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were from Mr. Marsh, on percussion tubes for cannon; from Captain Ericson, on a new weighing machine; from Mr. Walters, on reflectors for street gas lights; and from Mr. Dunchell, on an improved mode of tuning pianofortes. These several communications were referred to the respective committees.
The prizes for the present year have been decided as follows :—English Essay —" The concurring causes which assisted the promulgation of the religion of Mahomet," Claughton, B.A. Fellow of University College.—Latin Verse—" Marcus Crassus a Parthis devictus,"—J. J. Randolph, Student of Christ Church— English Verse, (Newdigate)—" The Gipsies,"—Arth. Penrhyn Stanley, Scholar of Balliol College.—Ellerton's Theological Prize Essay.—" The Mission of John the Baptist,"—C. G. Hulton.B.A. of Brasenose.
KING'S COLLEGE, LONDON.
April29. Theannualmeetingtookplace, theArchbishop of Canterbury in the chair. From the report it appeared that the number of regular students and pupils at Christmas last, was as follows:—Senior department, 112; medical department, 65; junior department, 380; total, 563. Occasional students entered in 1836:—Senior department, 51; medical department, 108; total 162. Grand total, 725. The report went on to state that the council, with the consent of the governors, have elected to the office of Principal the Rev. Hugh James Rose, B.D., and that Joseph Henry Green, esq. Professor of Surgery, and Herbert Mayo, esq., having resigned, the council found it expedient that they should re-consider the whole of the appointments in the school of medicine and the department of natural history. The following appointments have accordingly taken place:—R. Partridge, esq., to the Professorship of Anatomy; T. Watson, esq., M.D. to the Professorshsip of Practice of Medicine; R. B. Todd, esq., to the Professorship of Physiology and General and Morbid Anatomy; J. M. Arnott, esq., to the Professorship of Surgery; T. R. Jones, esq., to the Professorship of Comparative Anatomy; T. Bell, esq., to the Professorship of Zoology; F. Royle, esq. M.D., to the Professorship of Materia Medica; J. R. Fergus, esq., M.D, to the Professorship of Forensic Medicine.
May 13. The distribution of prizes to the Medical School took place, the Bishop of London presiding in the absence of of the Archbishop of Canterbury.
The Chairman delivered the prizes to
the successful candidates in the following order; Anatomy, Alfred Smee; Physiology, Alfred Smee; Botany, F. O. Ward; Chemistry, R. J. Spitta; Materia Medica, T. Bartram; Surgery, W. Furnival; Medicine, W. Furnival; Midwifery, W. H. Pritchard, Comparative Anatomy, W. H. Pritchard.
Professor Arnot announced the result of the examination by the professors at large for the two gold medals for general medical proficiency, and those prizes were delivered accordingly to the undermentioned students, viz. :—First Prize to F. E. M'Dougall. Second ditto, W. H. Pritchard.
May 6. The annual distribution of prizes at the London University took place, Earl Fitzwilliam presiding. The report of the state and progress of the Medical School showed that the students in attendance on the various classes were annually augmenting, and now formed a total of 446. After the prizes had been awarded, the Noble Chairman expressed his gratification at witnessing the joyful feelings with which they were received. Among the fortunate candidates for prizes on this occasion were — Anatomy: Gold Medal, F. W. Mackenzie, Clifton; 8th Certificate, W. T. Elliott, Portsmouth. Anatomy and Physiology; 6th Certificate, E. Wooldridge, Chichester; 11th do, H. J. Carter, Exeter; 12th do., G. Mottley, Portsmouth. Practice of Medicine; Gold Medal, J. D. George, Romsey. Surgery; 1st Silver Medal, F. W. Mackenzie, Clifton; 8th Certificate, J. M. Gane, Frome; 12th do., N. Chapman, Kingston; 14th do., J. Prankerd, Langport, Somerset, Midwifery; Gold Medal, F. W. Mackenzie; 10th Certificate, J. Prankerd; 12th do., C. Sprague, Clevedon, Somerset; 16th do.; J. M. Gane. Medical Jurispudence; 2nd Certificate, E. Overbury, Cheltenham. Chemistry; 2nd Silver Medal, J. D. George; 6th Certificate, C. M'Leod, Cheltenham; 14th do., J. Blake, Gosport. Comparative Anatomy; H. J. Carter, Exeter.
