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moved.—Sir J. Graham, while he admitted that a primi facie case had been made out for granting Municipal institutions to Ireland, felt bound to state, that particular circumstances rendered the granting of such institutions a measure of the greatest danger, as, by the present Bill, the interests of the Church would be materially injured, and the first step made to its entire overthrow.—Lord John Russell considered the establishment of Municipal Corporations in Ireland a just and wise measure, and one likely to conciliate the people of Ireland; his Majesty's Ministers hadbrought it forward from a strong conviction of its justice, and they considered their continuance in office dependent on the success of the Bill then under consideration.—Sir Robert Peel said, that till the Noble Lord brought forward his other Bills, that respecting the Church of Ireland, and that for a provision for the Poor, he should consider himself at perfect liberty to oppose this Municipal Bill, till he saw a prospect of security tor the Church. If there was not a provision for the security of the Church, he should feel himself bound to oppose this scheme of local Government, as calculated to promote agitation, with the view of working the overthrow of the Church.
The House then divided, when the numbers were for the third reading, 302; against it 247; majority for ministers 55. April 12. Mr. liume moved the second reading of the County Rates Bill, the object of which was, to substitute for the present system a Board, to be elected by the rate-payers of the county, whichBoard should have the control of the expenditure, and the power of appointing auditorsfor the investigation of the accounts. He proposed also, that the Boards, in conformity with the principle of the Reform Bill, should have the power of electing magistrates, and those appointed by Lords-lieutenant to be ex officio members of the Board.—Several Members expressed their warm approbation of the measure; while others as strongly opposed it, as casting areflection on the whole of the English Magistracy.—On a division, there appeared—for the second reading 84; against it, 177.
April 13. Mr. Roebuck moved for a committee of the whole House, to take into consideration the propriety of abolishing the newspaper stamp-duty. The honourable Member gave his opinion that the stamp duty on newspapers was an obstruction to the education of the people, and stated various objections to the duty. What he wanted was, that almost every small town should have its own newspaper, as was the case in America.
Mr. S. Rice opposed the motion. Since the reduction in the duty, the various newspapers appeared to have in. creased their circulation, and every thing was going on so well, that he thought it would be unwise to disturb the present state of things. In the course of the session, however, it was his intention to propose the repeal of the penny postage charged on newspapers in the country.
The motion was supported by Messrs. Wakley, Wallace, Hume, and C. Buller; and opposed by Mr. A. Trevor and Sir Robert Peel. On a division, the numbers were—for the motion, 42; against it, 81.
April 17. Sir H. Hardinge moved an address to his Majesty, "praying that hisMajesty will be graciously pleased not to renew the Order in Council of the 10th of June, granting his Majesty's royal license to British subjects to enlist into the service of the Queen of Spain; which Order in Council will expire on the 10th of June next; and praying also that his Majesty will be graciously pleased to give directions that the marine forces of his Majesty shall not be employed in the civil contest now prevailing in Spain, otherwise than in that naval co-operation which his Majesty has engaged to afford, if necessary, under the stipulations of treaty."—The gallant officer charged his Majesty's government with compromising the high reputation and character of England by the course which they had pursued in reference to the war in Spain, and took a review of the sufferings of the British Legion, of their ill treatment by the Spanish government, and their consequent disposition to insubordination and mutiny.—Mr. Stratford Canning seconded the motion, and entered into a long review of the civil proceedings of the British Government, insisting that the question of the disputed succession to the Spanish Crown ought to have been left to the decision of the Spaniards themselves, and that there was nothing in the Quadruple Alliance that could justify a military cooperation on the part of this country. After some further observations the motion was adjourned, and occupied the attention of the House during the two following evenings. As an answer to the motion of Sir H. Hardinge, Lord Palmtraton observed, that the object of the treaty was to preserve peace in Spain; and as the legitimate organs there, as well as in France in 1830, had confirmed thatrevolution which changed the succession, he knew not how they could abandon the treaty, especially as Don Carlos had experienced our protection, without disgrace to the nation, and insult to its allies. He also condemned the time at which the motion was brought forward, as the treaty and order in council had long existed, and, of course could long ago have been resisted, if wrong in principle. To agree to that motion, would be in effect to declare that the treaty might be torn; that
engagements might be violated, and that they ought to insult the allies of die
country On a division, there appeared,
for SirH. Hordinge's motion, 242; against it, 278.
