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wire connected with the negative pole of
"In this last experiment we had neither
been called to life without the electric agency or not. I offer no opinion, but have merely stated certain facte."
NEW COLLEGE OF SURGEONS. Feb. 14. The rebuilding of the Royal College of Surgeons having been completed, the Hunterian oration was delivered by Sir Benjamin Brodie. Sir Anthony Carlisle, the senior vice-president of the college, presided; and the meeting was honoured by the presence of his Grace the Duke of Wellington, the Bishops of London and Chichester, Earl Stanhope, Lord Denman, Lord Stanley, Lord Burghersh, Sir Robert Peel, Sir Robert Inglis, Sir George Staunton, Sir Henry Halford, the (Censors of the Royal College of Physicians, and many other eminent and scientific individuals.
SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES.
Feb. 2. The Earl of Aberdeen, President, in the chair.
Sir Henry Ellis, Sec. exhibited a plan of the Roman road between Silchester and Staines, executed by two young officers at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst (see our present number, p. 288.)
Sydney Smirke, esq. F.S.A. made a third and final communication on the remains of the original architecture of Westminster Hall, disclosed during the recent repair conducted under the superintendance of his brother Sir Robert Smirke. From the various relics of the original architectural members, found either on one side wall or the other, Mr. Smirke has been enabled to form a restored drawing of the whole interior elevation of the Hall of Rufus, with authority for nearly every feature: this is a most acceptable offering to the architectural antiquary. It appears that the windows were placed with extraordinaryirregularity of distance. The whole bore considerable resemblance to the churches of St. Alban's, and Christ church at Oxford. Mr. Smirke concluded his observations with remarking that the Government deserved the thanks of the present and future generations for the liberal and efficient repair which has been accomplished; whilst he deprecated those parts of the accepted plan for the new Parliamentary buildings, by which Mr. Barry proposes not only to alter materially the form of the upper or south end, but, by placing buildings immediately on the east side, to block up or obscure the very windows which have been recently opened, and which now add materially, in point of light and effect, to the beauty of the interior.
Feb. 9. The Earl of Aberdeen, Pres. James Dodsley Cuff, esq. of Stockwell place, Stockwell, was elected a Fellow of the Society.
Mr. C. R. Smith, F.S.A. exhibited a die and counter die for a half-crown of Charles I. found in the recent excavation at Lothbury. They are rudely executed, and were perhaps formed for forgery.
Sir Henry Ellis communicated from the Lansdowne MSS. an account of an attempted assassination of William Prince of Orange, in 1581; addressed to Lord Burleigh, by William Hurlle, who was an English envoy at Antwerp. A pistol was fired at the Prince, and the bullet entered at one cheek, and passed through the other, without materially injuring the mouth. The pistol burst and injured the assassin, a Biscayan; and he was killed on the spot by the bystanders. The Prince was the victim of another assassin in 1584. Feb. 16. The Earl of Aberdeen, Pres. Robert Bigsby, esq. of Derby, and Robert Abraham, esq. of Keppell-street, architect, were elected Fellows of the Society.
A.J. Kempe, esq. F.S.A. exhibited an engraving by Van Hooge, from a drawing by Visscher, representing the descent upon Sheerness, of the Dutch under Adm. de Ruyter in the reign of Charles II. It exhibits a bird's-eye view of the country in an able and interesting manner.
E. J. Carlos, esq. communicated some observations on several paintings, apparently of the twelfth century, on the roof of one of the chancels of St. Nicholas'
Guilford church. The central compart, merit is a representation of the Godhead; and the six others which surround it, as a fan, in the groining of the arches, appear to be various representations of Deathand Judgment, the scenes of three being laid in thepresent world, and those of the others in the world to come. In the spandrils of the arch, facing the church, are the more customary representations of St. Michael weighing souls, and of the wicked being turned into hell.
