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spoke of the difficulties and ob establishing themselves on the stacles he had met with on his heights of Meudon, and in the vil. first re-appearance among them. lage of Issy, on July the 2d. My government (said he) was The French attacked them at Issy liable to commit errors : perhaps on the 3d, but were repulsed with it did commit them. He men- considerable loss. Paris being tioned, as a mere calumny, the now open on its vulnerable side, intention of restoring tithes and and a communication established feudal rights, and appealed to his between thetwoarmies by a bridge own proposal to the chambers for at Argenteuil, a request came the security of the sales of national from the city for a cessation of property. He concluded with the firing, for the purpose of nepromising pardon to all misled gociating a military convention, Frenchmen from the time of his under which the French army quitting Lisle to that of his return should evacuate the capital. This to Cambray; but reserved for was concluded on the 3d at St. the vengeance of the laws, the Cloud, between Prince Blucher instigators and authors of that and the Duke of Wellington on treason, which had summoned fo- one part, and the Prince of Eckreigners into the heart of France. muhl on the other, being con
The armies under Wellington sidered as merely referring to and Blucher were, in the mean military questions, and touching time, continuing their advance on none that were political. By its the capital, no regard having been conditions, the French army was paid to the proposal for a suspens on the following day to commence sion of hostilities. On the 29th, its march for the Loire, with all the Prussian advanced guard was its materiel, and completely to attacked at Villars Coterets, but evacuate Paris within three days; the main body coming up, the all the fortified posts round the assailants were repulsed with loss. city, and finally its barriers, were Quesnoy surrendered on the 29th to be given up; the duty of Paris to Prince Frederick of the Nether. was to be performed by the nalands. Wellington crossed the tional guard and the municipal Oise on the 29th and 30th ; and gendarmerie, and the actual auon the latter day Blucher passed thorities were to be respected by the Seine at St. Germain, the in- the allies ; public property, with tention being to invest Paris on the exception of what relates to two sides. The heights about the war, was to be respected, and the capital were strongly fortified; allied powers were not to interand the troops within it were es- fere with its management; pritimated at 40 or 50 000 of the vate persons and property to be line and guards, besides national respected, and all individuals conguards, a new levy of tiralleurs, tinuing in the capital to enjoy and the Parisian volunteers, called their rights and liberties, without Federés. Blucher was strongly being called to account, either for opposed in taking his position on the situations they may have held, the left of the Seine; but the or as to their conduct or political Prussians at length succeeded in opinions. This convention was
declared declared common to all the allied open its gates, and receive the armies, provided it were ratified law of the conqueror.” Such was by the powers on which those ar- the retribution doomed to expiate mies depend. “ Thus (says an the sufferings and disgraces ineloquent female writer) in the flicted upon Vienna, Berlin, Mashort space of fifteen months was drid, Lisbon, Amsterdam, Rome, the capital of France twice be- Naples, Venice, and Moscow ! sieged, and twice compelled to
Proceedings of Joachim Murat, King of Naples.-His peculiar Situation.'
-Suspicions against him.—He blockades Rome.- His complaints against France.-Conduct on the landing there of Buonaparte.- Arrives at Ancona, and attachs the Austrians at Cesena.-Proclaims the independence of Italy.-Adrances to the Panaro, and the Austrians retire to the Po.- Neupolitans enter Florence, and follow the Austrians to Pistoia.-Joachim reaches Ferrara, whence he is compelled to retreat. Neapolitans fall back on all sides.—Armistice refused— Action at Tolentino.- Battle of San Germano.-Flight of Neapolitans, and their army broken up.—English Squadron at Naples. - Convention. The City occupied by the Austrians.-The Kingdom submits to Ferdinand, who enters the capital.-- Murat's attempts in Corsica.-Lands in Calabria.- Erecuted by Martial Law.
DEFORE we bring to a close friendship and alliance with the
D the narrative of the extra- Austrian Emperor ; yet the terms ordinary events in France, and of on which he stood with the other the changes of fortune experi- powers were far from satisfactory, enced by the prime mover in these The Bourbon Sovereigns had a transactions, it will be proper to family interest to replace the interpose a few of the parallel crown of Naples on the head of proceedings, and the ultimate fate, the King of Sicily; and the court of that sovereign who owed to of Great Britain, in close alliance him his crown, and had never with the latter, had never recogceased to participate in his coun- nized the title of King Joachim, sels.
and had only agreed to a suspen It was observed in the history sion of hostilities against him, of the last year, that the King of when his co-operation was of adNaples, Joaehim Murat, appeared vantage to the common cause. to be placed ia a peculiarly critical The British cabinet did indeed situation. His retention of that consider that this was preliminary crown was obviously an anomaly to a treaty with him, but it was in the political system of restoring upon the condition that a comthe former state of things in Eu- pensation should elsewhere be rope ; and although the service he found for the King of Sicily. had rendered to Austria by a pow. Joachim was long in anxious exerful aid at the time it was en pectation of the signature of such gaged in a hard contest with the a treaty by the English minister ; French arms in the north of italy, and on December 29, 1814, his had been returned by a treaty of ministers at Vienna delivered to
Lord Lord Castlereagh a memorial, the cabinet, which disposition was requesting the speedy conclusion worked upon by two contending of a definitive treaty of peace parties in his court, the French, between the two crowns.
