« AnteriorContinuar »
fruit of a long experience and personal investigation, and, in the eyes of every inquirer into the antiquities of London, now perfectly invaluable. The first edition is dated 1598, and sometimes 1599; the second 1603; the third, edited by Anthony Munday, who says he had the use of Stowe's papers, in 1618; these are all in quarto; the fourth by Munday and Henry Dyson, fol. 1633; the fifth, by Strype, 2 vols. fol. 1720; and the sixth and last 1754.
There are two other points remaining to be mentioned, for which the memory of Stowe is to be honoured; —that he edited the works of Chaucer, and that he preserved those of Leland. On the latter head it is enough to state the important circumstance that when Hearne came to print Leland, much of the original which had been lost, was supplied by a transcript of the indefatigable Stowe. Of his labours on Chaucer, Stowe himself says, when noticing the monument of the poet in Westminster Abbey,
"His Workes were partly published in print by William Caxton in the reigne of Henry the sixt; increased by William Thinne, esquire, in the reign of Henry the eight; corrected and twise encreased through mine owne paynefull labors, in the reigne of Queene Elizabeth, to wit, in the year 1561, and again beautified with notes by me, collected out of divers recordes and monuments, which I delivered to my loving friend Thomas Speight; and hee, having drawne the same into a good forme and methode, as also explayned the olde and obscure wordes, &c. hath published them in anno 1597."*
The fate and final disposal of Stowe's manuscript collections has never been exactly traced. It is satisfactory to know that many of them have, in various ways, found a resting place in the British Museum ;t where the his
* Survey, 1603, p. 465.
t Chiefly through the Collections of Sir Symonds D'Ewes, among whose manuscripts No. 245 was Giraldus Cambrensis, "translated by Mr. Stow, and wrote with his own hand;" No. 146, Florentius Wigorniensis, a Continuation of him from 900 to 1101, Aluredus Rievallensis, and Nicholas Trivet, all also translated and written by Stowe. Smith's Catal. MSS. Anglue, ii. 387. These are
torical inquirer who meets with his uncommonly neat hand-writing, may rejoice for a time as in a pleasant pasture, disencumbered of the briars and thistles of the court and current hands, in which many of the manuscripts of the same period are disguised. In the MS.Harl. 367, are several papers more immediately relating to Stowe's private affairs, his quarrel with Grafton, his petitions for relief, &c. many of them bearing the marks of having been retained for a considerable time in the old Chronicler's pockets. A portion of one of these, being a draft of a petition to the Corporation of London, about 1587, has been engraved in the "Autographs of Remarkable Personages," 4to. 1829, and from the same are copied the words "your orator John Stowe, Citizen of this Citie," now placed under the portrait.
Stowe started at his outset in the pursuit of truth, and to that essential point his labours were constantly directed. In the introduction to his "Summary," (1565), he set forward with this axiom, "In hystories the chiefe thyng that is to be desyred is Truthe:" and he added this poetical caution to the "phrasemakers," ambitious of the personal display of fine writing:
"Of smoothe and flatterynge speeche,
remember to take hede, For trouthe in playn words may be tolde;
of craft a lye hath nede."
Of his zeal, diligence, and unwearied perseverance, the reader must have already acquired an adequate impression. They have merited and attained the praise of a long posterity: the posthumous rewards for actual persecution and privation.
Howes, in the preface to his "Abridgement" of 1607 (also prefixed to his " Annales" of 1615) has related the circumstances under which he undertook to be the successor of Stowe in the capacity of Chronicler; and after mentioning that several learned persons, to whom the public eye had been directed, failed to engage
now Nos. 551, 563, of the Harleian Collection, and many others may be traced in the Catalogue: see the Index, 1812, vol. iv. p. 313.
Memoir of Sir Henry Bard, Viscount Bellamont.
in the onerous work, he states that he conferred with them individually, and reports the several answers he received. "Another sayd, 'I cannot see how in any civill action a man should spend his travaile, tyme, and money worse, than in that which acquires no regard, nor reward, except backbiting and detraction.' And one amongst the rest, after he had sworne an oath, sayd, 'I thanke God that I am not yet madde, to wast my tyme, spend two hundred pound a-yeare, trouble my selfe and all my friends, onely to gain assurance of endless reproach, losse of libertie, and bring all my dayes in question.' And like as these spake, so did many others." In which speeches, it is evident that the treatment of "late aged painefull Chronicler," just before mentioned, is intended to be described. Still we may further gather that Stowe bore his misfortunes with equanimity and good-humour. There is an anecdote in the Hawthornden MS., — which, whether true or not, affords evidence of the opinion held of his character by his contemporaries,—that, walking with Ben Jonson (who also was always low in purse), they met two mendicant cripples, and Stowe jestingly asked them, "What they would have to take him to their order?" We find also another illustration of his lively temper in H. Holland's " Monumenta Sepulchraria Sancti Pauli," 1614:
"Sir Philip Sidney and Sir Francis Walshigham have no tombes. Whereupon John Stow saith a merry poet wrote thus,
'Philip and Francis they have no tombe, For great Christopher * takes all the roome.'"And no doubt but the merry poet was the merry old man Stow himself."
