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dedicated to the noblest purposes to which man's talents can be directed, the worship and honour of the Deity, has animated the author in this publication } but, however warmly he has written, however strongly he has displayed the enthusiasm of his feelings, it is pleasing to see that his strictures on the modern productions are not tinctured by spleen or soured by disappointment. It is the building and the age that is the subject of his attack, and not the architect, as he disclaims in the first sentence of his preface any "private feelings toward those modern professors of architecture whose works are placed in comparison with similar edifices of a more ancient period."
On the question of ecclesiastical architecture, a subject so popular at the present time, the following sentiments are so just, that we cannot forbear quoting them at length:—
"It will be readily admitted that the great test of architectural beauty is the fitness of the design to the purpose for which it is intended, and that the style of a building should so correspond with its use, that the spectator may at once perceive the purpose for which it was erected. Acting on this principle, different nations have given birth to so many various styles of architecture, each suited to their climate, customs, and religion; and as it is among edifices of the latter class that we look for the most splendid and lasting monuments, there can be but little doubt that the religious ideas and ceremonies of those different people had by far the greatest influence in the formation of their various styles of architecture. The more closely we compare the temples of the Pagan nations with their religious rites and mythologies, the more shall we be satisfied with the truth of this assertion.
"But who can regard those stupendous ecclesiastical edifices of the middle ages (the more special objects of the work) without feeling this observation in its full force? Here every portion of the sacred fabric bespeaks its origin; the very plan of the edifice is the emblem of human re ■ demption—each portion is destined for the performance of some solemn rite of the Christian church. Here is the brazen font, where the waters of baptism wash away the stain of original sin: there stands the gigantic pulpit, from which the sacred truths and ordinances are from time to time proclaimed to the congregated people. Behold yonder, resplendent with precious
gems, is the high altar, the seat of the most holy mysteries, and the tabernacle of the Highest! It is indeed a sacred place; and well does the fabric bespeak its destined purpose: the eye is carried up and lost in the height of the vaulting and intricacy of the aisles; the rich and varied hues of the stained windows, the modulated light, the gleam of the tapers, the richness of the altars, the venerable images of the departed just,—all alike conspire to fill the mind with veneration for the place, and to make it feel the sublimity of Christian worship. And when the deep intonation of the bells from the lofty campaniles, which summon the people to the house of prayer has ceased, and the solemn chant of the choir swells through the vast edifice,—cold, indeed, must be the heart of that man who does not cry out with the Psalmist—©online, Diirn brcorcm Domus tunc et locum batutatioms gloriae tuae."
With these feelings in favour of the matchless works of antiquity, and regarding their preservation as a sacred duty, it is truly painful to read the complaints of some of the injuries which now affect our cathedrals, and loudly call for alteration. These evils may be ranged under the following heads :—Alterations—" the removal of the ancient tracery and glass from the great eastern and aisle windows of St. George's Chapel, Windsor, and the substitution of copies of that tame and wooden painter, West." "The pewing of choirs, as at Peterborough and Norwich, contracting the grandeur of the open space into a paltry aisle leading to boxes."
Neglectof the structure:—" Go to the wonderful church of Ely, and see the result of neglect; the water pouring through unclosed apertures in the covering, conveying ruin into the heart of the fabric; the opening fissures of the great western tower, which, unheeded and unobserved, are rapidly extending. Then look at what was once the Lady Chapel, but now filled with pews and vile fittings."
Introduction of unappropriate modern monuments ;—" I was disgusted beyond measure at perceiving that the Chapel of St Paul (in Westminster Abbey) had been half filled up with a large figure of James Watt, sitting in an arm chair, on an enormous square pedestal, with some tasteless ornaments, which being totally unlike any Greek or Roman foliage, I suppose to have been intended by the sculptor to be Gothic. This is the production of no less a personage than Sir F. Chantrey." —(p. 21.)
On the subject of new churches, the author's remarks are very appropriate.
"No kind of propriety or fitness has been considered in their composition. Some have porticos of Greek temples, surmounted by steeples of miserable outline and coarse detail; others are a mixture of distorted Greek and Roman buildings; and a host have been built in perfectly nondescript styles, forming the most offensive masses of building."—(p. 28.)
