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Trophimus. I know many such who have the most profound reverence for the authority of the word of God.'

Erastus. • Far be it from me to impute to them a deficiency of respect to the sacred oracles. But I suppose I may take it for granted, that no truly good man, even though he believe the doctrine, will reason after the manner you have quoted.' Trophimus.

• Surely.' Erastus. • The charge then amounts to this : ground for such reasoning is afforded to ungodly men.'

Trophimus. Exactly .'

Erastus. • You do not regard such persons, as most likely to draw legitimate conclusions from any doctrine of scripture? You would not be satisfied with their testimony in favour of their own conduct?'

Trophimus. • Assuredly not: I would examine for myself.'

Erastus. • You would expect, that such persons in order to obtain a cloke for their sin,' would gladly adduce something from the scriptures ; and that they would not be very scrupulous, in compar, ing the doctrine, with the consequences they assume? You would not be surprised if they were not very careful to include the whole ; but if any one part of a doctrine abstracted from the rest, could by any possible contortion be brought to give even the semblance of authority for their assertions; they were greedily to seize it, even though this very part of a doctrine, in connexion with the remainder, would destroy their inference ?'

Trophimus. "This is naturally to be expected.'

Erastus. • As you admit the bias of these persons to misrepresent the doctrines of the gospel; you must also admit that their evidence is of no worth. I am much of opinion that those pious people, · who utter such mournful auguries of the evil consequences attending a belief of the doctrines of distinguishing grace ; do, by the clamour which they create, actually instruct wicked men to pervert that doctrine, in order to sanction their licentiousness. To me it appears highly probable, that but for those instructions, the abuse would not have taken place. When the doctrine is so perverted, it is evidently owing to a love of sin connected with a desire to gratify it without forfeiting all claim to religious profession. It is very natural that a man so moved should with eagerness embrace any sentiment which grave and religious people have declared suitable to his purpose He would with equal readiness embrace any other sentiment, provided he were told that it would give countenance to his profligate life.'

Trophimus. • Well, Sir, leaving these wicked men to their fate ; you will remember that many good men reject this doctrine on the score of its licentiousness.'

Erastus, "I know it: yet I believe that the charge so often urged, amounts merely to this: it is a doctrine which wicked men may abuse and pervert to their own destruction. To this it may be answered; there is no doctrine, however holy, which is not liable to buch abuse: and the perversion of a doctrine can be no valid argu. ment against its truth. With regard to this doctrine, however, it will not be difficult to disprove the charge. The persons whom God has chosen, before conversion, are known only to himself; therefore, no unconverted man is authorised to presume on his election : he may presuine, it is true ; but he has no warrant for his presumption. Again ; predestination regards the holiness as well as the salvation of its subjects: no man therefore, except as he is holy, has any just reason to conclude that he is of the number. It is of no avail against this, to 'say that we have known wicked men still claiming to be of the elect; by the doctrine itself, this is totally forbidden. Allow me just to propose one question-among the ungodly men, with whom

you have been under the necessity occasionally to associate, have the to greater part been professed believers in the doctrine of distinguishing


Trophimus. • By no means: I believe that, for the most part, they are regardless of all doctrine.'

Erastus. You will perhaps acknowledge, that the greater number of the believers in this doctrine, whom you have known, were men of holy lives ?'

Trophimus. That I shall testify most fully and willingly.'

Erastus. · Then in point of fact it appears, that this doctrine has not effected the mischief imputed to it; and the apprehensions of its opponents must be excited, rather by what is supposed possible, than by any thing which has actually been produced. Were we to reject every doctrine that has been evil spoken of, we should very much curtail our creed; which indeed would be no evil, were it not that we should in the same proportion, diminish the word of God. As the subject of reproach and calumny, this unpopular doctrine appears, in circumstances the same with those of the depravity of human nature, the atonement, justification by faith, divine influences, and others which you and


friends have no desire to reject.' pp. 126-130-132-135.