May 20. A general meeting of proprietors was held in the Amphitheatre of the University, for the purpose of electing a vice-president of the College, and 19 members of council, to co-operate with the president, treasurer, and three members of council named in the charter, thus constituting a court of 24 members. The Duke of Somerset, on being called to the chair, briefly opened the business of the day. After which the following proprietors were elected. The chairman for vicepresident. For the council—Mr. James Booth, Dr. Boot, Mr. Samuel Duckworth, Mr. Ewart, M.P., Mr. J. L. Goldsmid, Mr. G. B. Greenough, Mr. E. N. Hurt, Mr. R. Hutton, Mr. J. T. Leader, Sir Charles Lemon, Bart., M.P. Mr. J. R. Mills, Mr. J. L. Prevost, Mr. J. Romilly, Mr. H. C. Robinson, Mr. E. Strutt, M. P., Mr. T. Thornely, M.P., Mr. H. Warburton, M.P., Mr. Weymouth, and Mr. J. Wood.
British Museum. According to the annual account lately presented to Parliament the salaries of the officers, assistants, &c. for the year 1836 amounted to 11,826/. 2s. 9d. The proposed estimate for the present year increases this sum to 15,2241. 2*. N/.; the whole grant required for the support of the establishment being only 29,400/. about 7,000/. more than that for 1836. A considerable portion of this increase is in consequence lot' a recommendation of the committee of the House of Commons to augment the salaries of the officers, in order that their whole time and services might be devoted to the Museum; and in this case it is stated that they are not to hold any other situation " conferring emolument or entailing duties." Accordingly, we understand the salary of the principal librarian has been raised from 500/. to 800/. per annum; that of the secretary from 100/. to 700/. this officer having resigned the keepership of the MSS. The conservators of departments have now each 600/. instead of 420/. per annum, and the salaries of their assistants and other subordinate officers have also been augmented.
The following are the newly adopted regulations of admission :—The public are admitted to the British Museum on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, between the hours of ten and four, from the 7th of September to the 1st of May; and between the hours of ten and seven, from the 7th of May to the 1st of September. Persons applying for the purpose of study or research are admitted to the reading rooms every day, from nine o'clock in the morning until four in the afternoon, between the 7th of September and the 1st of May; and until seven in the evening between the 7th of May and the 1st of September. Artists are admitted to study in the galleries of sculpture every day, between the hours of nine and four, except Saturday. The Museum is closed between the 1st and 7th of January, the 1st and 7th of May, and the 1st and 7th of September, and on Ash Wednesday, Good Friday, and Christmas Day, and also on any special fast or thanksgiving
days ordered by authority. We have the pleasure to add that Government has resolved to propose, in the House of Commons, a vote for the grant of 1,575/. to enable the trustees of the British Museum to purchase the collection of shells belonging to W. J. Broderip, esq. offered by him at the price of 1,500 guineas. They have been valued, by Messrs. Turner and Sowerby, experienced dealers, at 1640/. 12s. 67/. and the trustees have received favourable opinions from their officers, Messrs. Children and Gray. The following is an extract from Mr. Gray's letter to Mr. Children, dated June 1, 1836:—"The collection consists of nearly 3,000 specimens, and contains about 200 species, or very distinct varieties, that are altogether wanting in the already extensive collection of the British Museum: such is the beauty of the specimens, in consequence of the great attention paid by Mr. Broderip to the purchase of none but the finest that could be procured, and so remarkable are the deviations in form and colouring in the several series of the more variable species, that nearly every individual specimen of the remaining portion will also be valuable to our collection, either in replacing a much inferior specimen, or as rendering more complete the series which we already possess. The duplicates to be displaced will be few, and will, for the reasons above given, be taken in every instance from our present collection, and not from among the specimens in the new acquisition. A very large proportion of the species contained in this collection, and wanting in the British Museum, are among the rarest shells that are known to exist, and many are absolutely unique."
RICHMOND LITERARY INSTITUTION. A Literary and Scientific Institution has been established at Richmond, in Surrey. The first meeting was held at the Castle Hotel, on Wednesday, May 10th, and was attended by upwards of 200 persons; amongst whom were Sir Henry Baker, Bart. Rev. S. Demainbray, Rev. Dr. Jones, of Bedfont, C. P. Garrick, esq. &c. An address was delivered by William Chapman, esq. Hon. Sec, followed by a Lecture on Astronomy by Dr. Lardner.