In the several papers which appeared from time to time in the former series of the Gentleman's Magazine, the useof appropriate embellishment of churches was advocated, and many glaring defects and inconsistencies were pointed out; they were somewhat in the spirit of Mr. Pugin's remarks, and they did not, we hope, wholly escape notice.
We will now turn to the plates, the majority of which, as we before observed, represent a contrast between some ancient and modern work of a like description. The splendid altar screen of Durham abbey, with its matchless open work and multitude of statues, is contrasted with Hereford, a structure of timber, of Italian architecture, with panels and pilasters. Redcliff church, an insulatedbuilding, standing in solitary grandeur, without the accompaniment of inferior objects, is opposed to *'All Souls, Langham-place," differing little in its architecture from the adjacent coachmaker's warehouse. Somers Town chapel, decidedly the worst modern Gothic erection in London, is set against the ancient chapel of Bishop Skirlaw, in Yorkshire. The tomb attributed to Admiral Gervase Alard, at Winchelsea, as an ancient monument, is contrasted with the modern one of the Earl of Malmesbury, at Salisbury. Chichester Cross throws King's Cross into shade; and no better figure does the mean gateway of King's College, London, make by the side of Wolsey's gate at Christ Church. Episcopal residences afford a contrast between old Ely palace, in Holborn, and the modern dwelling-house in Dover-street now appropriated to the same purpose. But not having space to go through the whole, we will only
notice the contrast between Westcheap conduit, 1479, and the pump of St. Anne's, Soho, in which the author has indulged in a little waggery—the chained and padlocked pump handle, and the policeman threatening with the station-house the ragged urchin who in vain solicits for a little of the water, is finely contrasted with a noble ancient structure pouringoutits stream from a richly sculptured niche, and freely offering its wholesome refreshment to every passenger. A sample of the caricature appears in the view of an architectural House of Call, and we could not help smiling at the advertisement for the new church to contain 8,000 sittings—to be Gothic or Elizabethan—as well as at the ready-made ornaments in composition, and the various announcements made on the front of this structure, which is pompously designated "Temple of Taste and Architectural Repository." A title page, taking the form of a splendid pix or tabernacle of metal work, adorned with a representation of the immortal Wykeham, looking over a book of designs, and with the portraits of ancient workmen, is a fine specimen of imitation of ancient design. Another etching, of a cathedral weighed in the balance of excellence, against a host of modern steeples and houses, the whole being displayed by the Mirror of Truth, forms an appropriate tail-piece.
Many of the etchings, particularly the title and the view of Durham altarscreen, are highly creditable to the author's needle. He has taken great pains to produce his book in a satisfactory style, and we feel certain that it will increase his previous reputation.
Domestic Architecture, in the Tudor Style, selected from Buildings erected after the Designs of P. F. Robinson, ito. 1837.
THE work now before us is the commencement of a series of illustrations of dwelling-houses erected, or altered, in the Tudor style by the author. The series is commenced with some account of a house recently completed for J. H. Vivian, Esq. M.P. near Swansea, in Glamorganshire. It may be almost said to be a new building, as the former structure (an elevation of which is given) was merely a brick dwelling of modern construction, possessing no architectural character, the dimensions very contracted, and the appearance mean and homely. The situation was beautiful, commanding all the muchadmired scenery of the bay from the Mumble Point to St. Donats, with the coast of Somersetshire and Dorsetshire in the distance, and with this fortuitous aid Mr. Robinson felt that he was bound to give a picturesque apnearauce in the mansion he was about to erect.
28C Review.—Cavcler's Specimens of Gothic Architecture. [March,
With a decided predilection in favour of the old English style of domestic architecture, the author, in the alteration he was about to effect, determined to adopt the Tudor style, which not only allowed of the use of every plan which would be required to meet the necessary arrangements to agree with the present mode of living, but enabled the architect to attain that picturesque character for his edifice which the peculiarity of the site seemed imperatively to demand.
The situation was favourable to the display of the style chosen, and it was fortunate that an architect was engaged who had sufficient taste and judgment to avail himself of the opportunities afforded by nature—" as the land falls rapidly from the house to the bay, an admirable opportunity occurred for forming a terrace; and as this feature invariably adds greatly to the effect of a building, advantage was taken of the circumstance, and a double terrace erected j the whole of the upper terrace being laid out as a flower garden." Such an appendage must add greatly to the picturesque effect of a house like the present, which by Mr. Robinson's ingenuity has been transformed from a very plain object into one which displays much ornamental and tasteful detail, and which cannot fail to prove an ornament to the surrounding romantic scenery. The architect has availed himselfof his antiquarian knowledge to add to the house a feature of antiquity worthy of remark. Mr. Vivian having held the office of high sheriff some years since, sheriff-posts are placed at the door.
