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hand of Osiris, and held frequently by the Egyptian kings.

The crooked sceptre is clearly here an emblem of reduced power and authority; and from its appearance upon the Gem, shews incontestibly the long and close intercourse that subsisted between Egypt and Assyria, and the conformity of their symbols. Thus far we have striking coincidences; but we shall bring the agreement, between the graphic representation and the words of the Sacred Record, still closer.

Of the rank and quality of this winged figure, some conjecture may be allowed: it may be a personification of one of the Babylonian pvy Owtn, or celestial watchers, spoken of by Daniel, ch. iv. ver. 12., ' I saw in the visions of my head upon my bed, and behold a watcher and an holy one came down from Heaven.' It may be regarded as the archangel Michael; of whom Daniel also speaks, chap. x. ver. 13, 'At that time shall Michael stand up—the great prince which standeth for the children of the people.' Or it may be a symbolical representation of the human personage spoken of, chap. x. 'Then 1 lifted up my eyes and looked, and beheld a certain man clothed in linen, whose loins were girded with fine gold of Uphaz, and his body like beryl,' fcc I incline to the opinion that it is an angel or minister of God. Be that as it may, the figures with all their accessories are pregnant with meaning, and conceal under symbols apparently mystical, certain circumstances relating to Babylonish history. First, the lion, it is well known, is a type of Chaldea, or Babylonia: Scripture speaks of the typical lion of Assyria; of the lion, the typical standard of Judah; and of the anti-typical lion, the great enemy of mankind: but here, by the lion, the Babylonian empire is to be understood; or, to

speak more definitely, by this image are indicated the power, greatness, and warlike qualities of Nebuchadnezzar, who then considered himself (as did Nimrod, his great prototype) the Sun—the greatest God above, and himself below.*

Megasthenes the Persian, writing of this king, says,—

Kafioimo8p6<ropot 'HpaicKtvs aiXiapMTtpos. Euseb. p. 41, &c.

That thisNebuchadnezzar was more famous than great Hercules, and that he subdued Lybia, Asia, &c. Berosus the Chaldean likewise speaks of the notableexpeditions of this illustrious prince, in Judea, Phoenicia, Syria, and Arabia; and that he exceeded in his exploits all that had reigned before him in Babylon and Chaldea.f

The wings which the lion bears, denote the celerity of the conquests of this monarch when in the zenith of his glory; but being plucked, as the story runs, they indicate that by his arrogance and idolatry, he incurred the wrath of the Almighty, and was deprived of the sovereignty of his kingdom.

"Oh! King," says Daniel (in his interpretation of his dream,) chap, iv., "it is thou that art grown and become strong; for thy greatness is grown and reacheth unto Heaven, and thy dominion to the end of the earth: and this," he adds, "is the decree of the Most High, which is come upon my lord the King: That they shall drive thee from men, and thy dwelling shall be with the beasts of the field, and they shall make thee to eat grass as oxen, and they shall wet you with the dew of Heaven, and seven times shall pass over thee, till you know that the Most High ruleth in the kingdom of men."

Now all this came upon Nebuchadnezzar; for while exulting in the magnificence of the palace he had constructed by the might of his power and the honour of his majesty," Is not this great Babylon, which I have built?" a voice cried, "The kingdom is departed from thee."

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We then read of the abject condition to which (as predicted by Daniel) Nebuchadnezzar was reduced; of his being driven from the sons of men; and that his heart was made like the beasts; meaning thereby, that he partook of their nature and ferocity.

This, his overthrow, is typified, I think, by the reverted sceptre in the hand of the angel, and from its being pointed to the ground.

But after the appointed time, the King himself tells us, ver. 26, He returned to his reason; that is, God's judgment ceased; and he was restored to his kingdom, his honour, and his brightness; and that he extolled and praised the King of Heaven — "all whose works are truth, and his ways judgment:" which singular conversion is symbolized by the human heart that is shewn to the lion by the angel, and which now, on his restoration to health and greatness, and believing fully that the Heavens do rule, is to inhabit his body, instead of the heart of the beast, which, in his pride and impiety, there held dominion.

