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Emperor of Austria to exert his quarters at Ancona.
For some influence with the court of France, days he appeared to be in a state in order to procure him this justice. of great agitation. He held freThat the French cabinet had be- quentinterviews with some French fore this time formed the design officers at Naples, several of whom of obliging Murat to resign the he dispatched to France; but he erown of Naples to King Fer- delayed his own departure from dinand, was rendered apparent Naples, and the advance of his by a letter made public, from the troops, which was attributed to Prince of Benevento (Talleyrand), the news of the failure of Buoto Lord Castlereagh, proposing a naparte's attempt to gain posplan of attack upon him. The session of Antibes. In fact, he Duke of Campochiaro, when he seems to have been under the impresented bis note, informed the pression of all that doubt and Austrian minister, that he was fluctuation which naturally atdirected to ask for a passage for tends a man acting a double part, 80,000 men into France through and irresolute which side to take. the Austrian dominions in Italy, When, however, the news arrived who should pay for all which they of Buonaparte's entrance into Lyconsumed; which request induced ons, he made known that he conthe Emperor's cabinet to take sidered the cause of Napoleon as measures for the security of Italy, his own, at the same time reand to reinforce their troops in quiring a passage through the that country.
Roman states for two of his divia At this period, as already ob- sions. The Pope protested against served, an active correspondence this violation of his territory, and was carrying on between Naples withdrew to Florence. and the isle of Elba ; but it may On March 19, King Joachim be doubted whether Joachim was arrived at Ancona, and put himentrusted with Buonaparte's de- self at the head of his troops. sign of landing in France. As He entered the Pope's domisoon as the intelligence of this nions on the 22d, and, with erent reached Naples, he called his main body, proceeded from together his council, and informed the Marches to the Legations, them of his determination to ad- where, on the 30th, he began here to his alliance with the Em- hostilities, by attacking the Imperor of Austria, and to remain perialists posted at Cesena, who faithful to the system of the allied retired before him.
The consepowers. An assurance to this quence was, a declaration of war purpose was communicated to the against him by Austria. He isImperial Ambassador at his court, sued at Rimini, on the 31st, a and also to the Plenipotentiaries proclamation addressed to the at the congress of Vienna. The Italians, calling upon them uniwhole of the Neapolitan army was versally to assert their indepennow in movement towards the dence, and liberate theniselves frontier, and it was announced, from the dominion of foreigners; that Joachim was immediately to and asserting that eighty thousand follow, and establish his head- Neapolitans, under the command
of their king, were hastening to that the vieinity of the Po was their assistance. The Imperial Ge- entirely freed from the Neapolitans. neral, Bianchi, retired before the The latter continued their retreat Neapolitan army, till he reached at all points. On the 16th, the the Panaro, where, on April the van of the Austrian army entered 4th, he made head against the Bologna, which had been hastily enemy, on the road to Modena. abandoned by Joachim. It was The result of the action was, that now manifest, that whatever were Bianchi continued his retreat to the wishes of the Italians for inCarpi, and afterwards took a dependence, no co-operation could strong position on the Po. The be expected on their parts; and Grand Duke of Tuscany at this that the grand scheme of uniting time quitted his capital, and re- Lombardy against the Austrian tired to Pisa, and on the 6th, the dominion, and forming a powNeapolitans entered Florence, erful diversion in favour of Buowhich was evacuated by the Aus- naparte in that quarter, was betrian General, Nugent. The lat- yond the talents of Murat with a ter retired to Pistoia, whither he Neapolitan army. From Bologna, was followed by the Neapolitan the pursuit was continued by the General, Pignatelli, who made re- Austrian division under Count peated attacks on the Austrians, Neipperg, which successively ocin all of which he was repulsed cupied Imola, Faenza, and Forli, with loss; and this was the limit A large corps of Neapolitans being of the advance of the Neapolitans entrenched at Cesena, the Count on that side.