We will now conclude with the personal description and character of Stowe, given by his successor Howes:
"He was tall of stature, leane of body and face, his eyes small and chrystaline, of a pleasant and cheerefull countenance; his sight and memory very good; very sober, mild, and courteous to any that required his instructions; and retained the true use of all his senses unto the day of his death, being of an excelent memory. He alwaies protested never to have
* Sir Christopher Hatton.
written any thing either for malice, feare, or favour, nor to seeke his owne particular gaine or vaine glory; and that his only paines and care was to write truth. He could never ride; but travelled on foote unto divers cathedral churches and other chiefe places of the land, to search records. He was very carelesse of scoffers, backbiters, and detractors. He lived peacefully; and died of the stone collicke, being fourescore yeares of age, and was buried the eight of Aprill 1605, in his parish church of Saint Andrewesundershaft: whose mural monument neere unto his grave was there set up at the charges of Elizabeth his wife."
Mr. Urban, Norwood. I BEG to continue my series of memoirs of distinguished Cavaliers,* with one of Sir Henry Bard, Viscount Bellamont.
Henry Bard was the younger of the two sons of the Rev. George Bard, who diedVicar of Staines, inthecounty of Middlesex, in 1618, by his wife Susan, daughter of John Dudley.
Maximilian, the elder son of the vicar, a wealthy girdler in the city, and a noted Parliamentarian, was born in 1606, as we learn from his epitaph in Caversfield church, Bucks. But the birth year of the younger has not been recorded. His grandfather, William Bard, of Talbygarth, co. Lincoln, was a younger son of Ralph Bard, of North Kelsey, in the same county, at which place the family had resided for many generations. With respect to his pedigree, Lord Bellamont was wont to relate of himself that "he descended from that man in Norfolk who went to law with W. and overthrew the Conqueror." The meaning of this vaunt I leave others to determine.
From Eton school he was entered, in 1631, of King's College, Cambridge, where he obtained his master's degree and a fellowship. Previous, however, to his taking these honours, he had made, upon the customary leave of nine weeks' absence, unknown to his relations, an excursion to Paris; and afterwards he proceeded on foot into France, Italy, Turkey, Palestine, Ara
* See Gent. Mag. for April, 1836, p. 350. bia, and Egypt, of which places and of his several travels he sent a large account to his fellow collegian the Rev. Chas. Mason, D.D. subsequently Rector of St. Peter's-le-poor, in London. Returning home, he lived high, says Wood, as he had done before, without any visible income to support it. The means he commanded for his travels and for his manner of living, were supposed, by his contemporaries, to have been derived from his brother, "a great admirer," continues the same author, " of his accomplishments, and as much despised by him."
It was about the time of his return from his travels, that Charles was preparing for that great struggle which found employment for courage and activity. Repairing to the Court at York, "he made himself known to be a traveller and master of several languages, especially the French, which the Queen took notice of; and entering intohis Majesty's service, he was soon put in commission and made a Colonel." Thus far in the words of Wood. In 1643, being at Oxford, Colonel Bard was nominated to be created D.C.L. and while staying here, on the 22d of November, he received the honour of knighthood. Shortly after, he was sent into Ireland; whence he returned with the two regiments of foot, commanded by Sir Charles Vavasour and Sir John Pawlet, and was engaged with them at the battle of Cheriton Down, fought on the 9th of March, between Lord Hopton and Sir William Waller. In this engagement he brought off a whole brigade, otherwise likely to be destroyed; but was eventually taken prisoner, and so severelywounded as to lose the use of one arm. It is not unlikely that he was a prisoner when on the 28th of May 1644 he presented an Alcoran to his college, which the Rev. William Cole describes as "a neat wrote book, illuminated, and of an 8vo size." It is supposed that he stole this volume from a mosque in Egypt; for being once told, says Wood, " that it was not worth above twenty pounds, he made answer, Then he was sorry that he had ventured his neck for it."