After much difficulty, Louis Philippe has been enabled to form a new ministry. The announcement took place in the Moniteur of the 16th of April: Count Mole is president of the Council, and Minister of Foreign affairs; M. Monta- livet, Minister of the Interior; M. Barthe, Minister of Justice; M.Salvandy, Minister of Public Instruction; M. Laplague, Minister of Finance; Gen. Bernard, Minister of War; Admiral Rosamel remains Minister of the Marine; and M. Martin (du Nord) Minister of Commerce and Public Works.
A prize was recently given by the Society of Moral Sciences in Paris, for the best essay on the "Present moral condition of the domestics of France, and the best means of introducing into that numerous class the principles and habits of morality." There were nine candidates for the prize, and the successful one was M. Mittre, an advocate, at present in practice in Paris.
Intelligence from Madrid states, that the recent defeat of General Evans before St. Sebastian, and the simultaneous retreats of the Queen's generals, Sarsfield and Espartero, on the opposite sides of the scene of military operation, had produced the greatest consternation among the Court and Government, and filled the citizens attached to the Christino cause with alarm. Numbers of them consider the cause to be lost, and have made up their minds to the necessary consequence, namely, Don Carlos's triumphant entry into the capital. One of the results of these reverses of the Queen's Generals was, a secret sitting of the Cortes on the 30th March, when a lamentable picture was drawn of the state of the nation by the acting war minister, Brigadier Infantes, who described Spain to be "without credit at home or abroad—with a depreciated and ill-concocted revenue—with an army in the worst state as to subordination or military discipline—whilst the Chiefs were at variance with each other." The sitting broke up amidst the greatest confusion; and at a subsequent meeting a paper signed by 58 deputies was pre
sented, being an accusation against the Ministers, charging them with having unlawfully collected taxes, and contracted loans, and with having violated the personal freedom of certain deputies by removing them from their offices on account of their speeches in the Chamber. Resolutions against the Ministers were moved; but, after a tumultuous discussion, in which Mendizabal defended himself, they were lost by a small majority.
Accounts from Switzerland state that great rejoicings had taken place in the Canton of Soleure, the Grand Council of which had voted the total abolition of tithes. According to the law, the tithes are to be redeemed in twenty-five years. It is left optional with the people either to pay their quota at once, or by annual instalments.
The installation of Mr. Van Buren took place at Washington on the 4th of March, and at the same time Mr. Johnson was invested with the title of VicePresident.—The occasion appears to have been observed with considerable form and solemnity. The oaths of office were taken in the Chamber of the Senate, and were confined to simply swearing to "support the Constitution of the United States." The whole party afterwards proceeded to one of the porticos of the capitol, where the new President spoke publicly his inaugural address. It pledges him in all respects to the policy of his predecessor; and on the subject of Slavery he declared himself " the inflexible and uncompromising opponent of every attempt, on the part of Congress, to abolish slavery in the district of Columbia, against the wishes of the slave-holding states; and also equally determined to resist the slightest interference with it in the states where it exists."
Constantinople, March 8.—Grand efforts are making here for the execution of a new commercial project, which if it is carried into effect, as it is probable, will be equally important and advantageous to the commercial intercourse bettveen Persia and England, and by the interest of Russia may be equally promoted to the disadvantage of Turkey. The plan is to open an entirely new channel for the transmission of the productions of Persia to Europe, which have hitherto come by way of Constantinople. These productions, which are of great importance, are to be conveyed on payment of a transit duty over the territory of that kingdom to Pod, on the Black Sea. This place is to be declared a free port, from which the English merchants may export those goods which they have hitherto obtained at Constantinople for consignment to Great Britain. According to the statements that are made, arrangements will be effected that those goods, instead of being sent through the Bosphorus to be sold in England, may be sent up the Danube. English goods will be sent by the same channel to Poti, and the commercial transactions between the two nations will in future take place at that depot only.