Sir Henry Ellis communicated from the Lansdowne MSS. a very curious report of the state of Ulster temp. Eliz., in which it is described as the most rebellious of all the provinces of Ireland, and the families of the ancient English settlers to differ only in name from the savage barbarity of the original Irish. It discloses several curious particulars of the history and migration of families. Feb. 23. The Earl of Aberdeen, Pres. Mr. C. R. Smith, F.S.A. exhibited a number of the most singular varieties of the fragments of Roman glass and earthenware found in London during the years 1835 and 1830'; including three heads castin glass, being the lower portions of the handles of vases.
Mr. Kempe communicated some observations on the plan of the survey of the Roman Road between Silchester and Staines, made in 1836 by the students of the senior class in Sandhurst college, and recently laid before the Society, as tending strongly to confirm the opinion of Hors- ley, that Silchester was the Calleva Attrebalum of Antoninus. (See an article on the same subject in onr present month's review.) Mr. Kempe's observations were illustrated by a plan of Silchester, and its walls, amphitheatre, &c. as they remained in 1745, compiled from inedited materials preserved in the King's Library, British Museum; and by a plan of the baths discovered in 1833, commuciated to him by the Rev. Mr. Coles, of Silchester.
Sir Henry Ellis communicated from the Lansdowne MSS. a remarkable plan for the formation of an Academy of Horsemanship, with the rules for its regulation, in the reign of James the First, under the patronage of Henry Prince of Wales, the Earls of Arundel and Pembroke, and others of the principal nobility and courtiers.
ItOYAL SOCIETY OF LITERATl'RE.
Dec. 22. D. Pollock, esq. in the chair.
The paper read was a part of an unpublished life of Sir Peter Carewe, written by John Vowel, alias Hooker, in the time of Queen Elizabeth; communicated by Sir Thomas Phillipps. The writer details, in a very simple and amtis
Gent. Mac. Vol..'VII.
ing style, the adventurous career of Sir Peter, from a childhood and youth of a very unpromising character, to the height of his brilliant reputation, as one of the most accomplished courtiers and valorous knights in the service of Henry VIII. He received his education—or, rather, his introduction to the stirring life of the period, at the courts of the King of France and Prince of Orange. Returning to England, he rose at once into favour with Henry, by whose command he attended Lord William Howard, on his embassy to James V. of Scotland, and, afterwards, the Earl of Southampton, in his mission to Calais, to bring over Anna of Cleves. He then travelled into France and Italy, proceeding as far as Constantinople. He subsequently took a part in all the English expeditions against France, distinguishing himself greatly at the sieges of Terouenne and Calais. One of the most interesting passages read, related to the unfortunate loss of the King's ship, the Man/ Rose, at Spithead, with 700 persons on board, including her commander, Sir George Carewe, cousin of Sir Peter. Jan. 26. Colonel Leake, V.P.
The first communication read was, a letter from Colonel Leake to the Secretary, supplementary to the learned writer's paper, * On certain disputed positions in the Topography of Athens, which was read in May 1835. In that paper various arguments were adduced, tending to the conclusion, that the conical mountain of St. George, near Athens, the peak of which bears about E.N.E. from the centre of the original site, is the ancient Lycabettus. Those arguments have since received confirmation from the opinions of the Rev. C. Wordsworth, in his work, entitled 'Athens and Attica.* A more direct testimony, however, than any previously brought forward, as to the position of Lycabettus, is furnished by the words of Marinus, a Greek writer of the fifth century, who relates that Proelus was buried on the eastern side of the city, near Lycabettus. A further reading consisted of part of an essay, the result of considerable research and erudition, on 'Two Roman Inscriptions relative to the Conquest of Britain by the Emperor Claudius Caesar,' the communication of John Hogg, esq. IM.A.