By letters patent dated at Oxford, 2 March 19 Car. 1. (1644), he received a reversionary grant of the offices of Governor of the Isle of Guernsey, and of
Captain of Cornet Castle, in that isle, for life, with all fees, profits, and privileges thereto belonging, after the death or other determination of the estates of Sir Peter Osborne and Lord Percy, former grantees.* Soon after, he joined the King at Oxford, who there gave him the command of a brigade, and after intrusted him with the government ofCampdenhouse, in Gloucestershire. While in this charge, we are told by Lloyd, " he set open the gate to the enemy, as if deserted, but entertained them so that they spilt not so much claret wine in the house as they leftblood before it." The Mercurius Civicus about this time has the following anecdote of the governor. "This papist," says the paper, speaking of one Captain Brunt, "gave intelligence of a constable at Queinton, and enforced him to bring in his collection money to Colonel Bard, governor of Campden. The poore constable came certified to the governour (then in bed) thereof; the governour demanded if it were all? the constable answered, He could not bring all, for the plague was in some houses. The governour replied, that if the plague were in one and the pox in the other, he would have all the money, and would talke with him further when he was up. After he rose, he commanded the constable to be throwne into a pond to swim for his life; where he had been drowned had he not beene helped out by one of the souldieis. Whereupon, the governour commanded the rest to fasten upon him, which they refused, and withstood the governour, by which means the constable escaped with his life." + Bard continued at Campden to the 5th of June, when, at Prince Rupert's order, he rased the house to the ground, and joined the royal army on its march from Oxford to Evesham. On the 8th of October following Sir Henry was created a Baronet, by patent dated at Sherbourn, as Sir Henry Bard of Staines; and shortly after he married Anne, daughter of Sir William Gar
• Docquets of Charles I. pp. 155,381, about to be published by the Record Commission, from a MS. in the Ashmolean Library, under the editorship of W. H. Black, Esq. Sub-Commissioner.
t No. 102, p. 916.
handmaid to a Minister of the Church, she would frequent wakes and fairs at Whitsuntide, and saint days and holy days; but they could not throw any thing in her teeth, which they would, as she always went in company with her brother, aunts, or other sober people of good repute, who could keep scandal from her door. Her family did not like Oliver Cromwell, nor any of his ordinances, but were true and faithful to King Charles, of blessed memory, though they were but poor folk. Now Magdalen Holyday had, in her youth, been touched of the King for the evil, when he came into the Associated Counties; but, since that, she had always preserved her health, so that the rose-blush in her cheek, and the milky snow on her forehead were known to all. But to come to my story. It happened on Monday, in Lammas, the year 1672, about noon, as she was carrying in dinner, no one in the parlour save the parson and his wife and their eldest daughter, Rebecca, then about to be married to a worthy and pains-taking Gospel Minister then living at the parish of Yoxford, in the said county; that on a sudden, just as she had placed a suet dumpling on the board, she uttered a loud shriek, as if she were distraught, and stooping down as in great pain, said, she felt a pricking as of a large Pin in the upper part of her leg; but did not think that any such thing could be there. Yet on ungartering her hose, she felt a pin had got there, within the skin, yet not drawing blood, nor breaking the skin, nor making any hole or sign, and she could hardly feel the head of it with her finger, and from that time it continued tormenting her with violent and retching pains all the day and night; and this continuing and nothing assuaged. Mistress Jones, by advice of the Minister, sent for the assistance of two able apothecaries (medici) then dwelling in the said town; one, a chirurgeon of great repute, who had studied under the famous Hondius at Frankfort; the other, a real son of Galen; who, on examining the part, and above and below, at sufficient distance, both declared they could see neither "vola, nee vestigium" of the said pin; but on her constant and confident assertion there was a pin, tho' it had now time to work itself deeper into the flesh, like an insidious enemy, they made an incision, but could find none, only the maid asserted that a few days before, an old woman came to the door and begged a pin of her, and she not giving her one, the said woman muttered something, but she did not suspect her. And now it was time these noted leeches should do something for this afflicted person; for now she lies in ceaseless torment, both by night and by day, for if she slept, her sleep was troubled with dreams and wicked apparitions: sometimes she saw something like a mole run into her bed, sometimes she saw a naked arm held over her, and so was this poor maid thus tormented by evil spirits, in spite of all godly prayers and ringing of church bells, &c. But now the doctors took her in hand, their names, Anthony Smith, Gent, and Samuel Kingston,chirurgeon to Sir John Rouse of Henham, Knt. having taken down the deposition of the said Magdalen Holyday before Mr. Pacey, a pious Justice of the Peace, living at Mariesford, in the said county, upon oath; they then gave to the said M. H. the following medicines :—Imprimis, a decoction—exfuga Dcemonum—of southern-wood, mugwort vervain, of which they formed a drink according to Heuftius' Medical Epistles, lib. xii., sect, iv., also following Variola, a physician, of great experience, at the court of the Emperor. They also anointed the part with the following embrocation: —Dog's grease well mixed, four ounces; bear's fat, two ounces; eight ounces of capon's grease; four-andtwenty slips of misletoe, cut in pieces and powdered small with gum of Venice turpentine, put close into a phial, and exposed for nine days to the sun till it formed into a green balsam ; with which the said parts were daily anointed for the space of three weeks, during which time, instead of amendment, the poor patient daily got worse, and vomited, not without constant shrieks or gruntling, the following substances: paring of nails, bits of spooons, pieces of brass (triangular), crooked pins, bodkins, lumps of red hair, egg-shells broken, parchment shavings, a hen's bone of the leg, one thousand two hundred worms, pieces of glass, bones like the great teeth of a horse, alumiSTONE CHURCH, KENT.