and the Neapolitans. His attachLong before this time, how- ment was manifestly to the former, ever, Murat had become an ob- and he was anxious to keep with ject of suspicion; and Lord Wil- him his French officers, who were liam Bentinck, who had closely continually magnifying the sucobserved him, gave, in a letter to cess of the French army, and enLord Castlereagh, dated January deavouring to fix him in alliance 7, 1815, the following, among, with their country. It further other remarks on the subject :- appears, that Lord W. Bentinck
“ There can be no doubt that all entertained strong suspicions of w the advantages contemplated in the good faith of Murat, even
the alliance with Murat, by Aus- whilst acting with the allies, and tria and the allies, would have that he had a serious difference been realized, if he had embarked with him on that account; and honestly and cordially in the cause; also that the Austrian General, but his policy was to save his Bellegarde, was fully of the same crown, and to do this, he must opinion. always be on the side of the con. In the latter part of the prequeror. His first agents were ceding year, Murat had put in sent to me after his return from, inotion a considerable body of Leipsic. He then thought Xa- troops, with the apparent intenpoleon's affairs desperate. His tion of occupying an additional language was plain and sincere. share of the territories of the He said, “ Give me an armistice, church ; and at the end of Janu. and I will march with the whole ary a Neapolitan army, said to of the army against the French. consist of 25,000 men, was posted Give me the friendship of Eng- near Rome, so as in a manner to land, and I care not for Austria, blockade it on the side of Naples. or the rest of the world.' Sub- The Pope, who had sent a memosequently, when Austria came to rial of his complaints to the Ausseek his alliance, he naturally dis- trian court, remained in the city covered both his own importance, with his cardinals, trusting to the and the uncertain issue of the sanctity of his character for his contest. He then began to en- sole defence. About this period, tertain views of aggrandizement; the Duke of Campochiaro, the and by possessing himself of the Neapolitan minister at the conwhole South of Italy, he seemed gress of Vienna, presented a note to think he could render himself to Prince Metternich, in which, independent, whatever might be after representing that his Sovethe event of the war." His Lord- reign considered himself as in-. ship proceeds to speak of the cluded in the peace of Paris, counsels by which Murat was among the allies of the coalesced governed. Ile describes him as powers, he complained of the deequally remarkable for his courage lay of his most Christian Majesty in the field, and his indecision in to recognize him, and urged the
Emperor of Austria to exert his quarters at Ancona. For some influence with the court of France, days he appeared to be in a state in order to procure him this justice. of great agitation. He held freThat the French cabinet had be- quentinterviews with some French fore this time formed the design officers at Naples, several of whom of obliging Murat to resign the he dispatched to France; but he crown of Naples to King Fer- delayed his own departure from dinand, was rendered apparent Naples, and the advance of his by a letter made public, from the troops, which was attributed to Prince of Benevento (Talleyrand), the news of the failure of Buoto Lord Castlereagh, proposing a naparte's attempt to gain posplan of attack upon him. The session of Antibes. In fact, he Duke of Campochiaro, when he seems to have been under the impresented his note, informed the pression of all that doubt and Austrian minister, that he was fluctuation which naturally atdirected to ask for a passage for tends a man acting a double part, 80,000 men into France through and irresolute which side to take. the Austrian dominions in Italy, When, however, the news arrived who should pay for all which they of Buonaparte's entrance into Lyconsumed; which request induced ons, he made known that he conthe Emperor's cabinet to take sidered the cause of Napoleon as measures for the security of Italy, his own, at the same time reand to reinforce their troops in quiring a passage through the that country.
Roman states for two of his divi. At this period, as already ob- sions. The Pope protested against served, an active correspondence this violation of his territory, and was carrying on between Naples withdrew to Florence. and the isle of Elba ; but it may On March 19, King Joachim be doubted whether Joachim was arrived at Ancona, and put himentrusted with Buonaparte's de- self at the head of his troops. sign of landing in France. As He entered the Pope's domisoon as the intelligence of this nions on the 22d, and, with event reached Naples, he called his main body, proceeded from together his council, and informed the Marches to the Legations, them of his determination to ad- where, on the 30th, he began liere to his alliance with the Em- hostilities, by attacking the Imperor of Austria, and to remain perialists posted at Cesena, who faithful to the system of the allied retired before him.
The consepowers. An assurance to this quence was, a declaration of war purpose was communicated to the against him by Austria. He isImperial Ambassador at his court, sued at Rimini, on the 31st, a and also to the Plenipotentiaries proclamation addressed to at the congress of Vienna. The Italians, calling upon them uniwhole of the Neapolitan army was versally to assert their indepennow in movement towards the dence, and liberate themselves frontier, and it was announced, from the dominion of foreigners; that Joachim was immediately to and asserting that eighty thousand follow, and establish his head- Neapolitans, under the command