Phonology and Language Use

Portada
Cambridge University Press, 27 feb. 2003 - 238 páginas
A research perspective that takes language use into account opens up new views of old issues and provides an understanding of issues that linguists have rarely addressed. Referencing new developments in cognitive and functional linguistics, phonetics, and connectionist modeling, this book investigates various ways in which a speaker/hearer's experience with language affects the representation of phonology. Rather than assuming phonological representations in terms of phonemes, Joan Bybee adopts an exemplar model, in which specific tokens of use are stored and categorized phonetically with reference to variables in the context. This model allows an account of phonetically gradual sound change which produces lexical variation, and provides an explanatory account of the fact that many reductive sound changes affect high frequency items first. The well-known effects of type and token frequency on morphologically-conditioned phonological alterations are shown also to apply to larger sequences, such as fixed phrases and constructions, solving some of the problems formulated previously as dealing with the phonology-syntax interface.
 

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Índice

Language Use as Part of Linguistic Theory
1
12 Some Basic Principles of a UsageBased Model
6
13 The Creative Role of Repetition
8
14 Frequency Effects
10
15 Phonology as Procedure Structure as Emergent
14
16 Organization of the Book
16
17 Language as a Part of Human Behavior
17
A UsageBased Model for Phonology and Morphology
19
52 Morphological versus Phonological Conditioning
97
53 Lexical Storage of Complex Forms Both Regular and Irregular
109
54 Lexical Strength
113
55 Paradigmatic Relations Expressed as Lexical Connections
117
Productivity Due to Type Frequency
118
57 The Interaction of Lexical Strength and Lexical Connection
124
58 ProductOriented Schemas
126
59 Phonological Similarity in Gangs
130

22 The RuleList Fallacy
20
23 Organized Storage
21
24 Morphological Structure Is Emergent
23
25 Rules and Schemas Compared
26
26 Frequency Effects
28
27 Units of Storage
29
28 Phonological Units
31
210 Conclusion
33
The Nature of Lexical Representation
35
33 A Cognitively Realistic Model of Phonological Representation
37
34 Linguistic Evidence for Detailed and Redundant Storage
40
35 UsageBased Categorization versus Phonemic Representation
49
36 Phonetic Detail in the Lexicon Variation and the Early Involvement of the Lexicon and Morphology in Change
54
37 A Model for Sound Change
57
38 Special Reduction of HighFrequency Words and Phrases
60
39 Conclusion
62
Phonological Processes Phonological Patterns
63
42 Phonetic Etiology and Its Limits
65
43 Articulatory Gestures
69
44 Patterns of Change and Constraints on Processes
77
45 Segments as Emergent Units
85
46 Generalization over SyllableInitial and SyllableFinal Position
86
47 Phonotactics
88
48 Conclusion
95
The Interaction of Phonology with Morphology
96
510 Conclusion
135
The Units of Storage and Access Morphemes Words and Phrases
137
62 Phonological Representations of Words
138
63 Morphemes within Words
144
64 Phrases and Constructions with Alternations
157
65 Conclusion
166
Constructions as Processing Units The Rise and Fall of French Liaison
167
72 Final Consonant Deletion in French
168
73 Grammatical Constructions and Liaison
171
74 Loss of Liaison as Regularization
177
75 Syntactic Cohesion as Frequency of Cooccurrence
185
77 Conclusion
187
Universal Synchrony and Diachrony
189
82 Searching for Universals
191
83 Phoneme Inventories
197
84 Two Main Mechanisms for Phonological Change
199
85 Syllable Structure
204
86 More Evidence against Universals as Purely Synchronic
211
The Phonemic Principle and Structure Preservation
212
References
217
Author Index
231
Subject Index
235
Languages Index
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Página 218 - Luigi. 1996. Surface constraints versus underlying representation. Current trends in phonology: models and methods, ed. by Jacques Durand and Bernard Laks.
Página 218 - The phonology of the lexicon: evidence from lexical diffusion. Usage-based models of language, ed. by M. Barlow and S. Kemmer, Stanford: CSLI.
Página 218 - Lexicalization of sound change and alternating environments. Papers in Laboratory Phonology V: acquisition and the lexicon, ed. by Michael Broe and Janet Pierrehumbert, 250-68.
Página 220 - Child Language and Language Change: A Conjecture and Some Refutations. Recent Developments in Historical Phonology ed. by J.

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