Feb. 9. H. Hallam, esq. V.P. Mr. Hogg's memoir was concluded. One of the inscriptions was proved by Mr. Hogg to be spurious, and copied from the other, which consists of the beginnings of nine lines. It was found by the writer, in 1826, in a wall belonging to the Barberini palace at Rome, but it 2R
had previously attracted the attention of several antiquaries ; one of whom, Gauges de' Gozze, has very learnedly supplied the lost portion of the lines, as follows:
TI. CLAVdio Drusif. Casari A VGVsto Germanico Pio PONTIFICi max. Trib. Pot. ix. COS. V. IMperatori xvi. Patri Patriai SENATVS. POPVlusq. Romanus quod REGES. URITanniai perduelles sine VLLA. IACTVra celeriter cceperit GENTESQ. Extremarum Orchadum PRIMVS. INDICIO facto R. Imperio adiceret In proceeding to comment on the parts of the inscription separately, Mr. Hogg showed that, although the pranomen Imp. is omitted, it belongs to Claudius the fifth Roman Emperor. The cognomen of Germanicus this emperor assumed from his father Drusus, to whom, and to his
fosterity, it was given by the senate, 'or the titular formula, Trib. Pot. IX. Cos. V. Imperatori XVI. he proposed, Trib. Pot. XI. Cot. V. Imp. XXII. i. e. A.D.51. Having indicated the incompetence of the authorities—Eutropius, Jerome, Orosius, and Cassiodorus—from whom, as asserting that Claudius annexed the Orkneys to the Roman Empire, Gauges de' Gozze appears to have completed the eighth line, he suggested, as probably a more correct restoration, Gentesque insularum extremarum, or extremat orbis terrai; while the last line, which was also evidently supplied from the same writers, he altered to Primus indicio facto I. R. addidit. The occasion of the inscription having been erected to Claudius at the above date, includes historical circumstances of great interest. Tacitus (Annal. 1. xii. c. 31—37) states that Publius Ostorius, Proprietor of Britain, having already defeated several of the British tribes, marched against the fierce Silures, who, under their renowned chief Caractacus, advanced into the country of the Ordovices, and fortified a steep place in the mountains; that they were there attacked by Ostorius, and, after an obstinate battle and vast slaughter, the Romans gained a complete victory. Caractacus and his family were sent to Rome, where they were exhibited, with great pomp, before the Roman people. This important inscription was originally discovered in the beginning of the Via Flaminia, in the Piazza Sciarra, where formerly was an arch, which Ferrucci and other writers on the antiquities of Rome believe to have been the arch of Claudius. On the same spot have been likewise discovered an antique tessellated pavement, some fluted columns of African marble, the trunk of a statue of a captive Briton, several pilasters, and other remains.
Mr. Cullimore read a paper, written by himself, 'on the Epoch of Amon-meRamses the Great, as determined by the Astronomical Sculptures in his Palace at Thebes.' In a former paper he had shown, that an alabaster scarabaean Calendar, in the collection of Mr. J. Sams, which bears the prenominal shield of Thothmos Mera, appears to connect that monarch's reign with the origin of the canicular cycle, B.C. 1325—1321, which Theon attributes to Menophres—a name differing from that of Mera or Mceris only in common orthographical variations. This epoch likewise corresponds with the age of Moeris, according to Herodotus —900 years anterior to that historian's visit to Egypt in the latter half of the fifth century B.C. The purpose of the present memoir was to show, that the astronomical remains of A inon-me- Ramses, the Rameses Miamoun of Manetho, (who was the seventh successor of Mera, and the constructor of the Chronological Tablet of Abydos,) furnish coinciding results, fixing the date of the ceiling of bis palace of the Memnonium to the year B.C. 1138, or 180 years lower than the epoch of Mera.
Feb.23. J. Lee, esq, LL.D. President.
J. Y. Akerman, esq. Sec. communicated some remarks on the general neglect of coins by historical writers, called forth by the paper of Mr. Hogg, read before the Royal Society of Literature, which we have noticed under the preceding head. Mr. Akerman remarked that reference to the coins of Claudius the First would have shown Mr. Hogg that the title IMPerator was never used by that Emperor as a praenomen; and, indeed, Suetonius says " prsenomine Imperatoris abstinuit;" of the truth of which we have the best possible evidence in his numerous coins. As regards the inscription itself, there can be no doubt that the date, as inserted by Gauges de' Gozze, was supplied on the best authority—the coins above alluded to, which bear a triumphal arch inscribed De Bkitannis, and have on the obverse the letters Trib. Pot. Ix cos. v. Imp. xvi. j thus showing that the triumph decreed by the Senate to Claudius was while he held the tribunitian power for the ix. and not for the XI. time, as suggested by Mr. Hogg.