made an attack upon it on the 21st, Their main army, under the and a brisk action ensued, after immediate direction of King Jo- which, the position was abandoned, achim, was in the mean time and the troops hastily retreated. pushing forward towards Ferrara; On the 21st, General Millet de and it being considered by the Villeneuve, chief of the Neapolitan Austrian Generals as of esssential staff, sent a letter to the Austrian consequence to defend this point, commander, for the purpose of Baron Frimont ordered the Lieu- obtaining an armistice. He said, tenant Field-marshal Mohr, to that the King of Naples, under advance from the tete-de-pon of the apprehensions for the security Occhio Bello, and make an attack of his states, excited by the negoupon the enemy. This was ef- ciations at Vienna, and in confected on the 12th by Mohr, sequence of theevents which seemwhilst Count Neipperg threatened ed likely to renew the coalition the flank of the Neapolitans; against France, had thought proand its success was such, that per to occupy the line which he they were driven from all their held during the last war, the reworks, and Ferrara was delivered. sult of which was, an attack by the. The retreating Neapolitans were Austrian troops; that he had evenpursued towards Bologna. Ge- tually found himself engaged in neral Bianchi had at this time a war with a great power without driven the invaders from Carpi, intending it; but that having now anál had recovered Modena; so learned by communications with
Lord Bentinck, that the hostilities end to the combat. The arrival commenced against him were not of Count Neipperg at Jesi, now the result of a settled plan ; and, obliged the Neapolitans to commoreover, that England was likely mence a precipitate retreat in the to take a purt in the war if it should direction of Fermo, in order to be continued, he had determined gain the road along the sea-coast upon a retrograde movement; that to Pescara. General Nugent, who he had made overtures to the Court had entered Rome, marched from of Vienna, from which he ex- that capital in the beginning of pected a happy issue, and therefore May towards the Neapolitan fronproposed an armistice to prevent tier on that side, the enemy reunnecessary bloodshed. The only tiring before him. They were at answer which this singular expla- length driven beyond the Garignation of his conduct received was, liano to San Germano, to which that positive orders had been given they were followed by the Ausfor continuing military operations trian advanced guard. On the with vigour. Indeed, it cannot 14th, Joachim arrived at San Gerbe doubted, that the Austrian mano, and his troops being conEmperor and his allies were well siderably reinforced, he drove pleased that they had so good a back the advanced guard, and afplea, for dethroning one, whose terwards attacked all the Austrian possession of a crown conquered out-posts. On the 15th he began from its bereditary owner, made a again to retire, and returning breach in their system of resto- with a small escort to San Gerration.
mano, he soon left that place. On the 27th, Joachim had Nugent resuming the offensive, fallen back as far as Pesaro. Ge- advanced against the enemy, who neral Bianchi was now marching were posted on the banks of the with celerity from Bologna through Mielfa, which they quitted on his Florence and Foligno, in order to approach. They afterwards left occupy the direct road from An- San Germano to their pursuers, cona to Naples, and thereby to and fell back to Mignano, where turn the positions of the Neapolitan they drew up in force. In that army. On May the 2d, he took a position they were attacked, and position in front of Tolentino, put to the rout; and thus the which rendered it necessary for Neapolitan army, named that of Joachim to venture a battle, for the Interior, was entirely broken the purpose of securing a retreat up. On the 18th, a junction was to the Neapolitan frontier. Ad- formed at the Austrian camp, ncar vancing from Macerata with a Calvi, of Bianchi's army with that much superior force, on the same of Nugent, who had now no opday he attacked the positions of ponents in the field, the wretched Bianchi, and the contest continued remains of the Neapolitan army till the approach of night. On being reduced, chiefly by deserthe following morning, the attacks tion, to a dispirited band of about were renewed with great vigour, sixteen thousand effective soldiers and were resisted with equal of all kinds. obstinacy, till night again put an Inconsequence of arrangements made between Lord Burghersh, son to treat with respect to him. the English minister at Florence, By the articles of the convention, and Captain Campbell of the Tre- an armistice was declared between mendous man of war, the latter, the allied and the Neapolitan in the beginning of May, sailed troops in all parts of the kingdom with his ship, accompanied by a of Naples. *All fortified places frigate and a sloop of war, to the were to be given up in their actual bay of Naples. On his arrival, state at specified periods, for the he declared to the Neapolitan Go- purpose of being made over to vernment, that unless the ships of Ferdinand IV; but Gaeta, Pes. war were surrendered to him, he cara, and Ancona, being under would bombard the town. Ma- blockade by