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Mr. Horne to be superior to the common affectation, and to wish to make his work more perfect in a subsequent edition. We would suggest therefore that his book would be improved, if he would consider at some length the arguments of Mr. Faber (vide Origin of Pagan Idolatry) and others, on the Chronology of the Samaritan Pentateuch. In addition to which, Mr. Horne's opinion on the subject of a single or a double dispersion of mankind, on the origin of idolatry, on the history of the §. and the shepherd kings of Egypt, would be very acceptable. He has proved himself to be a man of patient thought; and his decision on these, and other points, would be received with much and deserved attention. We may add, that the names of several authors, Mr. Nolan and Dr. Lawrence, for instance, are omitted in the bibliographical index: the index of general matters, though very copious, would still be improved by enlargement: much might be added to the account of the patriarchal times, and a correct list ought by all means to be added of the numerous passages of Scripture quoted, illustrated, or explained.


5. Erse.

The Erse, or Gaelic of Scotland, bears the strongest resemblance to the Irish, of the various Celtic dialects. Indeed many persons consider it as retaining more of the primitive simplicity than the Irish. For, according to the systems of the most ingenious grammarians, the Erse has no distinct form for the present tense, but the future and the preterite are exhibited as the only proper parts of the verb; and even these are formed, not by inflections consisting of parts of pronouns combined with verbs, but by the pronouns themselves attached to the verbs. In expressing the present, in particular, and very often in the other tenses, a circumlocution is used, similar to that in Hebrew, by the use of the participle and the verb of existence. Thus, what in Irish is (buailim) I strike, is in Erse, tame bualaah, I am striking. If the Scottish Celtic possessed such ancient manuscripts as exist in Irish, it might be inferred, from the above mentioned particulars, that it retained more of the primitive simplicity, and was a more pure dialect of the common mother tongue: but, as this is not the case, we may rather consider it as the idiom of nature resuming its influence, after having been removed, for ages, by the innovations of art; for, until of late years, the Scotch Gaelic was written in the Irish orthography, and with the Irish inflections.

6. Manr.

From the Manx dialect of the Celtic no inference can be drawn of any importance to the present subject of consideration. It is merely an inferior dialect of Irish, with which it agrees in all its leading characters.

7. Welch,

The Welch differs more from its kindred dialects than those before mentioned. Having a very imperfect knowledge of this language, I speak with hesitation; but it appears to me to retain the great principle which we have seen to prevail in the other languages, viz. the imperative is the simple and primitive form, from which the other parts of the verb are easily derived : while the conditional and optative phrases are formed by means of auxiliary verbs and conditional particles.

We see, therefore, that both the Hebrew, and its kindred tongue, the Celtic, with their respective branches, agree in support of the proposed theory.

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Of the primitive Scythian our knowledge is very inconsiderable: but if we may judge from some of the best preserved dialects that have descended from it, we shall find the same principles prevail in them which we have already considered. -

8. German.

The German language bears very strong marks of its antiquity and purity, not only in the structure of its simple words, but in deriving, and compounding, almost all its terms within itself. And nothing can be simpler than the German regular verb. It has only the two moods of nature, the imperative and indicative; of which, as in other languages, the imperative is the primitive and simple form; and two tenses, which grammarians call the present and the preterite. But, as we observed before, the present, in all probability, was originally a future, or had a reference to future time; and this appears almost certain from the imperative mood and the present indicative being, regularly, the same; as, Igbo, praise; 3rb Igbo, I praise; whence is formed the preterite, oth Iqbett, I praised. The verbal noun, or infinitive mood, is formed by adding n to the imperative; as soben, to praise: and the same infinitive, with a preposition, supplies the place of a separate participle; as, im Iqben, praising. I believe that similar observations may be made on the Danish and Swedish dialects of this ancient language. And, as the Saxon English was formed from the German, what has been said of the latter tongue will apply to the principles on which the English lan#. is inflected; although we have still fewer inflections than the €riman.

9. Greek.

We come, lastly, to make a few observations on the use of moods in Greek, and the other languages that once prevailed, or do still exist, in the south and south-west of Europe.

It seems to be generally allowed that the Greek language is principally derived from the Hebrew, and Scythian or Gothic tongues. In its primitive structure, therefore, there is reason to believe that its inflections were as few and simple as those of its venerable originals. But of the Greek in this form, if there ever were any written documents, none remain at present: and we must found our observations upon its moods, on their use by the classic authors of Greece.


In Greek, then, as in the before-mentioned languages, it appears that the imperative, and that, in general, a monosyllable, was the original form of the verb, Either from the involuntary sound, that expressed the feeling of nature, or the imitative one, that represented an external object, the root of the verb was formed. As, from the sound of a stroke falling on some solid substance, we may conceive the monosyllable rur, or turr to have originated, intimating a desire that another person should give a stroke.