Mr. Cullimore, the other Secretary, read a part of a paper, by himself, on the earliest Dariks of the kingdom of Persia.
Sir Henry Ellis communicated a curious contemporary notice, extracted from a newspaper of the time, of the siege pieces struck at Pontefract during the civil war.—Adjourned to March 23.
PROCEEDINGS IN PARLIAMENT.
House Of Lords.
Jan. 31. This being the day appointed for opening the Session of Parliament, the Lord Chancellor proceeded to open it by Commission, when the following most gracious Speech was read.
"My Lords and Gentlemen,
"We are commanded by his Majesty to acquaint you that his Majesty continues to receive from all Foreign Powers the strongest assurances of their friendly disposition, and his Majesty trusts, that the experience of the blessings which peace confers upon nations, will tend to confirm and secure the present tranquillity. His Majesty laments that the civil contest which has agitated the Spanish Monarchy has not yet been brought to a close; but his Majesty has continued to afford to the Queen of Spain that aid which, by the Treaty of Quadruple Alliance of ia34, his Majesty engaged to give if it should become necessary; and his Majesty rejoices that his co-operating force has rendered useful assistance to the troops of her Catholic Majesty. Events have happened in Portugal, which, for a time, threatened to disturb the internal peace of that country. His Majestyordered, in consequence, a temporary augmentation of his naval force in the Tagus, for the more effectual protection of the persons and property of his subjects resident in Lisbon; and the Admiral commanding his Majesty's Squadron was authorised, in case of need, to afford protection to the person of the Queen of Portugal, without, however, interfering in those Constitutional questions which divided the conflicting parties.
"His Majesty has directed the Reports of the Commissioners appointed to inquire into the state of the Province of Lower Canada to be laid bafore you, and has ordered us to call your attention to that important subject. We have it also in charge to recommend for your serious deliberation those provisions which will be submitted to you for the improvement of the Law, and of the Administration of Justice, assuring you that bis Majesty's anxiety for the accomplishment of these objects remains undiminished.
"We are enjoined to convey to you his Majesty's desire, that you should consult upon such further measures as may give
increased stability to the Established Church, and produce concord and goodwill."Gentlemen of the Home of Commons,
"The Estimates of the year have been prepared with every desire to meet the exigencies of the public service in the spirit of a wise economy. His Majesty has directed them to be laid before you without delay. The increase of the Revenue has hitherto more than justified the expectations created by the receipts of former years. His Majesty recommends an early renewal of your inquiries into the operation of the Act permitting the establishment of Joint Stock Banks. The best security against the mismanagement of Banking affairs must ever be found in the capacity and integrity of those who are intrusted with the administration of them, and in the caution and the prudence of the public; but no legislative regulation should be omitted which can increase and ensure the stability of establishments upon which commercial credit so much depends.
"My Lords and Gentlemen,"His Majesty has more especially commanded us to bring under your notice the state of Ireland, and the wisdom of adopting all such measures as may improve the condition of that part of the United Kingdom. His Majesty recommends to your early consideration the present constitution of the Municipal Corporations of that country, the laws which regulate the collection of Tithes, and the difficult but pressing question of establishing some legal provision for the Poor, guarded by prudent regulations, and by such precautions against abuse as your experience and knowledge of the subject enable you to suggest. His Majesty commits these great interests into your hands, in the confidence that you will be able to frame laws in accordance with the wishes of bis Majesty and the expectation of his people. His Majesty is persuaded that, should this hope be fulfilled, you will not only contribute to the welfare of Ireland, but strengthen the law and constitution of these realms, by securing their benefits to all classes of his Majesty's subjects."