To wbichever side persons adhere in the profound and intricate question of distinguishing grace, it would tend very much to allay heats and animosities, to promote moderation and mutual affection, if it was considered how the doctrine in controversy is held by its abettors, and what consequences they deduce from them. It will be found, that many religious opinions are rejected solely because of the consequences with which it is presumed they are chargeable. This may be a sufficient reason, to those who do not perceive how it is possible to hold the opinions and avoid the consequences.

But in the view of those on the opposite side, the opinions do not by any means appear to involve the consequences on account of which they are rejected ; and instead of being injurious, they are the instruments of humility, gratitude, resignation, and diligence. If good men who differ from each other on the long agitated questions of free will, grace, and election, did but consider in what manner they entertain their respective doctrines, and in what manner such doctrines operate upon their minds, how high would they quickly stand in each other's esteem, and how soon would the coldness and distrust with which they now look upon each other, yield to mutual confidence and affection!

Art. XI. An Oration delivered before, and published at the request

of the President, Council, and Fellows of the Medical Society of London. By Richard Saumarez. 8vo. pp. 100. Underwood. '1813.

WE have, on a former occasion, presented our readers with

so ample an exposition of Mr. Saumarez's philosophical tenets, that we believe they will readily excuse us, if we decline, at present, involving them again in the same labyrinth. It may be sufficient to say, that Mr. S. re-asserts all his former peculiarities with increased earnestness. Further examination has only served to convince him more strongly of their truth, and has furnished him with fresh reasons for denouncing the fallacies of the Newtonian school—that system of physical error with its artificial rules, arbitrary definitions, gratuitous assertions, and unreasonable postulates,' which has so long the place of sound reason and self-evident truth.'

While, however, we must beg leave to abstain from entering thie lists of controversy, we cannot withhold the praise due to our author for the good service he has done, in reprehending the superfluous cruelties perpetrated on things possessing life and feeling, under the pretext of furthering the interests of science; as well as for his animated protest against the vile and pernicious dogmas of some modern physiologists. Nothing can be more worthy of the indignant reprehension of a virtuous mind, than the false and degrading tenets of these pseudo-philosophers. The book which principally falls under his censure,

is Richerand's Elements of Physiology, a book says Mr. S.' which has already gone through five editions,--the merits of which have been proclaimed in our reviews,--which I understand, is strongly recommended by some of those, who may be considered the highest authorities in their profession, and is in general circulation amongst students. In this performance, its author unblushingly maintains that our physical (bodily), holds our

moral nature, under a strict and necessary dependence, (sub

ordination) that our vices and our virtues, sometimes pro• duced, and often modified by social education, are frequently ' too, the result of organization: that so absolutely is sensation

the source of all our knowledge, that even the measure of ' the understanding is according to the number and perfection ' of the organs of sense, and that, by successively depriving • them of the intelligent being, we should lower at each step

his intellectual nature, whilst the addition of a new sense to

those we now possess, might lead us to a multitude of un• known sensations and ideas, and would disclose to us in the

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? beings we are concerned with, a vast variety of new relations,

and would greatly enlarge the sphere of our intelligence.' On these pestilent notions, we subjoin the remarks of Mr. Saumarez as doing equal credit to his, understanding and his heart.

So far from the measure of the understanding being, as he states it to be, in proportion to the number and perfection of the organs of sense, I will, on the contrary, maintain, that the organs of sense are far more perfect in those animals that have the least understanding, than they are in those which are blessed with the greatest portion. The organs of sense are far more perfect in brutes than they are in man;

than in intellectual life; in youth, than in old age. · It is but justice to Richerand to say, that he is not the inventor, he is the mere propagator of this error. It emanates from that brutal system of philosophy, whose incessant object is, to elevate and to humanize the brute, whilst it degrades and brutalizes the man; or, in other words, which brutalizes man without humanizing the brute ; which makes external sensation to be every thing, and internal consciousness to be nothing : whilst it encourages the improvement and the gratification of the senses, it neglects the cultivation of those more pure and noble pursuits which result from the energy of the soul. Whilst this system of false philosophy makes man a sensual, it prevents him from becoming an intellectual being. Instead of directing the mind to internal consciousness and meditation, it leads his thoughts out of himself and directs his pursuits to the external world, of which he supposes himself the chief supreme. Instead of worshipping with humility, as a being dependent and accountable, the God of Nature, he contents himself with proudly and ignorantly exploring the external works of nature.