The Propylaa at Athens.—The Greek Courier of 7th February gives some interesting information respecting the excavation of the Propyla» at Athens. M. Pittakis, who succeeded Dr. Ross as Superintendent of Antiquities, began the work on the 22nd of October, 1836, and accomplished it at the expense of about 5000 drachms. The Pinacotheca, which forms the north wing of the Propyl sea, the Stoie before it, and the Propylas, have been cleared. In the Pinacotheca two windows have been entirely cleared, one on each side of the door: they still retain
the ancient paintings.The architect of the Acropolis has received instructions to make accurate copies of the paintings; and the chemist Landeret has undertaken to analyze, by means of some process, the colours of the paintings which have crumbled off; and he conjectures that the composition is different from that of the colours now in use.
A decree, dated 23d Nov. 1836, for the expulsion of the British and other barbarian merchants, has been published at Canton. They were all ordered to be off in half a moon. "They are not to be permitted," says the edict, " to loiter and linger. If they have any business that cannot be completed within the half moon, they at the expiration of that period must go to Macao for a little time, and their accounts be left in your hands; and as soon as all their affairs are settled, they must return to their country. They must not be permitted to stay at Macao as long as they please in opposition to the existing laws. If they presume so be insolent and act haughtily, and will not listen to our kind words, and obstinately refuse to go the path we mark out, the celestial dynasty will not heed the consequences. The laws shall be maintained; and there is reason to fear the said barbarians will find it hardto get back to their country. The houses in the Greek factory and in several other Hongs will be taken and sealed up.—There must be no failure." The pretence for this order is the practice of smuggling.
INTELLIGENCE FROM VARIOUS PARTS OK THE COUNTRY.
The first report of the commissioners on the subject of Religious Instruction in Scotland contains a large quantity of valuable information, which applies exclusively to Edinburgh. It proves the average attendance at the established church to be 29,370, while that at the dissenting chapels is 33,542. The seats let in the establishment are 26,220, while those in the dissenting chapels are 30,275.
The distress in the Highlands of Scotland has lately been of a most lamentable character. Subscriptions have been liberally raised both in Scotland and England to relieve the numerous claimants. In the Shetland Islands the cattle and inhabitants have been dying for want. A letter dated from Shetland observes that "great as the suffering is in consequence
of the failure of last year's crop, the prospect before Shetland, as regards the next crop, is still more appalling. Farming operations are not yet begun, nor is there, at this moment, any indication of spring more than there was in the month of December. The ground is at present, and has been for more than a month, covered with snow, and the frost is far more intense than we usually have it in the middle of winter. The cattle are dying for want of fodder; and in their struggles to save those that are yet alive, the poor people are giving them what little corn they had reserved for seed."
The tide of emigration from this country to the United States of America has commenced to flow this season with perhaps greater impetuosity than at any former period. Already at a great number of the out-ports in England, and in Scotland
and Ireland, several vessels have sailed for New York and the Canadas, crowded with emigrants, comprising farmers and mechanics possessed of small capital, and agricultural labourers with their families, who have proceeded in expectation of bettering their condition in the western world.
In speaking of charters of incorporation, and the continual turmoil and expense occasioned by the frequent elections and revisions, the Leeds Intelligencer communicates the following facts:—In the year 1835, even since the new valuation for the county-rate more than doubled the proportion formerly paid by the borough of Leeds, the maintenance at Wakefield of prisoners committed from Leeds did not cost the borough 600/. but the current year is expected to cost at least 1600/.? Before the Municipal Act passed the day police of Leeds cost 538/. a-year, but now, though it is not a whit more efficient than formerly, it is estimated to cost 1513/. but in reality it will cost considerably more. Under the old system the salaries of the recorder, deputy recorder, and town clerk, did not amount to 50/. a-year, but now two of these functionaries receive nearly 500/. a-year between them. In short the increased cost to the borough is enormous.
Iron trade has greatly increased in Britain since 1740. Then 59 furnaces produced 17,000 tons of pig iron. In 1836 the increased production of furnaces was 828,331 tons. In Scotland the increase has been very groat. In 1828, Scotland produced only 37,700 tons; in 1836, 89,000—chiefly owing to the introduction and improvement of hot blasts.
The black-lead mine in Borrowdale (the only one known in the world), from which all Europe is supplied with that commodity for the manufacture of pencils, has been recently closed, owing to the death of Mr. Dixon, the late steward. Twelve men have been employed in the mine for the last 15 months, without falling in with one single sop of this valuable mineral.