In the House Of Lords, the usual Address to his Majesty was moved by the Earl of Leintter, and seconded by Lord Suffield; and after some observations from the Duke of Wellington,it was agreed to without a division.
In the House Of Commons, the Address was moved by Mr. Sanford, and seconded by Mr. V. Stuart Sir R. Peel
said that he should offer no opposition to the Address; but should reserve his opinions and resistance, when requisite, till the measures and propositions of the government were separately brought forward. The Address was then carried without an amendment.
House Of Commons, Feb. 6. The Attorney-General obtainned leave to bring in a Bill for the Abolition Of Imprisonment Fob Debt. The main objects of the measure were to give the creditor an immediate remedy against the property, and to take away from bim his remedy against the person of his debtor. The first object of the Bill about to be introduced would be to enable the sheriff to seize on the money, bills, book-debts, bonds, funded property, and copyhold and freehold lands of the debtor. He proposed that a judgment should be a charge on the real estate, so that if, after twelve months, the debt should not be discharged, the party holding that judgment should have the same remedy against the land as if he held a mortgage upon it. He by no means proposed to take away the power of imprisoning for debt in all cases; on the contrary, it would be provided by his Bill, that whenever fraud was discovered, it should be punished.
The Attorney-General obtained leave to bring in a bill for the Better ReguLation Of The Registration Of Voters In England, by which, instead of having 175 judges, as at present, of the claimant's fitness for the concession of the franchise, he proposed having only eight or ten, an abundantly sufficient number for practical utility.
Feb. 7, 8. Lord J. Russell moved for leave to bring in a bill to remedy the abuses and provide for the reform of the Municipal Corporations Of Ireland. It was similar, in principle, to the one of last Session; which was rejected by the Commons in consequence of the numerous amendments introduced by the Peers. After two nights' animated discussion, leave was given to bring in the bill.
Feb. 10. Mr. Hume obtained leave to bring in two bills, one for placing the finances of counties under a county board, to be elected by the rate-payers; and the second, to regulate expenses at elections. Feb. 13. Lord J. Russell called the at
tention of the House to the decision of the Court of King's Bench, and the doctrine laid down by Lord Chief Justice Penman, regarding the printed papers of that House, in the action brought against Messrs. Hansard •(the Commons'printer), whereby the privileges of the House, according to his understanding of such decision, were seriously affected. He mentioned the case and decision, in order that attention and inquiry might be directed to the subject, as it would be requisite for him hereafter to submit some proposition on it, as the matter must not be left in the unsatisfactory state in which it now was. The Speaker also urged the necessity of settling the question.
Lord J. Russell applied for leave to bring in a Bill for the introduction of Poor Laws Into Ireland. He stated that the principle of the Bill was that of the celebrated Act of Elizabeth, which was to give in-door relief to the decrepit and destitute poor. As to the working of it, however, settlement is to be no guidance, for eventually there are to be 100 poor houses in Ireland, and these are to receive all the poor. There is to be a rate throughout Ireland, half to be paid by the landlord, half by the tenant; but the system is to be begun by the erection of ten or more poor houses, according to the discretion of the Poor Law Commissioners, for they (with addition to the board if requisite) are to carry the plans into effect. His Lordship calculated that sufficient remedy would be supplied by the erection, eventually, of 100 poor houses in Ireland, divided into 100 districts; that there were not to be more than 800 paupers in each; and that the cost would not exceed 300,000/. a-ycar. The whole was to be managed by the London board of commissioners, in order to promote uniformity of plan, and to prevent jealousy in the working out of
the system Mr. Shaw said that he
should throw no obstacles in the way of the developement of the government plans.—Mr. O' Connell, after having asked some questions as to the details of the measure, said that, though he did not think the plans and expectations of the government would be realised, he would lend his aid to perfect the measure Sir R. Peel and Lord Stanley said the measure might be susceptible of amendments, but that thanks were due to the Ministers for bringing forward the subject, and that they should render all possible assistance on this question, which they did not view as one of party. Leave given to bring in the Bill.
• Seep. 312.