The work contains fourteen etchings, and three copper-plates of plans, elevations, sections, and views of the mansion, shewing it in various points
of view, and giving the detail of the structure. "A certain value," says the author, "is always attached to plans carried into effect; and although circumstances frequently occur to control an architect in the execution of his designs, making him responsible for that which did not emanate from his own imagination, yet correct plans and elevations of a house when completed, serve as guides for others to profit by, or avoid;" and with this praiseworthy motive the author has decided on laying before the public the various buildings which he has erected, and there can be little doubt that the publication will be appreciated with due regard to its merits, and receive that patronage to which its utility will entitle it.
Select Specimens of Gothic Architecture, Part IV. By William Caveler, Architect. 4to. 1836.
THE present portion, which completes the volume, contains the West Door of Rochester Cathedral, which Mr. Caveler has been at some pains to restore. This specimen, as one of the finest examples of Norman doorways in existence, deserves to be fully illustrated. The dimensions are much greater than those of the generality of entrances of the same period, and it is exceedingly rich in embellishment. The tympanum contains a magnificent relief, representing the Almighty, surrounded by the Evangelists, under the emblematic forms described in the Apocalypse. This doorway has suffered most severely in its ornamental portions, from the hands of the Puritans, who displayed their vile feelings against religious sculptures by defacing the representations in the tympanum, and their revolutionary predilections by demolishing the heads of the regal statues on the jambs, although no saints were there intended to be represented.
The author has availed himself of a hint in our last review, to illustrate very profusely the singularly beautiful church of Stone, Kent. This edifice is about coeval with Westminster Abbey, dating at the conclusion of Henry the Third's reign and the commencement of that of his successor. It retains sufficient of its original features to render it an excellent model for a parochial church. As a specimen of architecture it is interesting, as it appears to have been erected just at the period when the lancet was giving way to the traceried window.
18370 Review.—Hicklin's History of Nottingham Castle.
There is one feature in this church, which, being rather uncommon in ancient buildings, is worthy of notice, and which, for various reasons, is deserving of the attention of modern architects—this is the mode in which the tower is built. This structure is situated at the west end, but within the body of the church, and open to the nave and aisles by light pointed arches, the interior angles of the structure resting on clustered columns. This arrangement, for obvious reasons, would be exceedingly useful in a modern church, and the mode in which it is effected in this instance shews how capable Gothic architecture is of being accommodated to circumstances by the hands of a skilful designer. The result of the arrangement is great lightness, and the arch being now occupied by the organ, shews at once the utility of the plan. The good state of repair in which the church is kept, mainly through the exertions of the rector (the Venerable Archdeacon King) is highly creditable, and we have little doubt that the plaster which partially obscures some of the beautiful work, will be soon cleared away. The ancient sacristy exists without a roof; the strength of its walls, and the small aperture by which light is admitted, shew the idea of security which was intended to be given to the apartment. Ten plates of sections and details are dedicated to this interesting structure. The remainder of the plates in this part consist of subjects required to complete the series alreadycommenced. They comprise the oratory in St. Stephen's cloisters, with details, some portions of the Temple church, and the arch of the monument of Henry the Fifth.
We observe by the preface, that Mr. Caveler is about to proceed with the illustration of the architecture of our collegiate establishments. We wish him success in his undertaking. A fine field is before him, but in the selection of his specimens for illustration, we repeat our former caution against copying modern restorations, which, even
if they were excellent, cannot be of the same value as genuine examples of ancient date. So many genuine authorities exist that no plea of necessity can be urged for having recourse to copies, when original examples are so easily attained.
The History of Nottingham Castle, from the Danish Invasion to its destruction by rioters, in 1831. By John Hicklin, author of "Leisure Hours," "Literary Recreations," fyc. 12mo, pp. viii. 218, 104.