Among the collections which M. Von Davidoff, Chamberlain to the Emperor of Russia, obtained in a tour through Greece and Asia Minor, and which, during his visit to Berlin, he communicated to many of the literati and artists of that city, there are a number of Greek MSS. from the monasteries of Mount Athos, formerly so celebrated for their literary treasures. Many of the MSS. are remarkable for the beautiful miniatures, which, in some instances, bear extraordinary traces of the antique, and in others, indicate the influence of the Oriental style. Six MSS. on parchment, very neatly written, and partly in letters of gold, and richly ornamented, contain the four Gospels. Considerations, founded on the history of the arts, are said to prove that these MSS. are of the ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth centuries. Only one of them, however, has a date. It was finished on the 14th of October, in the year 6508 of the Byzantine era, or 999 of the Christian era. Another beautiful MS. on parchment, of the Acts of the Apostles and of all the Epistles, is of the eleventh or twelfth century, and richly ornamented with paintings. But the greatest attention was excited by a MS. of the Commentary of Simplicius on the Physics of Aristotle. On comparing it with the Aldine edition of 1526, some differences appear, but unhappily there is the same hiatus at the end of the third book. The MS. has the following superscription, which is not in the printed edition :—S^dXta ujro (pavjjs 'Afifioviov fpi\6(T(>(poi/ fif To irparov jitfikiuv Ttjs tyvoiKrjs wepodotac. By this the work is referred to the oral communications of the philosopher Ammonius, whom Simplicius, in this same commentary, calls his guide and teacher. This MS. which was obtained in the monastery of Laura, is peculiarly interesting as a specimen of the learned diligence (which is well known) of the Byzantine ladies of rank. It appears, from some Greek verses prefixed to the MS. that it was "written by the Emperor's niece Theodora, of the family of the Dukas.Kommeni and Paleologi, wife of the excellent Kaoul." Theodora, daughter of N. Cantacuzeno, and of Eulogia, niece of the Emperor Michael VIII. was married in 1257 to George Muzalo; and he having been murdered before her face in the church, she married, about the year 1260, the Protovestiarius John Kaoul. She is known to us, from the Byzantine historians, as a learned lady, who, after the reconquest of Constantinople in 1261, built the convent of St. Andrew, and lived there, entirely devoted to the sciences, in learned intercourse with the celebrated patriarchs Arsenius and Gregory of Cyprus. It was here, probably, that she wrote the MS. of Simplicius, certainly before the year 1282, which was the last of the reign of the Emperor her uncle, mentioned in the prefixed verses.
NATURAL HISTORY IN GREECE.
A Society of Natural History has been established in Athens. It was addressed at its first meeting by M. Nicholiiides Levadicfs, a medical officer under the Greek government. After pointing out the advantages to be derived from agriculture, of which the Greeks are now comparatively ignorant, although Sicily, a Grecian colony, was in ancient times the granary of Rome, and after adverting to Holland and England, as proofs of what skill and industry might do even with an ungrateful soil, and under comparatively rude climates, M. Levadiefs proceeded as follows : —" The Greeks formerly worked silver mines in Attica and in some of the islands in the Archipelago; but gold came to them through Macedonia and Thrace, from Pannonia and Illyria. Hence the gold coins of ancient Greece are so few, while those of the Macedonian kings are still numerous. The marble quarries of Pentelicus and Paros arc too well known to need being mentioned. Chromium has been found in Euboea; Milos is rich in sulphur, vitriol, and alum; Siphnas possesses silver ores; Naxos maintains a trade in emery; Santorin is rich in steatite, or soap-stone, which is much sought for, chiefly to make the luting of water-pipes. I shall not say anything of our numerous mineral springs, the waters of which are so serviceable to suffering humanity. Unfortunately, mines cannot be expected to repay the cost of working them, unless where coals are at hand and in abundance. It shall therefore be the business of the Society of Natural History to prosecute the much-desired examination, as to the nature and quality of the stone-coal discovered at Negropont and at Argos, and to report on the uses to which it may be applied, whether as fuel for domestic purposes or for the making of gas; whether it be adopted for the use of furnaces, or smithies, and for steam navigation."
