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portance, may deserve recording, at first asked for a suspension of on account of the interest attach- arms in order to treat of a sured to that island when the resi- render; but this not being granted, dence of Buonaparte. A body of a convention was entered into, Tuscan troops landed upon it on in consequence of which the TusJuly 30th, and invested Porto cans took possession of all the Ferrajo, the commandant of which military posts of the island.
CHAPTER CHAPTER XIII.
America.- Remaining Incidents of the War with the United States.
Capture of the President Frigate. — Failure of the Attack on New Orleans.--Fort Mobille taken.— Treaty of Peace ratified, and President's Message.—Treaty with the Creeks.-Actions of the American Navy against the Barbary Powers.—Commercial Connection with Great Britain.-President's Message in December.-South America.--Arrival of the Spanish Expedition.- Potosi tuken by the Insurgents.—Operations in Venezuela.--Mexico.-Insurrection prevented in Martinique.-Guadaloupe declares for Buonaparte : its Reduction by the British.-Further Occurrences. — Transactions in the Assembly of Jamaica.
tween Great Britain and being cut from the yards, the the United States of America at American got a-head. At length, the end of the last year could not the Pomone coming up, and operate to put a period to hostili. firing a few shots, Commodore ties till it had been made known Decatur hailed to say he had surand ratified beyond the Atlantic; rendered. The loss was consiand several actions remain to be derable in both the ships, but related as the conclusion of a de
much the greatest on board the structive war, which wisdom and President. She was a frigate of temper might have entirely pre- the largest rate, and had on board vented.
about 490 persons. On January 15th a British A series of operations of the squadron, consisting of the Ma- British army in the neighbourjestic, Capt. Hayes, and three hood of New Orleans occupied frigates, being stationed off the the last week of December and a coast of New York, in order to part of January. An army had prevent the escape of the United been collected for an attack on State's ship President, Commo- that town under the command of dore Decatur, and other vessels, Major-Gen. Keane, which, with from Staten Island, descried the the assistance of Admiral Sir President attempting to get to
Alexander Cochrane, was disemsea, and commenced a general barked without resistance on the chase. After a run of many hours, 23d. During the following night the Endymion frigate got along the troops were assaulted with side the President, and a warm vigour by a considerable body or action ensued, which was main- Americans, who, after repeated tained with great gallantry on efforts, were repulsed with loss. both sides for two hours and a On the 25th Major-General Sir
Edward Pakenham arrived, and heartened that they began to wahook the command of the army. ver. Major-General Lambert then In the morning of the 27th the bringing up the reserve, met the troops moved forward in two co- whole falling back in the greatlumns, and drove in the enemy's est confusion; and though he picquets to a situation within six restored order so far as to mainmiles of the town, where their tain the ground he occupied, it main body was discovered strong- was not thought advisable to rely posted behind a canal, with a new the attempt. On learning breast-work in front, their right the success of Col. Thornton's resting on the Mississipi, in which · attack, General Lambert sent an an armed ship was moored, so as artillery officer over the river to to enfilade any advancing assail- examine whether the post was ants, and their left touching a tenable, and from his report be thick wood. From that time to was induced to order it to be rethe 8th of January the interval linquished. Such was the unforwas occupied in preparations of tunate termination of an enterboth sides for attack and defence. prise which appears to have been On the 8th the British army was undertaken with more courage formed for a general assault upon than judgment. The loss on this the enemy's line, to be preceded day was very serious, including by an attempt with a detached that of the General-in-chief killed, force under Col. Thornton to cross General Gibbs wounded so sethe river during the night, and verely as to die on the next day, proceeding along the right bank, General Keane wounded, 1 lieut.to carry the flanking battery of colonel killed, and 8 wounded, the Americans on that side. Va- and of the rest, officers and men, rious unforeseen difficulties re- about 2000 killed, wounded, and tarded the execution of this part prisoners. The final result was, of the plan till the co-operation that the whole army was relost its intended effect, though, embarked, leaving a few of the in the end, the battery was taken; most dangerously wounded, and and the main attack did not take carrying off its field artillery, place till there was light enough ammunition, and stores. for the enemy to descry the assail- The concluding operation of ants at more than 200 yards dis- the war was the capture of fort tance. A galling fire was imme- Mobille, planned by Admirał
diately opened from every part of Cochrane and General Lambert. · the American line, and in the The entrance into its bay being
midst of it, General Pakenham, so well guarded by a fort that it riding forwards to animate his was thought unsafe to attempt men, received two shots, one of forcing a passage by the smaller which was almost instantly fatal. ships of war ; a body of troops He fell into the arms of his aide- was landed on February 7th, de-camp, and, at the same time, about three miles from the fort, Generals Keane and Gibbs were which was immediately invested, carried off wounded in sight of and the treriches were pushed to the troops, who were so much dis- within pistol-shot of the works.