the allies, and out of daine Murat having sent Prince the line of the operations of CaCariati to negociate for the sur- racosa's army, nothing was derender, the terms dictated by cided respecting them. Naples, Captain Campbell were, that the with its citadel and forts, was to ships of the line in the bay should be taken possession of by the allies be given up; that the arsenal of on the 231, and after its occupaNaples should be delivered over, tion, the whole territory of the and an inventory taken of its ac- kingdom was to be surrendered tual state, and that these captures to them. Prisoners of war to be should be at the joint disposal of given up on both sides; and perthe English government, and of mission granted to all persons, Ferdinand IV. of Naples. The natives or foreigners, to quit the ships were then taken possession kingdom during the space of a of, and were sent off to Sicily. month. The war was now near to a con- The disturbances which broke clusion. On the 18th, General out in Naples, caused the posBianchi received a message from session of it by the allies to be the Duke de Gallo, requesting an anticipated by one day. The pointerview for the purpose of coin- pular feeling was manifested in municating proposals from Jo- such a manner, that Murat left achim. The first meeting was the city for Ischia, and his wife merely preliminary ;. but on the took refuge on board an English 20th, a military convention was ship of war. General Bianchi's entered into by General Caracossa, cavalry occupied Naples on the commander in chief of the Nea- night of the 22d, at which time politan army; Gen. Niepperg on the city guard, assisted by a dethe part of Austria ; Gen. Coletta tachment of marines sent by Adon that of Naples; and Lord miral Lord Exmouth, who was Burghersh on that of Great Bri- arrived in the bay, awere defendtain. The abdication of Murating the royal palace from a furious was first insisted upon. Coletta mob; and upon that day Prince having wished to secure for him Leopold of Sicily entered at the a safe retreat tu France, and being head of the Austrian troops in the informed that such a condition Ist of general acclamations. was inadmissible, he declared that Ferdinand had previously issued a he had no authority from that per- proclamation, promising an uni
tersal amnesty; and all the autho- offered to him by the Emperor of rities of the kingdom, civil and Austria in his dominions, with military, were requested, for the honourable treatment, on the conpresent, to remain at their posts. dition that he should not quit his Madame Murat sailed in the Tre- place of residence without the mendous for Gaieta, to receive Emperor's consent; but the proher children, who had been sent jects he had formed, probably thither for safety, whence she was induced him to decline the proto be conveyed to Trieste. On posal. the 23d, the English and Sicilian Having purchased a boat at expedition, consisting of about Toulon, he embarked with two six thousand troops, under the naval officers, but had not procommand of General Macfarlane, ceeded far before he was overtaken appeared in the bay of Naples. by a violent storm, in which his The remains of Murat's army small vessel was reduced to imdissolved of itself, so that not a minent hazard of sinking. In single division was to be found this state he was taken up, with complete.
his companions, by a ship which On June the 17th, the King of landed them in Corsica. He then the Two Sicilies, after an absence repaired to the country-house of of nine years, made his entrance General Francescetti, who deinto Naples, and was greeted with clared to the authorities of Bastia, a popular enthusiasm, which ap- that Murat had a sure retreat parently was not the mere tem- among the mountaineers, in which porary homage paid to existing he would remain, till his negopower. His manners, however ciations with Austria should pervoid of dignity, had always ingra- mit him to rejoin his wife in that tiated himn with the Neapolitan country. Intelligence was people ; and the vices of the Go- ceived at Leghorn from Bastia, vernment were not attributed to dated September 18, that he was him, who, in fact, took little part at the head of about one hundred in it. What will be the future and fifty armed men in one of the character of that Government, most refractory districts in Cortime must discover ; but the Ne- sica. He fixed his head-quarters apolitans will scaroely be losers at Vescovato, where he was reby changing a soldier of fortune, sorted to by all the Corsicans who ambitious, without abilities, for had served under him at Naples; an hereditary Sovereign, under but in consequence of a proclawhom they will probably enjoy mation from the commander of quiet at bome and peace abroad. that military division, Verrier, de
Murat made his escape to Tou- claring his partisans rebels, he lon, where he remained, till find- took refuge at Ajaccio, where he ing his residence there becoming continued to hold six hundred daily more insecure, he deter- men in pay. He quitted that mined to try his fortune in Cor- place on the 28th, and adopted a sica, where there was still a strong design which appears to have been attachment to the cause of Buo- suggested by the success of that naparte. An asylumn lid been of Buonaparte, but which the dif