THE ENDLESS LADDER. A patent has recently been obtained for a most ingenious and useful machine adapted to mining and many other pur
floses, where the main object is to raise or lower weights and packages in constant succession. This simple but very effectualcontrivanceconsists of an endless ladder, made either of chain or rope, which passes under and over two revolving drums or cylinders, mounted upon horizontal axes; one placed at the bottom, and the other at the top of a shaft or plane, to or from which the ladder is intended to reach. A continuous motion being given to either of the cylinders by the power of
steam or animal force, the endless ropes or chains, furnished with horizontal staves, like those of a common ladder, are made to circulate over the revolving cylinders by which they are distended, so that one part of this endless ladder is continually ascending with a slow but uniform motion from the lowermost of the cylinders to the uppermost, whilst, vice versa, the other part of the ladder is descending to the lowermost in an uninterrupted circulation.
April 18. A deputation named by the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland met at Red Moss, near Bolton, according to appointment, to inspect the steam-plough invented by Mr. Heathcoat, M.P. for Tiverton, and working under the direction of Mr. Parkes, engi
[June,neer. The deputation was composed of the Marquess of Tweeddale, Vice-President, Sir John S. Forbes, Mr. Olipbant, M.P. and other Members, with Mr. Gordon, the secretary. The machine has been made by Mr. Heathcoat to operate in the first instance on moss, in which it is very efficient. The engine is of 15-horse power, and the plough is attached by an iron band of the width of about two inches. The length of the furrow in the ground operated upon was 304 yards, breadth 18 inches, and depth 9 inches. The furrows were cut on an average in four minutes and a half, which is equal to about half an acre turned over by the hour. The deputation, and many other gentlemen present, from different parts of the United Kingdom, expressed themselves highly gratified by the efficiency of the machinery.
SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES.
May 4. Thomas Amyot, esq. Treasurer, in the chair. Sigfior Campanari exhibited a copy of an Etruscan painting in fresco, discovered in Vulcia. It represents two figures, about three feet in height; a Pluto seated, and Proserpine standing before him. The drawing both of the figures and the drapery is nearly perfect.
Mr. C. R. Smith, F.S.A. exhibited several penates, or small Roman statues of brass, drawn up in January last from the bed of the Thames near Londonbridge. Some are in his own collection, and others in that of R. F. Newman, esq. F.S.A. the comptroller of the Bridgehouse estates. They consist of an Apollo, a Mercury, an Atys, a priest of Gybele, the fragment of a Jupiter, and some other portions. From the beauty and perfection of their forms, Mr. Smith considers them to be of Greek workmanship. In his accompanying dissertation he entered into a lengthened discussion on the ancient mythologies.
May 11. Henry Hallam, esq. V.P.
The following gentlemen were elected felows:—Mr. William Hardy, of the Duchy of Lancaster Office; William Horton Lloyd, esq. of Park-square West, Regent's Park; and William Fuller Maitland, esq. of Park Place, Berks, B.A. of Trinity College, Cambridge.
Robert Bigsby, esq. F.S.A. presented an oil picture of William Burton, esq. the topographer of Leicestershire, painted in 1604 when he was in his 29th year. It is a good and pleasing picture. The portrait which forms the frontispiece to hisHistory, and of which there are copies in Richard" son's Illustrations of Granger, and in Nichols's Leicestershire, was taken eighteen years after, when the historian was in his 47th year.
The commencement was read of a dissertation by Dr. C. Leemans of Leyden, on the inscriptions of three Roman monuments found near Cirencester (the same which are engraved in our present number.)
The Society adjourned (over Whitsun week) to May 25.
STONE COFFINS FOUND IN CHEAFSIDE.
Two stone coffins were found on the 14th Jan. under the carriage road opposite No 16, Gheapside. They lay at the depth of seven feet six inches beneath the present surface; each contained a skeleton, placed with the feet towards the east. No covers were found: and one peculiarity of their construction is that the upper ends were formed into the segment of a circle. There was the usual cavity in each for the admission of the head of the corpse. It is not easy to determine whether these coffins are of the Romano-British or of the Saxon period; they are most probably however of the latter. Sir Christopher Wren laid the foundation of Bow church on a Roman causeway, which the labourers met with at eighteen feet below the modern street. The coffins lately found were therefore placed on a factitious accumulated superstratum deposited subsequently to the Roman age. The London surface has gained about a foot perhaps in each century by fortuitous accumulation. Supposing this accumulation to begin
with the first century of the Christian era, when the colony was devastated by iioadicea and the revolted Icenians, we shall arrive at the conclusion that these sepulchral chests had been deposited in the eighth century.