The defence being obviously hope- On Feb, 21st, the President less, the commander capitulated sent a message to both houses of on the 11th, surrendering his Congress, accompanying the trengarrison of 366 men prisoners of ty of peace. In this paper, after war.
some general observations on the The treaty of peace concluded policy of being at all times in a at Ghent was ratified by the pre- state of preparation against the sident and senate of the United possible necessity of again having States on February 17th. By its recourse to armis, the President articles each party bound itself to expressed his confidence that the restore all places and possessions wisdom of congress would procaptured by it, with an exception vide“ for the maintenance of an of the islands in Passamaquoddy adequate regular force; for the bay, which were to remain under gradual advance of the naval estatheir present occupation till the blishment; for improving all the right to them should be decided means of harbour-defence; for by two sworn commissioners, adding discipline to the bravery one of each nation. To a similar of the militia ; and for cultivatdecision were also referred some ing the art-military in its essenexisting doubts and disputes re- tial branches, under the liberal specting boundaries on the limits patronage of government.” We between Nova Scotia and the are not informed of the particuNew England States, and on the lars relative to the discussion of line through the Canadian lakes these topics; but it is said that the between the territories of the two peace establishment, after much powers. Prisoners of war were to debate between the two houses, be mutually restored after paying was fixed at 10,000 regulars; the debts they might have con- from which small number it may tracted. Each party engaged to be concluded, that a general averterminate all hostilities with the sion existed against any attempt Indians with whom they might to promote a spirit of conquest in be at war, provided the latter the military system of the United should desist from hostilities on States. their part. Both parties agreed A treaty between Major-Gen. to continue their efforts for the Jackson and the Creek Indians, final abolition of the slave trade. by which the war of the latter Not the least notice was taken of against the United States had any of the national points at is- been terminated in August 1814, sue on the commencement of the was ratified by the President and war, and which were the occasion Senate on February 16th. By the of it; so that the continuance of first of its artieles the Creeks cede peace must depend either upon to the United States all the land the absence of those circum- belonging to them within the stances which produced the dis- territories of the States lying putes, or upon a spirit of recipro- west, south, and south.easterly of cal moderation and conciliation, a certain line to be drawn by perthe desirable fruit of dear-bought sons appointed by the President, experience.
reserving, however, a certain por
tion of land as a settlement to venting any future depredations every warrior of the Creeks who on the commerce of the United took an active part in favour of States by the Barbary corsairs. the United States in the late war. The war with Great Britain The Creeks are also required to having left the American wareabstain from all intercourse with houses exhausted of their store of any British or Spanish post or many necessary articles, as soon as town; and other articles are add- peace was restored, their ships ed, denoting the separate condi- came in numbers to the British tion to which they were reduced ports and renewed their usual by the hostilities exercised against commercial transactions, to the them.
benefit of both countries. The The naval force of the United sense each entertained of the muStates which had been set free by tual advantages to be derived the peace with Great Britain, was from an intimate correspondence, usefully and honourably employed and their disposition to forget in avenging the piracies of the past animosities, were agreeably Barbary States upon the com- displayed by a “ convention to merce of the Americans, and com- regulate the commerce between pelling them to a future pacific the territories of the United States conduct. A squadron command- of America and those of his Bri. ed by Commodore Decatur sailed tannic Majesty,” agreed upon by to the Mediterranean, and on the negociators on each part in June 20th engaged an Algerine London on July 3d, and ratified fleet, two ships of which were by the American president in De. taken, one being that of the ad- cember. Of its articles, the first miral. After this victory he pro- stipulates generally a reciprocal ceeded to Algiers, the Dey of liberty of commerce between the which speedily entered into a trea- countries : 2. That no other duty, by which the tribute demanded ties on export or import on either from the Americans was for ever side shall be imposed on the prorelinquished. Decatur then, an- duce or manufactures of each choring in the bay of Tunis, de- country, than on the like goods to manded satisfaction of the go- or from any other country; and vornment for having suffered two that the duties on shipping and prizes made by the Americans, goods imported shall be the same, and carried into that port, to be whether the vessels be British or taken out by a British ship of American; the same principle war, and he obliged the bey to also to apply to drawbacks and pay the damage into the hands of bounties : 3. American vessels the American consul. Sailing are to be admitted to trade with thence to Tripoly he compelled the four principal British settleby menaces the pashaw of that ments in the East Indies, paying place to pay 25,000 dollars by no higher duties than the most way of indemnity. Commodore favoured nations; but they are
Bambridge, the American com- not to carry their cargoes direct f mander-in-chief, afterwards took to any other port than in the precautionary measures for pre- United States, there to be un,