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five, which is now charged upon the article, would have a tendency to aid the business internally.

It occurs, as an objection to this, that it may have an unfavourable aspect towards literature, by raising the prices of books in universal use, in private families, schools, and other seminaries of leatning; but the difference, it is conceived, would be without effect.

As to books which usually fill the libraries of the wealthier classes, and of professional men, such an augmentation of prices as might be occafioned by an additional duty of five per cent. would be two little felt to be an impediment to the acquisition.

And with regard to books which may be specially imported for the use of particular seminaries of learning, and of public libraries, a total exemption froin all duty would be adviseable, which would go far towards obviating the objection just mentioned; they are now subject to a duty of five per cent.

As to the books in most general family use, the conftancy and universality of the demand would ensure exertions to furnish them in the different states, and the means are completely adequate. It may also be expected ultimately, in this and in other cases, that the extenfion of the domestic manufacture would conduce to the cheapness of the article.

It ought not to pass unremarked, that to encourage the printing of books is to encourage the manufacture of paper.

REFINED SUGARS AND CHOCOLATE

Are among the number of extenfive and prosperous domestic manufactures, in the United States.

Drawbacks of the duties upon the materials of which they are refpectively made, in cases of exportation, would have a beneficial influence upon the manufacture, and would conform to a precedent which has been already furnished in the instance of molasses, on the exportation of distilled spirits.

Cocoa, the raw material, now pays a duty of one cent per 1b. while chocolate, which is a prevailing and very simple manufacture, is comprised in the mass of articles, rated at no more than five per

cent.

There would appear to be a propriety in encouraging the manufacture by a somewhat higher duty on its foreign rival, than is paid on the raw material. Two cents per lb. on imported chocolate would, it is presumed, be without inconvenience,

WINES.

The manufacture of wines, is an object worthy of legislative attengion and encouragement in the United States. Successful experiments have already been made, by some new settlers of French people, on the river Ohio, which evince the practibility of the manufacture of wines of excellent quality; and as grapes are the spontaneous production of all the United States, and, by culture, might be raised in any desirable quantity, and in great perfeétion, this manufacture, with proper legislac tive encouragement, might be carried on to such an extent, as greatly to diminish, and in time, perhaps, wholly to preclude foreign importations,

MAPLE SUGAR.

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The manufacture of maple sugar, though it has for many years been carried on, in the small way, in the eastern States, has but very lately become an object of public attention,—The eastern and middle States furnish a sufficient number of maple trees to supply the United States with the article of sugar; and, it is afferted, of a quality “equal, in the opinion of competent judges, to the best fugars imported from the West India Inands," A person, whofe judgement on this fubject is much to be relied on, as well from his experience in the businefs, as his established character for candor and integrity, has given it as his opinion, “ That four active and industrious men, well provided with materials and conveniences proper for carrying on the business, may make, in a common season, which lasts from four to fix weeks, 4000lbs. of sugar, that is 1000lbs. to each man,' If such be the amazing product of six weeks labour of an individual, what may be expected from the labours of the many thousands of people who now inhabit, and may

hereafter inhabit, the extensive tracts of country which abound with the sugar maple tree? This manufacture is so important and interesting, that it respects the wealth and prosperity of their country, and the cause of humanity, that it deserves the countenance of every good citizen, and even national encouragement. No less than eighteen millions of pounds of West India sugars, manufactured by the hands of Naves, is annually im. ported into and consumed in the United States. In proportion as this quantity can be lessened by their own manufacturers, by the hands of freemen, the wealth of the United States will be increased, and the cause of humanity promoted.

The foregoing heads comprise the most important of the feveral kinds of manufactures which have occurred as requiring, and, at the same time, as most proper for public encouragement in the United States ;

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Vol. I,

and offer fuch measures for affording it, as have appeared belt calculated to answer the end proposed.

The measures, which have been submitted, though some of them may haye a tendency to insure the revenue, yet when taken aggregately, they will, for a long time to come, rather augment than decrease it.

There is little room to expect that the progress of manufactures will fo equally keep pace with the progress of population as to prevent even a gradual augmentation of the product of the duties on imported articles.

As, nevertheless, an abolition in some instances, and a reduction in others of duties which have been pledged for the public debt is proposed, it is essential that it should be accompanied with a competent substitute. In order to this, it is requisite that all the additional duties which shall be laid be appropriated, in the first instance, to replace all defalcations which may proceed from any such abolition or diminution. It is evi, dent at first glance, that they will not only be adequate to this, but will yield a considerable surplus,

There is reason to believe that the progress of particular manufactures in the United States has been much retarded by the want of skilfol workmen: and it often happens that the capitals employed are not equal to the purposes of engaging workmen of a superior kind from Europe. Here, in cases worthy of it, the auxiliary agency of government would in all probability be useful. There are also valuable workmen in every branch who are prevented from emigrating solely by the want of means. Occasional aids to such persons, properly administered, might be a source of valuable acquisition to the States,

The propriety of stimulating by rewards the invention and introduce tion of useful improvements is admitted without difficulty. But the success of attempts in this way must evidently depend much on the manner of conducting them. It is probable that the placing of the dispensas tion of those rewards under some proper discretionary direction, where they may be accompanied by collateral expedients, will serve to give them the fureft efficacy. It seems impracticable to apportion by general rules specific compensations for discoveries of unknown and dispropore tionate utility. The great

use which any country may make of a fund of this nature to procure and import foreign improvements, is particularly obvious, Among these, the article of machines form a most important item.