OPENING Or A TUMULUS.
A tumulus has lately been opened at Kibworth Harcourt, Leicestershire, and excavated sufficiently to give some idea of its singular construction. After removing some rich soil from the surface, a stiff clay, similar to what is found in the neighbourhood, was cut through to the depth of :iIkmit. four feet, when a quantity of burnt matter was discovered, in a thin layer, but extending over a large surface. Near the centre was found a pavement, consisting of large pebbles, which had evidently been exposed to a great heat. This, in all probability, formed the basis of a funeral pile, as fragments of burnt bones and pottery were found embedded in the ashes. After clearing this away, another stratum of clay was cut through, which was again succeeded by a layer of burnt matter. Here were found two pavements, about seven yards apart —one near the centre and the other on the west side; these were lying on the natural soil, and, like the other, bore marks of fire. It is evident that this tumulus was erected at different periods. On approaching the outside each layer assumes the form of a peculiar arch. It appears the site was first marked out by an embankment. Although the centre has been thoroughly explored, and three distinct places found where cremation has been used, it is very doubtful if the principal interment has been discovered, as the greater portion of the tumulus yet remains undisturbed.
In the course of the alterations proreeding at Chester Castle, a fine remnant of Roman masonry is brought into view; it had been obscured for ages within the lowe rbuildings of the old governor's house; cleared of the bricksand coating with which it had been faced up, it now exhibits the perfect Koman arch. In the after-construction of the tower (the present magazine), presumed to be Norman, this arch was made available for its support, one of the massive angels being raised upon and shouldered on it.
Castle or PAU.
A million of francs is about to be employed in the restoration of the castle of Henry IV. at Pan. All that has been added in modern times is to be taken away, and the old edifice will remain in its ancient form; all the apartments are to be furnished in a manner corresponding
Gent. Mao. Vol. VII.
with their age, models for which have been taken from the royal residences; the halls will be hung with Gobelin tapestry, or that which is at the Louvre, and is very old. The tower is to be restored, and the officers of the household will there have their apartments.
PROFYLiKA AT ATHENS.
M. Pittakis, who succeeded Dr. Ross as Superintendent of Antiquities, began the work of excavation on the 22nd Oct. 1836, and accomplished it at the expense of about 5000 drachms. The Pinacotheca, which forms the north wing of the Propylaja, the Stoae before it, and the Propyltea, have been cleared. In the Pinacotheca two windows have been entirely cleared, one on each side of the door: they still retain the ancient painting*. The architect of the Acropolis has received instructions to make accurate copies of the paintings; and the chemist Landcrer has undertaken to analyse, by means of some process, the colours of the paintings which have crumbled off; and he conjectures that the composition is different from that of the colours now in use.
PETRIFIED BODIES IN AMERICA.
Mr. Chester, of England, and Mr. Davies of Philadelphia, have recently discovered in a cave, on or near the Great Laurel Ridge of the Cumberland Mountains, three entire petrified bodies; one of a dog lying flat upon the rock, and two of men; one sitting, and the other standing, with a spear balanced in his hand. This wonderful formation cannot be accounted for in any other way than these persons were buried by some terrible convulsion of nature. The cave in which they were found is full 125 feet in the mountain, and is situated about a mile and a half beyond what is called Mammoth Grotto, in a direct line. The entrance to the place is difficult, and it is thought that it was never beforeattempted. At the foot of the entrance of the cave is a considerable brook of water, which appears to gather from all parts of it. The Hamilton (Tennessee) Observer remarks that among the many natural curiosities found in the extensive caves and grottoes in the vicinity of the Great Laurel Ridge (Cumberland Mountains) many human skeletons and bones of animals have been discovered, some of them in a petrified state. These caves abound in prodigious vaulted apartments and chambers, which, when viewed by torchlight, exhibit scenes of gloomy grandeur which astonish the beholder. Several petrified trees have also been discovered on the banks of the river near this ridge, as also bones of mammoths and other animals whose races are now extinct.