That this reasoning is sustainable, let us turn to the history of Saul, 1 Sam. ch. ix. We there read of God giving him another another heart. Ezek. ch. xi. ver. 19. The Lord, speaking of his promised favour to the idolatrous Jews, says, "And 1 will give them one heart, and I will put a new spirit in you, and I will take the stony heart out of their flesh, and will give them a heart of flesh; that they may walk in my statutes, and keep mine ordinances, and do them; and they shall be my people, and I will be their God."

It would moreover appear, from the spread of the wings, borne by the lion on the Gem, that the wings which the

prophet spake of as being plucked, (the emblem of the King's debasement while suffering under divine indignation,) had been renewed like his heart, and received great beauty and expansion, now that he had become sensible that the God of Daniel was in truth a God of Gods and Lord of Kings (chap, ii.):—a conviction he acknowledged with deep humiliation.

In further proof, that under his wings his people might now trust, it is added, that Nebuchadnezzar (accompanying his command with a choice oblation and many gifts) made Daniel ruler over the whole province of Babylon, and, at the request of Daniel, set Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, over the affairs of the same province."

The inscription in Cuneiform characters, sculptured upon this Gem,— from their decided affinity with the Persepolitan elements, I read through the Persian:

ASAD vet SHFR WA MALAK. (The) Lion and (the) Angel. Having thus shewn, from indisputable authority, the historical and commemorative tendency of the two Gems selected, thereby confirming the inviolability of the Sacred Records, and furnishing a Key to a right understanding of these valuable relics of ancient Babylon, I trust 1 shall have rendered some service to the Republic of Letters; and in undertaking, with divine favour, the exposition of some other cylinders in my possession, which are of vast interest, I indulge in the hope, that to the Antiquary and the Historian, and in a particular manner to those who are engaged in Biblical researches, a new field for inquiry will be opened, leading to important results.

John Belfour, Mem. Roy. Soc. of Lit.


Mr. Urban.

Tulse Hill, Dec 1836. MANY of your readers, I am afraid, turn with indifference, if not with a stronger feeling of distaste, from a lecture on the alphabet. 1 know the subjectcan possess slight attractions

for the generality of readers; but there are, I hope, a select few by whom my disquisitions may be deemed worthy not only of perusal, but reflection. I will endeavour to be brief, but 1 must avoid obscurity. C. G.—The announced sound of the cognates C. and G (« and y<) is produced, when the breath, in its utterance, is intercepted towards the throat by the middle or root of the tongue,— as, ae, ag, ec, eg ; and the enounced, when the utterance is continued after the tongue is withdrawn, as, ca, ga,

C. and G. announced.

The Goth. Auk-an. A. S. Ec, eac, ic, or yc-an. Gcr. „4ncn-en. Dutch, Ortt-en. Sw. OcA-a. Dan. Oo-er, are evidently the same word, differently pronounced, written, and applied; as the Gr. ay-€iv? ax Ij, of-vr. Lat. Agere, aug-ere, ac-uere j they have the same radical or intrinsic meaning, expressed by the common English verb, to ich, now written to eke, and have the same literal root.

In Lat. Aug-ere, the application is to number, as well as to quantity; and thus the usage is become more general, trespassing upon the province of adder*.

In Lat. ^c-uere, Gr. o|-vr, the application is consequential: by protracting lineally, by extending superficially, and thus drawing or producing to a point or edge (A. S. .Ec-ge) a substance is sharpened: "Habet notionem acueudi, a significatione protrahendi, ducendi in longum, et sic attenuandi, acuendique." So says Lennep in V. tiKfopai, Pers. Ak-u\. Gr. Aie-ij. Lat. Ac-as. A.S. Ec-ge. Ger. Eck. D. Eg-ge. Sw. (Egg. Dan. (Eg. Eng, Edge (to kit or cut.)

Gr. «-«■>. A.S. Hig-an, to hie, to go.

Lat. Jc-ere, to throw out. (J-ac-ere, Ce-ac-an.)

