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How much has been already done has been ftated in a preceding part of these remarks.
In addition it may be announced, that a society is formed with a capital, which is expected to be extended to at least half a million of e dollars ; on behalf of which measures are already in train for prosecuting on a large scale the making and printing of cotton goods.
These circumftances conspire to indicate the expediency of the government removing any obstructions which may happen to exist to the advantageous prosecution of the manufactories in question, and of adding such encouragements as may appear neceffary and proper.
Cotton not being, like hemp, an universal production of the country, it affords less assurance of an adequate internal supply; but the chief objection arises from the doubts which are entertained concerning the quality of the national cotton. It is alledged, that the fibre of it is confiderably shorter and weaker than that of some other places; and it has been observed as a general rule, that the nearer the place of growth to the equator, the better the quality of the cotton; that which comes from Cayenne, Surinam, and Demarara, is said to be preferable, even at material difference of price, to the cotton of the islands.
While an expectation may reasonably be indulged, that with due care and attention the cotton in the United States may be made to approach nearer than it now does to that of regions somewhat more favoured by climate ; and while facts authorise an opinion, that very great use may be made of it, and that it is a resource which gives greater security to the cotton fabrics of America than can be enjoyed by any which depends wholly on external supply, it will certainly be wise, in every view, to let their infant manufactures have the full benefit of the best inaterials on the cheapeft terms. It is obvious, that the neceffity of having such materials is proportioned to the unskilfulness and inexperience of the workmen employed, who, if inexpert, will not fail to commit great waste, where the materials they are to work with are of an indifferent kind.
To secure to the national manufacturers so essential an advantage, a repeal of the present duty on imported cotton is indispensable.
A substitute for this, far more encouraging to donietic production, will be to grant a bounty on the cotton grown in the United States, when wrought at a home manufactory, to which a bounty on the exportation of it may be added. Either, or both, would do much inore towards promoting the growth of the article than the merely .unina! encouragement which it is proposed to abolish. The first would also have a direct influence in encouraging the manufacture, Z z 2
The bounty, which has been mentioned as existing in Great Britain, upon the exportation of coarse linens not exceeding a certain value, applies also to certain descriptions of cotton goods of similar value.
This furnishes an additional argument for allowing to the manufacturers the species of encouragement juft suggested, and indeed for adding some other aid.
One cent per yard, not less than of a given width, on all goods of cotton, or of cotton and linen mixed, which are manufactured in the United States, with the addition of one cent per lb. weight of the material, if made of national cotton, would amount to an aid of considerable importance, both to the production and to the manufacture of that valuable article. And the expence would be well justified by the magnitude of the object.
The printing and ftaining of cotton goods is known to be a diftinct bufinefs from the fabrication of them. It is one easily accomplished, and which, as it adds materially to the value of the article in its white ftate, and prepares it for a variety of new uses, is of importance to be promoted,
As imported cottons, equally with those which are made at home, may be the objects of this manufacture, it is worthy of consideration, whether it would not be for the advantage of the States that the whole, or part of the duty, on the white goods, ought not to be allowed to be drawn back in favour of those who print or stain them. This measure would certainly operate as a powerful encouragement to the business, and though it may in a degree counteract the original fafabrication of the articles, it would probably more than compensate for this disadvantage in the rapid growth of a collateral branch, which is of a nature sooner to attain to maturity, When a sufficient progress shall have been made the drawback may be abrogated, and by that time the domestic supply of the articles to be printed or stained will have been extended.
If the duty of 75 per cent, on certain kinds of cotton goods were ex. tended to all goods of cotton, or of which it is the principal material, it would probably more than counterbalance the effect of the drawback
proposed, in relation to the fabrication of the article; and no material pijection occurs to such an extension. The duty then, considering all the circumstances which attend goods of this description, could not be deemed inconveniently high; and it may be inferred, from various canses, that the prices of them would fill continue moderate.
Manufactories of cotton goods, not long since established at Beverler, in Massachusett's, and at Providence, in the state of Rhode Isand, and
at New York, and conducted with a perseverance corresponding with the patriotic motives which began them, seem to have overcome the first obstacles to success, producing corduroys, velverets, fustians, jeans, and other fimilar articles, of a quality which will bear a comparison with the like articles from Manchester. The one at Providence has the merit of being the first in introducing into the United States the celebrated cotton mill, which not only furnishes the materials for that manufactory itself, but for the supply of private families for household manufacture.
Other manufactories of the same material, as regular businesses, have also been begun at different places in the state of Connecticut, but all upon a smaller scale than those above mentioned. Some essays are also making in the printing and Ataining of cotton goods. There are several small establishments of this kind already on foot.