March 30. The New Mechanics' Institute, in Mount Street, Liverpool, was this morning entirely destroyed by fire. The foundation stone was laid by Lord Brougham in the summer of 1835, and the building was to have been opened in a few days for general purposes. It was built by subscription, and the cost of its erection was somewhere about 12,000/. The corporation of Liverpool generously made the committee a present of the ground. In the vestibule of the building were four statues, the property of J. B. Yates, esq. who had lent them to the
institution, and the value of which exceeded 1,000 guineas. The damage is estimated at 3,000/.; but the building is fortunately insured in the Liverpool Fire Office to the amount of 6,000/. The committee are determined to lose no time in repairing the damage which has been done. In this building it was proposed to receive the British Association for the promotion of Science during the present year.
April 3. AtBasford, near Nottingham, Thomas Greensmith, a labourer, employed in a bleach-yard there, strangled his four children as they were sleeping in their beds; one aged ten, one eight, another five, and the last two years old. It is said he was remarkably fond of his children, but having been fearful of going into the workhouse, he determined on this horrible infanticide.
LONDON AND ITS VICINITY.
Fires in London—Of 564 fires which occurred in and around London during the last year, the following are the causes as far as could be ascertained. Accidents of various kinds, scarcely avoidable, 11; apparel taking fire on the person, 2; bed curtains set on fire by accident, 71; accidents with candles, 57; cases of palpable carelessness, 18; charcoal fires, portable, 2; children playing with fire, 6; fires kindled on hearths, 5; defective or foul flues and chimnies, 72; fumigation, 9; sundry gas accidents, for the most part occurring from gas-fitters, during the progress of repairs, 38; gunpowder, 1; heating of hay, lime, &c. 7; sparks from lamps, 2; linen incautiously hung before fires, 31 ; ovens overheated, 6; loose shavings ignited, 13; sparks from fire, 7; defective setting of stoves, &c. 28; application of fire heat to various purposes of trades and manufactures, 34; tobacco-smoking, 1; unknown, 96; wilful, 8; window-curtains catching fire, 35. April 10. The trial of James Greenacre, a cabinet-maker, and of Sarah Gale, his paramour, took place at the Old Bailey, for the murder and mutilation of Hannah Brown. The affair, for the last few months, had excited an extraordinary degree of interest, owing to the mutilated trunk of the hapless victim having been found, soon alter the murder, in the Edgeware-road, and the head and limbs subsequently discovered in different places —the former in the Regent's Canal, Stepney, and the latter in some osier
SB at Camberwell. From the evidence adduced on the trial, it appeared that the murdered woman lived by mangling and washing; that she resided at No. 45, Union-street, Middlesex Hospital; that on the 24th of last December she left her home with the prisoner Greenacre, in a coach, for the purpose of being married to him on the following day at St. Giles's church; and that since that period nothing was known as to what had become of her, until on examining the head found in the Stepney canal, it was clearly identified as that of the lost Mrs. Brown, and the person of Greenacre was swom to as having been last seen with her. Property belonging to the murdered individual had also been found in the possession of the two prisoners. His Lordship, having summed up the evidence, the Jury delivered a verdict of guilty against both prisoners—Greenacre being thus capitally convicted; and the woman Gale as an accessory after the crime. Subsequent to the conviction, Greenacre made a con
fession, to the effect thaton Christmas Eve, a quarrel arose between him and his victim on the subject of the property each had represented themselves to possess, when the deceased (Mrs. Brown) using strong language towards him for deceiving her, so exasperated him that he took up a piece of wood resembling the roller for a towel, or for a piece of silk, which at the moment was lying near him, and struck her violently over the right eye, which stunned her. He then placed a pail which was standing in the room by the side of the chair, and holding her neck over it, he, with a common table knife, cut her throat, and held her in that position until the blood had ceased to flow. He then determined on the dismemberment and distribution of the body as above stated.
PROMOTIONS, PREFERMENTS, &c.
March 17. The Hon. and Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Oxford to be Chancellor of the Order of the Garter.
The Right Hon. George Earl of Carlisle, to bcK.G.
Uarck 19. Major-Gen. Sir John Harvey to be Lieut.-Governor of New Brunswick and its dependencies.
