from the Emperor Alexwere several who had been in ander, after the Duke of Wellingoffice under Buonaparte ; a proof ton had in vain interposed. That that it was thought necessary to sovereign, with the Emperor of conciliate a party which still re- Austria and the King of Prussia, mained numerous and powerful. arrived at Paris on the 10th. About a hundred of the represen. The King of France, on the tatives of departments assembled 13th, published an ordinance anat the house of their president, nouncing the dissolution of the M. Lanjuinais, for the purpose chamber of deputies, and reguof making a protest against the lating the mode of election for a dissolution of their chamber. The new one. By these rules the cancapital was, in fact, a focus of didates were declared eligible at discontent, and it was manifest the age of twenty-five, the deputhat the time was not yet come in ties were to be persons paying at which the throne of Louis could least 1000 francs in taxes, and be secure without the aid of the whole number was augmentthose arms which had seated him ed from 262, as fixed by the conupon it.

stitutional charter, to 395. Paris became more and more Buonaparte, from the period of

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his

his resignation, had entirely ceas- and baggage to be conveyed. On ed to appear on the public scene, the morning of the 15th the and it was scarcely known whiEpervier made sail. towards the ther he had withdrawn himself; English admiral as a flag of truce. the general opinion, however, was It was met by some boats, which that he had proceeded towards the conducted it to the Bellerophon, western coast for the purpose of where the passengers were taken watching an opportunity of em- on board. These, besides Buobarking to America. From au- noparte, consisted of Gen. Count thentic accounts it appears that on Bertrand, grand marshal of the July 3d he arrived at Rochefort, palace, his lady and three chilwhere he resided in the house of dren, the Duke of Rovigo (Savary), the prefect till the 8th. Being General Lallemand, Baron Gourthen, urged by the general who gauld, aide-de-camp to Buonahad been charged to escort him parte, Count Moutholon Semontill his going on board, and by ville, his lady and child, Count the maritime prefect, not to neg- Las Casas, counsellor of state, and lect any occasion for putting his his son, several other officers, a intention in practice, he embark- surgeon, and a suite of 40 pered on that day in one of the boats sons. The Bellerophon immediwhich were kept continually in ately set sail for England, and arwaiting, and at night went on rived at Torbay on the 24th.board the Saale frigate. On the Thus, after all the vicissitudes of next day he landed on the isle of this extraordinary man's life, durAix, and viewed its fortifications. ing many years of which he had

The wind was favourable for his been the most conspicuous object , putting to sea on the 10th, but of the age, the wonder and the he was too closely watched by the terror of all Europe, he saw the English cruizers posted for the sphere of his activity limited to the purpose, to venture the attempt. quarter-deck of a man of war, beHe then sent a flag of truce on longing to that nation which alone board the English man of war had perpetually resisted his power, Bellerophon, Captain Maitland, and curbed his restless ambition. which returned on the following The conduct to be observed day. At this time he received in- with respect to a prisoner who had formation from his brother Joseph proved himself capable, even after of the King's entrance into Pa- his fall, of lighting up so destrucris, and the dissolution of the tive a flame, was an important chambers, which put an end to subject of consideration. His rank his last hopes of a recall. Two and character were equivocal, for more days were passed in unde- he had been left, by the treaty of terminate projects for escaping by Paris, an emperor in title, and the sea ; and on the night of the 13th sovereign of Elba in fact; so that he went on board the Epervier he might (as he didy lay a plausibrig, to which, on the 14th, after ble claim to the rights of an inde. the return of Gen. Becker, who pendent prince, conquered in a had been parleying with the Eng- lawful war. But the peace of the lish cruizers, he caused his suite world was not to be sacrificed to

scruplex

scruples suggested by reasoning but the guest, of England. This, on a novel and dubious case; and however, was a mis-statement of the allied powers thought they the case ; for the fact was, that had sufficiently tempered justice not being able in any other manby mercy, in adjudging him to a ner to escape what he justly reperpetual confinement where he garded as a more urgent danger, might enjoy many of the comforts he surrendered himself to the of life, without danger of again arms of that power from whom returning to involve Europe in he was assured of present protecbloodshed. It was determined in tion, but who had given him no the councils of the confederate expectation of being regarded sovereigns, that the island of St. otherwise than as a public enemy. Helena, a speck in the Southern It is unnecessary to detail the Atlantic, under the dominion of progress of the allied armies in Great Britain, should be his place obtaining possession of the places of exile, where he was to reside in France which still held out. under their joint inspection. On Their immense superiority in numAugust 7th he was transferred, in ber assured them final success; Torbay, from the Bellerophon to though the pertinacity of the dethe Northumberland, Captain Sir fenders, fostered by that point of G. Cockburn, accompanied by honour which acts so forcibly on Generals Bertrand and Moutho- the French military, long prolon, with their ladies and families, tracted this event, and was the Count Las Casas, General Gor- occasion in some instances of a gauld, and twelve servants. The considerable loss of lives. In ship on the next day proceed- most cases the inhabitants were ed on her destined voyage. This disposed to submit before the determination of the allied powers troops would listen to such a prowas notified on August 26th, in posal, and civil conflicts were the London Gazette, with the re- often added to the other calamisolution that all foreign vessels ties which were now pressing were to be excluded from com- upon the country. Some conmunication with, or approach to, manders, who were ready to reSt. Helena, as long as it should eognize the authority of Louis, be the residence of Napoleon Buo- thought it their duty to resist the naparte. Although he quietly invasion of foreigners; for the submitted to his fate, yet previ- most part, however, the army ously to his going on board the and its leaders retained their old Northumberland he presented to attachments. The Duke of AlbuLord Keith a memorial, in which, fera (Suchet) who was General of in the face of heaven and of men, the army of the Alps, signed on he solemnly protested against what July 12th a capitulation with the he termed the violation of his Austrians, for the city of Lyons, most sacred rights, by the forci- similar in its tenor with that conble disposal of his person and his cluded at Paris. His troops joined liberty; adding, that he came the French army of the Loire unfreely on board the Bellerophon, der Davoust, whose disposition, and that he was not the prisoner, with that of his soldiers, long

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