The operation and utility of premiums have been adverted to, together with the advantages which have resulted from their difpenfation under the direction of certain public and private societies. Of this, fome ex. perience has been had in the instance of the Pennsylvania society for the

promotion

i promotion of manufactures and useful arts; but the funds of that affocia.

tion have been too contracted to produce more than a very small portion of the good to which the principles of it would have led. It may confidently be affirmed, that there is scarcely any thing which has been devised better calculated to excite a general spirit of improvement than the institutions of this nature. They are truly invaluable.

In countries where there is great private wealth much may be effected by the voluntary contributions of patriotic individuals; but in a community situated like that of the United States, the public purse muft fupply the deficiency of private resource. In what can it be so useful as in promoting and improving the efforts of industry?

BANK.

num.

Connected with the agriculture, commerce, and manufactures, is the bank of the United States, the happy effects, and benefits of which, have been experienced to a very confiderable degree. This bank was incorporated by act of congress, February 25th, 1791, by the name and file of The President, Directors, and Company of the Bank of the United States. The amount of the capital stock is ten million dollars, one fourth of which is in gold and silver ; the other three fourths in that part of the public debt of the United States, which, at the time of payment, bears an accruing interest of fix per cent. per an

Two millions of this capital itock of ten millions, is subscribed by the president, in behalf of the United States. The stockholders are to continue a corporate body by the act, until the 4th day of March 1811; and are capable, in law, of holding property to an amount not exceeding, in the whole, fifteen million dollars, including the aforesaid ten million dollars, capital stock. The corporation may not at any time owe, whether by bond, bill or note, or other contract, more than ten million dollars, over and above the monies then actually depofited in the bank for safe keeping, unless the contracting of any greater debt shall have been previously authorised by a law of the United States. The corporation is not at liberty to receive more than fix per cent. per annum for or upon its loans or discounts, nor to purchảe any public debt whatever, or to deal or trade, directly or indirectly, in in any thing except bills of exchange, gold or filver bullion, or in the sale of goods really and truly pledged for money lent, and not redeemed in due time, or of goods which shall be the produce of its bonds; they may fell any part of the public debt of which its stock shall be composed. Loans, not exceeding 100,000 dollars, may be made to the 3 A.,

United

United States, and to particular states, of a sum not exceeding 50,00% dollars.

Offices for the purposes of discount and deposit only, may be established within the United States, upon the same terms, and in the same manner, as ihall be practised at the bank. Four of these offices, called BRANCH Banks, have been already established, viz. at Boston, New York, BALTIMORE, and CHARLESTON. The faith of the United States, is pledged, that no other bank shall be established by any future law of the United States, during the continuance of the abore corporation.

MILITARY STRENGTH. The governments of Europe, for the most part, though they in many things differ materially from each other, agree in keeping up a large military force, the excuses for which, are the jealousies they entertain of each other, and the necesity of preserving a ballance of power. To render these excuses plausible, national prejudices and animosities have been artfully encouraged, and the people, blinded by these, have been brought to acquiesce in the schemes of their governors, in creating a power which being entirely at the disposal of the latter, has often been used against the just rights of those whose property is exhausted for its support. But if the policy of keeping standing armies was fully investigated, it would be found to have its origin, not in the jealousies of one nation with respect to another, but in the tyrannic principles and fears of different governments, with respect to their subjects at home. The fact is notorious, that the origin of most of the old governments, has been in conquest and usurpation. Few of them which sublift in Europe, have originated where they ought, (from the people) the consequence of which has been, that princes, anxiously concerned for the preservation of their own power, and dreading that their subjects fhould recover their just rights, have found it necessary to detach a large part of them from the general mass, and by military habits and rewards, to blind them to their own interests, and to unite them more intimately to themfelves. Standing armies are therefore unnecessary, and inconfiftent in a republican goverment; America of course has none. Their military ftrength lies in a well-disciplined militia. According to the late cenfus, there were in the United States, eight hundred and fourteen thousand men of fixteen years old and upwards, whites, and these have fince rapidly increased. Suppose that the superannuated, the officers of government, and the other classes of people who are excused from milltary duty, amount to one hundred and fourteen thousand, there will

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