THIS is a title which promises more than is warranted by the book itself. A History of Nottingham Castle would indeed be an important and valuable work. As the history of one of the royal castles, and thus immediately connected with the history of the sovereign and of the kingdom, it would possess the elements of instruction far beyond the history of most castles, important as many merely baronial castles were, and would rank only second to the histories of such castles as the Tower of London, Dover, and Windsor. But, as we are yet deficient of a work completely illustrating the history and oeconomy of any great Abbey, so are we still unsupplied with such a model for the history of a Castle, which, not confining itself to descriptions of ruins or scenery for its individual features, nor to extracts from the history of England for its historical portions, nor to commonplace sentiment for its reflections, should embody forth the mighty fortress in its full proportions, and, at the same time that it represented accurately its local influence and its achievements (so to speak of the events transacted within or around its walls), should also enter by turns into its several towers; recall to being the knights and the warders to whose custody they were entrusted; examine the several offices, military and domestic, and the sources of their ammunition and supply; inquire what manors and what lands were assigned to every service; what taxes and aids were levied in assistance of the ordinary income; what services of men and arms were required from the dependant vills in case of need; and, again, trace out the seras of each build.
ing, of each important repair, their objects, their style, and their expense.
Such, at a rough draft, appears to us the desirable plan for the history of a Castle. Nor indeed is it very unreasonable to expect to see such a skeleton filled up by those who now undertake to write histories. The publications of the Record Commission, now so liberally dispersed among our provincial libraries, should be thoroughly searched by every provincial antiquary or topographer. We feel certain that many hundred extracts might be made from those volumes (particularly the Close Rolls) relative either to the individual history or the historical annals of Nottingham Castle.
Mr. Hicklin's present volume, so far as respects the ancient castle of Nottingham, is merely a compilation from his predecessors, Thoroton, Deering, &c. That castle, the scene where Charles Stuart had first raised his royal standard, to enforce an absolute monarchy by the hazards of a civil war, was utterly rased to the ground by the triumphant Parliamentarians. The nominal Castle, which was destroyed in 1831, was in fact a magnificent villa, or banqueting-house, built on the site of the former Castle, but in a style of architecture as far removed from the castellated, as can well be conceived. This modern mansion, (erected in the reign of Charles the Second, by that fine old Cavalier the Duke of Newcastle,) was, however, an interesting structure; and it formed the subject of an interesting article in our Magazine for Nov. 1831, pp. 393 —396. To that article Mr. Hicklin has paid the best possible compliment; for he has made it the substance of his seventh chapter, but without other acknowledgment than that of blunderingly ascribing to our correspondent the very portion which the latter stated he had derived from a recent newspaper. At the same time, almost the only insertion Mr. Hicklin has made, which is to notice that the Princess (afterwards Queen) Anne was at Nottingham Castle at the important crisis of the Revolution, is lamely introduced in these words :—
"The Castle was so far completed as to become, at the memorable revolution of 1688, a royal residence." An observation made in the face of the positive statement of Deering, quoted in the opposite page, that it had been "Finished" nine years before, in 1679.
Nearly one half of this volume is occupied with a detail of the disastrous riots of 1831, and a full report of the consequent trial at Leicester, at which the Duke of Newcastle recovered 21,000?. damages against the Hundred of Broxtowe. This alone is sufficient to show the unequal character of a work professing to be a history from the Danish Invasion; and the inflated style which the writer adopts when he desires to be particularly eloquent, is too much in accordance with the pretensions of his title-page. We must mention, however, before we conclude, that the volume contains a very good plan, in which the buildings of both castles are laid down; and (besides some other prints of inferior merit) there are three very cleverand effective plates, drawn by J. Rawson Walker, and engraved in mezzotint by G. H. Phillips, representing the ancient castle, restored (of course, in great measure imaginary), the Newcastle castle, and the latter in flames. On the whole, though we could not countenance the high character assumed by this volume, we willingly admit it to be a book well deserving a general local circulation, not only as a memorial of a lamentable catastrophe, but as a manual of particulars to which many may not have other means of access.
Observations on certain Roman Roads and Towns in the South of Britain. [By H. L. Long, Esq.] Not published.
THE site and modern appellation of the ancient Calleva Attrebatum, form the theme of this tract. We have no conformity of opinion with those who may think the correct settlement of the Roman topography of Britain unimportant; so long as the human mind shall be informed, amused, and instructed by the historical events of past ages, and animated by the production of tangible evidence of their truth, so long will the minuter researches of Archaeology be deserving of our attention. The author states, that among the roads of Britain described by the ancient Roman itineraries, is one pointing from London to