nous matter, sal petri (not thoroughly prepared), till at length relief was found, when well nigh given up, when she brought up with violent retching, a ichnle rote of pins stuck on blew paper!! After that, these sons of jEsculapius joyfully perceived that their potent drugs had wrought the designed cure —they gave her comfort, that she had subdued her bitter foe, nor up to the present time has she ever been afflicted in any way; but having married an honest poor man, though well to do in the world, being steward to Sir John Heveningham, she has borne him four healthy children, and is likely to cover his house with more sweet
olive branches fromher fruitfulorchard. Whether this punishment was inflicted on her by the said old woman, an emissary of Satan, or whether it was meant wholesomely to rebuke her for frequenting wakes, may-dances, and candlemas fairs, and such like pastimes, still to me remains in much doubt. "Non possum solvere nodum." Sir, your thankful Servant, T. G.
Freaton Pariah nigh to Saxmondham, sent by the carrier.
P.S. I hear the physicians followed up their first medicine with castory, and rad. ostrutii, and sem: dauci, on Forestius his recommendation.
THE manor of Stone, situated within two miles of Dartford, towards the north-west, was given to the church of Rochester by King Ethelred, in the year 995; and the Bishops had afterwards a house there, in which they occasionally resided, particularly in their journeys to and from London. Like other churches so fortunately situated, under the immediate eye of the Bishop, that of Stone became an object of attention to some of the architectural prelates who filled the see of Rochester; and it still presents itself, to a distant age, a spacious and lofty edifice, worthy of the commanding situation upon which it is placed.
It is a fine specimen of the early English style; consisting of a nave and aisle (68 feet by 40), chancel (42 feet by 22 J), with a small chapel adjoining to the chancel on the north, and a massive tower at the west end, which is remarkable from its being open on three sides to the interior of the building. It was formerly crowned with a high octangular spire, which, having been greatly injured by lightning, was taken down in the year 1638.
The nave is separated from the aisles by pointed arches, rising from slender columns, and from the chancel by a similar arch, enriched with ornaments. The east window is large and handsome; and round the chancel runs a low range of trefoil-headed arches, in relief, springing from small pillars of
Gent. Mao. Vol. VII.
grey marble, and displaying spandrils filled with finely sculptured foliage and animals.
The north door, which is represented in the accompanying engraviDg (PI. II.) opens under an arch originally of much elegance, though now greatly injured and mutilated. Its height is 8 feet 4 inches ; and its width, including the outer mouldings, 6 feet 10 inches. The height of the wooden door is 7 feet, and its width 3.
In the Chapel adjoining the chancel is a handsome altar tomb to the memory of Sir John Wiltshire, Comp. trailer of Calais in the reign of Henry VII. and who was owner of Stone Castle in this parish. He died in Dec. 1526.
There is also in the chancel a fine sepulchral memorial of John Lumbard, once Rector, who died in 1408. His figure is represented in a brass plate, within the head of an open flowering cross; this has been engraved both in Gough's Sepulchral Monuments and in Thorpe's Custumale Roffense.
We do not now enter at greater length into a description of this beautiful church, as we have been informed that two distinct series of architectural plates are now in the course of preparation, in illustration of its several features. One of these has been particularly announced by its editor, Mr. Wallen, in our Number for November, p. 450.