In a country, the climate of which partakes of so considerable a proportion of winter, as that of a great part of the United States, the wool. len branch cannot be regarded as inferior to any which relates to the cloathing of the inhabitants.
Household manufactures of this material are carried on, in different parts of the United States, to a very interesting extent; but there is only one branch, which as a regular business, can be said to have acquired maturity; this is the making of hats.
Hats of wool, and of wool mixed with fur, are made in large quantities in different states, and nothing seems wanting, but an adequąte supply of materials to render the manufacture commensurate with the demand.
A promising essay towards the fabrication of cloths, casfimeres, and other woollen goods, is likewise going on at Hartford, in Connecticut, Specimens of the different kinds which are made, evince, that these fa. brics have attained a very considerable degree of perfection. Their quality certainly surpasses any thing that could have been looked for, in so short a time, and under so great disadvantages, and conspires with the scantiness of the means, which have been at the command of the directors, to form the eulogium of that public spirit, perseverance and judgment, which have been able to accomplish so much.
Measures, which tend to promote an abundant supply of wool of good quality, would probably afford the most efficacious aid that preSent circumstances permit to this and similar manufactures.
To encourage the raising and improving the breed of sheep in the United States would certainly be the most desirable expedient for that
purpose; but it may not be alone fufficient, especially as it is yet a problem, whether their wool is capable of such a degree of improvement as to render it fit for the finer fabrics.
Premiums would probably be found the best means of promoting the domestic, and bounties the foreign supply; and they ought of course to be adjusted with an eye to quality as well as quantity.
A fund for this purpose may be derived from the addition of 25 per cent, to the present rate of duty on carpets and carpeting imported into the states; an increase to which the nature of the articles suggests no objection, and which may at the same time furnish a motive the more to the fabrication of them at home, towards which some beginnings have been made,
The production of this article is attended with great facility in moft parts of the United States. Some pleasing efsays are making in Connecticut, as well towards that as towards the manufacture of what is produced. Stockings, handkerchiefs, ribbons, and buttons, are made, though as yet but in small quantities.
A manufactory of lace, upon a scale not very extensive, has been long memorable at Ipswich in the state of Massachusets.
An exemption of the material from the duty which it now pays on importation, and premiums upon the production, seem to be the only fpecies of encouragement adviseable at so early a stage.
The materials for making glass are found every where; in the United States there is no deficiency of them. The sands and stones called 'Tarso, which include flinty and chrystalline substances generally, and the salts of various plants, particularly the sea-weed kəli, or kelp, constitute the eflential ingredients. An extraordinary abundance of fuel is a particular advantage enjoyed by America for such : manufactures; they, however, require large capitals, and involve much manual labour.
Different manufactories of glass are now on foot in the United States. The present duty of 12 per cent. laid by the states on all imported articles of glass amount to a considerable encouragement to those manufactories; if any thing in addition is judged eligible, the most proper would appear to be a direct bounty on window glass and black bottles,
The first recommends itself as an object of general convenience, the Last adds to that character the circumstance of being an important item in breweries. A complaint is made of great deficiency in this respect.
No small progress has been of late made in the manufacture of this important article; it may, indeed, be considered as already established, but its high importance renders its farther extension very defirable.
The encouragements which it already enjoys, are a duty of ten per cent. on the foreign rival article, and an exemption of falt-petre, one of the principal ingredients of which it is compofed, from duty. A like exemption of sulphur, another chief ingredient, would appear to be equally proper. No quantity of this article has yet been produced from any internal sources of the States. This consideration, and the use made of it, in finishing the bottoms of ships, is an additional inducement to placing it in the class of free goods. Regulations for the careful inspection of the article would have a favour. able tendency.
Manufactories of paper are among those which are arrived at the greatest maturity in the United States, and are most adequate to national supply. That of paper hangings is a branch in which respectable progress has been made.
Nothing material seems wanting to the farther success of this valuable branch, which is already protected by a competent duty on similar inportant articles.
In the enumeration of the several kinds made subject to duty on importation into the States, sheathing and cartridge paper have been omitted; these being the most simple manufactures of the fort, and neceffary to military supply as well as fip-building, recommend themselves equally with those of other descriptions to encouragement, and appear to be as fully within the compass of domestic exertions,
The great number of presses disseminated throughout the Union seem to afford an assurance, that there is no need of being indebted to foreign countries for the printing of the books which are used in the United States. A duty of ten per cent, on the importation, instead of