Charles Augustus FitzRoy, esq. to be Lieut.Governor of Prince Edward Island, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
March 24. nth Foot,Lieut.-Gen.SirRufanc Shane Donkin, to be Col.—33d Foot, Major Wm. Ross to be Lieut.Col; Capt. Win. Fenwick, to be Major.—80th Foot, Lieut.-Gen. Sir John Taylor, to be Colonel s Major N. Baker, to be Lieut.-Col.; Capt. John Bowler to be Major.—Stan", Brevet Lieut.-Col. Chas. Cranstoun Dixon, to be Major and Military Superintendent of Hospitals at Chatham.—Renfrewshire Yeomanry Cavalry, Capt. Houston Stewart to lie Major-Coinma'ndant.
Uarck 23. Lieut.-Col. Richard Doherty to be Governor-in-Chief of the colony of Sierra Leone and its dejiendencies.
Uarck 28. Hon. Geo. Edgecumbe to be Secretary to his Majesty's Legation to the Swiss Cantons, and Chas. Foley Wilmot, esq. to be Sec. to his Majesty's Legation at Florence.
March 29. James Alex. Stewart Mackenzie, esq. to be Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Ceylon.—Col. F. Cockbum, to be Lieut.Governor of the Bahama Islands.
March 31. Knighted, Lieut.-Col. Wm. M. G. Colebrooke, R.A.
Brev. Capt. Babington Nolan to be Major in the army.
April 1. Major-General Sir James Douglas to be Lieutenant-Governor of the Island of Guernsey.
April 5. Right Hon. James Alex. Stewart Mackenzie sworn of his Majesty's Privy Council.—J. G. C. Disbrowe, esq. to be Page of Honour to the Queen.
Knighted, Francis Forbes, esq. Chief Justice of New South Wales, and James Duke, esq. Sheriff of London and Middlesex.
April 7. Unattached, Capt. Charles J. Vander Meulen to be Major.
April 11. Thos. Wathen Waller, esq. to be Secretary of Legation at Brussels. i
April 12. Macvey Napier, esq. to be one of the Ordinary Clerks of Session in Scotland.
Member) returned to serve in Parliament.
Lerec—Hon. Henry Fitzroy.
Rev. E. Stanley, D.D. to be Bishop of Norwich.
Fife. Kev. J. Carr, Brattleby R. co. Lincoln. Rev. J. C. Cardale, Sheephall V. Hertfordshire. Rev. W. R. Clayton, St. Mary Coslany P.C. Norwich. Rev. N. Cogswell, Immingham V. Lincolnsh. Rev. H. G. De Starck, Fisherton Anger R. Wilts. Rev. A. Dickenson, West Retford R. co. Notts. Rev. J. H. Dyer, Waltham Magna V. Essex. Rev, G. Fisk, Walsall V. Staffordshire. Rev. J. Fry, Sompting V. Essex. Rev. W. Gardiner, Rochford R. Essex. Rev. J. Gemmel, to the Church of Faitlie, near Glasgow. Rev. P. P. Gilbert, St. Margaret P. C. Hagger
atone. Rev. W. K. Hamilton, St. Peter's-in-the-East
V. Oxford. Rev. W. F. Hook, Leeds V. co. York. Rev. C. A. Hunt, Lower Darwin P. C. Lancasb. Rev. T. Irwin, Ormsby V. Cleveland. Rev. R. S. Jones, Gravesend It. Kent. Rev. G. Landon, Bishopstawton V. Devon. Rev. O. Lodge, Klsworth R. Cambridgeshire. Rev. E. Mann, SoutheyR. Norfolk. Rev. R. Meek, Hill Deverill P.C. Wilts. Rev. J. Nussey, Poughill R. Devon. Rev. W. Oldfleld, Misterton V. Nottinghamsh. Rev. L. Ottley, Acton V. Suffolk. Rev. P. H. Palmer, Howe V. Leicestershire. Rev. G. C. Rashleigh, Bradford Peverell R.
Dorset. Rev. J. S. Scobell, St. Kew V. Cornwall. Rev. C. J. Snape, Blackrod R. Bolton. Rev. H. Stoneman, Zenar V. Cornwall. Rev. J. Spry, West Bromwich P.C. Staffordsh. Rev. W. R, Touilinson, Sucrficld English R.