.lt were devoutly to be wished that these important truths could be the means of inducing some of the teachers in our philosophical schools to alter their present plan. Instead of the multitude of zealous and intelligent youths, being taught the principles of materialism, which unfortunately too often grow with their growth, and strengthen with their strength; we might cherish the hope of seeing them learn and understand, at a period of their lives when precepts have their greatest influence, the nature and end of their existence, the moral duties which they are to perform, the adoration which the creature owes to his Creator. If these precepts, which naturally flow from true principles, were duly impressed on the minds of pupils, every lecture of anatomy and of physiology, in the words of Galen, would prove a hymn of thanksgiving to the Almighty.' pp. 42-44.

We add one more passage in which our author drives Richerand from another of his positions.

• In strict conformity with these odious principles, of making the measure of the understanding to depend on the number and perfection of the organs of sense, Richerand is led expressly to affirm, that Courage arises out of a consciousness of strength,” thereby con

founding the bravo with the brave—the poltroon with the hero; the rational motives of a conscious being, with the instinctive ferocity of the brute. How differently was this noble attribute considered by an amiable author,* “ Courage," he observes, “that grows from con. stitution, very often forsakes a man when he has occasion for it, and when it is only a kind of instinct in the soul, it breaks out on all occasions without judgement or discretion. That courage, which arises from a sense of our duty, and from a fear of offending Him that made us, acts always in a uniform manner, and according to the dictates of right reason.” Was it, I would ask, a consciousness of physical or bodily strength, which impelled the multitude of heroes of which our proud country has to boast, to perform deeds of bravery and of glory!--that impelled the veteran Hawke, to be always searching for the enemy, always asking where are they? never how many are they? Was it the feeble, the emaciated, the mutilated body of Nelson, that led his intrepid soul to court all dangers in that glorious career of honour and of fame, in which he so often bled, and at length nobly died? Shall I speak of that old octogenarian, the venerable Kutusow,t who is pressed down with bodily infirmity and weakness, not more the result of original imperfection in his physical constitution, than from various lacerations which he has sustained in fighting the enemies of his country. A hero of the first order, by whose valour and skill, such deadly blows have been inflicted on the grand army of one of the greatest tyrants that ever desolated the world; the natural' growth of a state of manners and of principles, such as those I have been exposing.

In tracing the existence of true courage, the result of the highest energies of our moral consciousness, I would more especially appeal to the lives and to the deaths of those holy men—those pious and venerable martyrs, who had the courage to oppose the des potism of Popery, and to expose its wicked influence: to begin the Reformation, and to die in its defence, Was it a consciousness of strength that gave courage to Cranmer, when surrounded by Papists and Jesuits, to thrust, with feelings of remorse, his feeble hand-his “ unworthy hand” as he called it, into the devouring flame, in order that it might first expiate the crime he was conscious it had committed in signing his recantation? It was not a consciousness of physical strength, which gave courage to those heroic martyrs, but that sublime and heavenly impulse, which enabled them to

“ Chase each meaner purpose from the breast,
And through the mists of passion, and of sense;
And through the pelting storms of chance and pain,
To hold straight on, with constant heart and eye,
Still fixed upon their everlasting palm,
The approving smile of heaven."


47-50. ** Addison. Vide The Guardian.

t'I understand this extraordinary man has lost an eye, has had a bullet pass through both his cheeks, has an irreducible hernia, and is pearly 80 years of age. Since this was written our admiration of his bravery is blended with sorrow for his fall.' VOL. X.

2 H

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