Goth. Ik. A.S. Ic. Ger. Ich. Dutch, Ik. Sw. Jag. Dan. Jeg. Russ. Ya. Sans. Aham. Gr. Ey-o>. Lat. Eg-o. Eng. IJ The Sans. Aik-tL. Pers. Yic, is equivalent to the numeral one.

Goth. Ak. A. S. Ac. Old English. Ac, is equivalent to eke, add, and; the Gr. rat, ya, ye.Gr. preposition Ex, c£. Lat. Ex.

Of the Sanscrit pronoun Aham, Bopp has observed,—

1. That it consists of two elements, ah, and am;

2. That it has no connexion with its oblique cases; and,

'See Let. II. p. 597. Gent. Mag. Dec. 1836. 'See / in the New Eng. Dictionary.

3. That ah is the root, and am a mere termination.9

With all my deference for so renowned an oriental scholar as Bopp, and for so sensible and reflecting an inquirer as Dr. Prichard, I can admit the first observation, and that alone, to be correct.

1. Aham certainly does consist of two elements, and they are G (y) and M:— both announced,—Ag, Am, the guttural G being softened into the aspirate H.

2. The accusative case of this Sanscrit pronoun is Mam, which is composed of M, both enounced (ma), and also announced {dm). It consequently contains the second element M in all its power; though degraded by Bopp to a mere termination. Ma (i. e. nt enounced) is also used alone, as the accusative.

3. M is found in all the cases (except two) in the three numbers singular, dual, and plural, which the Sanscrit Grammar usurps in common with the Greek, and it is the same literal root M; or element in the nomenclature of Bopp.

This Sanscrit Nominative Ag-am pronounced Ah-am) has, in fact, the duplicate force of / and Me. The Sanscrit Accusative Ma-am (pronounced Mam) has the force of the reduplicated Me-Me. The first obviously subsists in the Lat. Eoo-me-r(ryo/M flt4) and has its equivalent in the common English expression of infantine willingness, And me too. The second subsists in the Lat. Me-me-t, (/«/« or), and in the common English repetition of infantine eagerness—me-me.*

There are a very few common words, so very different in their application, which have sprung immediately from this literal root (gor c), that I cannot resist the temptation to name them now.

Goth, and A.S. Ecke, &ce. Grvuxor. Engl. ache.—Pers. Ach-ar, ax-ax. Goth. Ak-rs. A. S. ffic-r. Gr. ay-pot.

1 I quote from Dr. Prichard, p. 112, note. It is by inadvertence that the term element is applied by him indiscriminately to a root, and a mere termination.

* See Animadversiones ad Analogiam, by Scheide, p. 292.

5 The nursery is an excellent school for speech, unfettered by the art of Grammar. Lat. Ag-er, and Danish, Ag-er. Eng. Ac-re; an extent of land. The Gr. yat-n is also, terra lutepalens (Lcnnep.) And

An Oak, A. S. Ac, is Arbor late patens.

A. S. Ece. Eng. Age, is a length of time.'

C. and G. enounced.

Gr. Ki-civ, Ki-v-ttf. Lat. Ce-dere, to go, to proceed. A. S. Co-man. D. Aomen. Ger. Ad-mmen. Sw. /To-mma. Dan. Ao-mmer. Eng. To co-me.

Goth. Ga-g-gan (pronounced like the) A. S. Ga-n-gan, to go.

A. S. Ge-an, to gi-\e. Dan. Gi-or, to do.

A. S. Ce-nnan. Gr. yn-vtadai. Lat. Gi-gnere. Eng. to ii-ndle, or bring forth ii-nd. And kind is in the Persian AAu-n. Sans. AAn-nan. Gr. ye-rot. Lat. Ge-nus. A. S. G'y-n. Ger. and Dutch, Au-nne. Dan. Ai'-on.

Gr. yi-vao-Ktiv. Goth. Cu-nnan. A.S. Ce-nnan. Dutch and Ger. Ae-nnen. Sw. Aa-na. Dan. Ai-ender. Eng. to Ke-n, to con, to know :—and the Persian Aft-nda, co-nning, cu-nning or knowing.

A. S. Ce-osan. D. and Ger. Aie-sen. Fr. CAoi-sir, (to cheese, as anciently written,) to cAoose, to se-ize, to take.

Gr. ya-em, xu ti", ca-pere, to reach, to ya-wn.

The Sans. Yui (says Dr. Prichard) is a verbal root, whence are derived several verbs meaning tojoin, and other words. Sans, yiig-ah. Pers. Yoo, yu-gh. Gr. fvy-or. Lat. Jug-uva. Russ. Ig-o. Welsh. Iau. Eng. Yoke. This, I allow, is premature, because it is advancing into compounds.

D. T. The announced sound of the cognates, D and T, is produced when the breath in its utterance or emission is interrupted by an appulse of the top of the tongue against the teeth or upper gums,—dd,ii,(t. It; and the enounced, when the utterance or emission is continued after the top of the tongue is withdrawn,—dh, di, ta, ti.

D. and T. announced. A. S. Ad, congeries. Gr. aS-tiv. Lat. .^d-dere.7

6 See Ache, acre, oak, aye, in the New Eng. Dictionary.

7 See Let. II. p. A97.

Lat. preposition Ad. A. S. At; the Lat conjunctions At and Et. Gr. m.K

D. and T. enounced.

Gr.8a-«v. Lat. Da-re. Pers. Da-den, to add (in its present popular usage, to add to the possessions of another; that is, to give). The Gr. Sa-av (or oa-i>cu>) still survives, says Lennep, in the Lat. Dare (and da-no, not infrequent in Plautus), and whence the Greek reduplicate, Si-So-fit.

Gr. St, re, Tis, Tei-v-(u>. Lat. te-n- dere, to extend.

Dr. Prichard has remarked, that the Sanscrit Da, is a verbal root; and hence the verb Da-da-mi, I give. Per. Da-d-en, to give.

So also ad, whence Ad-mi. Gr. fS-<a. Lat. Ed-o, I eat. Goth. and. A. S. Et-Bin, to eat. The Gr. tS-etv, says Lennep, is a cognate of ab-etu, and, he adds, "a notione premendi, condensandi, atque ita comminuendi ad earn manducandi translatum fuit."

The Goth. Tau-jan. A. S. Do-n. D. Do-en. Ger. 77tu-n. Eng. to do. Gr. 6a-vai; and also the Eng. preposition To.

Goth. 7>-c-an. A. S. Tie-c-an. Ger. and D. Th-cA-en. Sw. Ta-g-a. Dan. Ta-gg-er. Eng. To ta-ke, to tou-ch.* It may be worth noting, that the A. S. article, or pronoun, was Se (See), in the Nor. Sax. Te; that the Gr. is 2u; that the A. S. article was supplanted by the, and that the Gr. 8t-a-8ai, is to See.

N.—The announced sound of N is

8 I am well aware that Tooke has ascribed a different origin to ad and at; he considers them, as I do, to have a meaning similar to that of to ,■ and as to is, in his opinion, the past part, of the Goth, verb, Tau-yan, to do; so, he thinks, ad and at are the past part, of the Latin verb, ag-ere, to act, with the omission of the final um; thus ag-itum (y hard), ay-tum, ag-dum, ayd, ad: and, actum, act, at. Thus, in chap. ix. on Prepositions; but in chap. viii. on Conjunctions, he has already given another genealogy for at; thus, whit, adit, ast, at. There is gross inconsistency in this: he in one instance derives ad and at from the same verb; he then assumes the existence of ad, uses it as a prefix to Sit; and presents a distinct derivation of at, though elsewhere established (by him) to be the same word as this prefix ad.

"With many referable to the touch.

produced when the- breath is uttered or emitted through the nose, with the tongue fixed towards the gums or bottom of the fore teeth, dn, en, and enounced when the utterance or emission is continued after the tongue is withdrawn, na, ni.

N. announced. Goth. Ain. A. S. An. Dutch and Dan. Een. Ger. Eins. Sw. En. Gr. Ev. Lat. Un-us. Eng. One. In Sans, it is Ack-i. Pers. Yik {eke).

The A. S. An-an, is to one, to an-ite; i. e. to effect the union of separate magnitudes into one magnitude; and subsequently of separate numbers in one sum.

And so much for the three literal roots, which in a former letter were classed together, as denoting three modes of encrease.10

L.—In the organic pronunciation of the sounds, of which L is the literal character, the top of the tongue, during the utterance or emission of the breath, strikes against the foremost part of the palate.

The announced and enounced sounds are distinctly heard in the Arabic AUa.

The Ger. all, is omnis, totus, and also sanus, integer; the Ger. Heil is likewise nanus, integer, and the two differ, says Wachter, in nothing but the preposed H; they correspond with the Dutch Hel, Dan. Heel, the Eng. whole and all,—totus, cunctus, omnis; and are, undoubtedly, the same word. The Ger. Heill-cn, tegere, and A<?e/-cn, sanare; D. Heel-en, heyl-en; Dan. heel-er, are also the same word: in A.S. Heelan. Goth. Hul Jan. Sw. Ht/l-ia, tegere, to cover, Eng. to hill, or hele, or heal.1'

The Ger. Al-en. Lat. Al-ere. Gr. a\-6tu>, medere. Gr. AW, talis halitus, qui vaporem tepidum adfert. A.S. (El-an, accendere, to warm. Gr. HXtov, the Sun. Gr. oX-oc, totus, all, or the whole; ovk-os, sanies, whole, or, as anciently written, hole; ov\-o<iv, sanum esse, V-al-ere, to be or make hole or whole.

The A.S. L<E-c-nian, is also Sanare, to make whole, to re-cotier, to heal. The A.S. La-g-an, 2e-c-gan, ti-c-gan.

10 Let II. p. 596.

11 See Heal in the New Eng. Dictionary.

Goth. La-o-yan, are to lay. And here we appear to reach the literal meaning: to lay, or ly, to lay on or over, consequently, to cover; and as a further consequence, sanare, integrare, to make sound, entire or whole, to recover, to heal; and hence. All, omnis or omnes; from whole or hole—substantially applied—will derive its application to the whole, numerically.'11

R.—The sound of R is produced, when during the emission or utterance of the breath a quick trepidation of the tip of the tongue is vibrated against the palate. The announced and enounced sounds are strongly heard in the common exclamation hur-rah.

R. announced.

Goth. Air. A.S. Ar, an; er, or; denote anteriority, priority in space or time: the front; probably in relation to the human form.

Gr. Hap, np, the fore or ear-ly (the ra-the) part of the dayor year. Lat. Per,

Gr. Hp-eot. Lat. Her-us. A.S. Herr-a. Dutch. Heer. Dan. Herre; the prime person or agent; the foreman, the chief, superior; first in valour or virtue, or rank or authority.

A.S. Or, ord (i. e. Or-ed). Cimbric, Ar, ard (says Lye) is initium, principium, or-igo, auct-or.

Lat. Or-iri, or-diri, or-igo, or-do. Gr. op.ftv, promovere, excitare; op.80s, strait forward.

Gr. Ap-ns, Mars, App-nv.Mas, Hp-a. Juno, ap-a, there-/ore.

The A.S. Ar, are. Dutch, Eere, is honour. A.S. ^r-ian. Dutch, £er-en. Ger. £r-en. Sw. <£V-u. Dan. C&V-er, is—to honour :i. e. to be, or cause to be before others, to put or place forwards, to advance, to prefer."

In Dan. Er, (r announced) is equivalent to the Eng. Am; and in that language it is the termination of the infinitive, corresponding to the Lat. re (r enounced). In A.S. an, in old Eng. and other Northern languages en. Gr. eiv.

The A.S. JBr-ian. Gr. ap-otiv. Lat. ar-are, are, commonly interpreted, to plough. Of the Gr. ap-oav, Len'nep

11 Wachter thinks that All "ab eleganti migrationeab omni pervenitad totum a toto ad sanum et falvum."

"For our own words, Are, art, I refer to the New Eng. Dictionary, See also To Herry.

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