The direct respondent to this will be rurra, that is rvrr #yd, I strike, or will strike, identifying, as was before observed, the speaker with the action desired to be performed. . .

Whenever this answer could be given with a logical, or even a moral certainty, the indicative mood was used. And the same mood was employed, when no direct application was made, or immediately understood; but, in this case, conditional or subjunctive particles were prefixed to the indicative, as they are to the subjunctive and optative moods; as, x&yo, &V as #03%w, si o żosiv as 3voy &ra. AEsop. Even I would have feared you, undoubtedly, if I had not known that you were an ass. ’Axx' &yer' as xiv was


Bapášowev via; 'Axxiāy. Hom. Come let us try if by any means we shall arm the sons of the Grecians. In such phrases as this, grammarians commonly say that the indicative form is, according to the Ionic dialect, used for the subjunctive form. But I conceive that it is not necessary to have recourse to this mode of resolving them. El Riy repl waivos, twā, "gayuaro; "podríðero Ayew. Demosth. If it was proposed to speak about any new business— (which it is not.)


But if the matter were vague and uncertain, not only depending upon unforeseen or unknown circumstances, but upon their unknown consequences also, then the Greeks used the subjunctive mood. Thus Gamaliel observes on Peter's speech, 'E&w j if &Vogárov # 3ovX, airn, r? pyoy rooro, xaraavožasrau si è fix 6805 Hariv, où &vagos xaraxical airá. Acts v. 38. If this counsel or this work be of men (which is barely possible) it will be brought to nought : but, on the other hand, if it is of God (of which there is a moral certainty) you cannot destroy it.

Hence, a purpose, or design, of doing any thing, where the exertion and the event were equally uncertain, was expressed by the subjunctive mood; as, &riarslaxy swa paria waiv airév. John 1. 19. They sent persons, in order that they might ask him.


But the speaker might desire to give something more than a vague declaration of the possibility of the event; he might intimate that it was probable, or that he was already inclined, or might be induced, or enabled to do what was required. All this is concisely and delicately implied, in what is called the Greek optative mood." In no other language, of which I have any knowledge, are these shades of conditional certainty, uncertainty, and probability, so clearly expressed as they are in Greek, by means of the indicative, subjunctive, and optative moods. For example, when Homer speaks of the taking of Troy as morally certain, had it not been preserved by a divine interposition, he says, "Evža key obtruxov Teolny gaov vis; "Axalav Ei o Aréaxwy poiáo; it opitov ini wispyou * "Earn.

'The peculiar terminations of the optative mood are out, and no, the former erived, perhaps, from osco, fit, proper, or probable, or from stor, a way, as if in the way of doing; and the latter is a regular inflection of the Yerb ", or *i. Both these terminations clearly indicate the original use of the optative, as expressing what will uaturally follow from certain premises.


The Grecians, then would (certainly) have taken Troy, had not Phaebus Apollo stood, &c. How different is the manner of Demosthenes addressing the irresolute and wavering Athenians: 'Eaw &AA2 vöv y ári iósajars wrparságréal, iro; 3v saws, 3 &vège; 'Aovaiot, réasov ri kal &#ya xrïgalads &yabów. If you would be willing (which is very doubtful), O Athenians, even yet to exert yourselves in military service, probably you would obtain some great advantage. Thus to express what is naturally to be expected, in consequence of a preceding cause, Lucian makes Proteus say to Menelaus, Oùx cloa rive #y &AA+ oria revassag, roi; orexvros, 320xxploi; &migrów. I do not know what other person you would be induced to believe, when you distrust your own eyes. Perhaps there is no better example, in classic Greek, of the eptative expressing the natural consequence, than that in which Nestor exposes to Agamemnon and Achilles the gratification which a knowledge of their contest would afford to their enemies.

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Surely, Priam and his sons would be made to erult, and the other Trojans would rejoice, with heartfelt satisfaction, if they were made to learn your contest.

In this signification it is, sometimes, not very easy to distinguish between the use of the optative and subjunctive. The shades of possibility and probability are, frequently, so similar, or so blended together, that the moods which express them may be used, in such circumstances, almost indifferently. Thus Aristophanes makes Plutus say,

'O 3’ to irosmosy rvpx?v,
Iva to 812), yyáozolo rotorww wovo.

He made me blind, that I might not be able to distinguish any of them. This, however, does not occur very frequently; and it should be avoided, as much as possible, in composition. .

Such appears to have been the original use, and distinction of the imperative, indicative, subjunctive, and optative moods, , in Greek. But there is a secondary use of the optative, from which it has derived its peculiar name. We naturally expect, to obtain what we desire ; and hence again what we generally expect, we desire. Thus, this form of the verb came to express not only what a persou might be induced to do, but what he would wish to do, or to be done for him...Thus Aristotle says, Ein rô pos; xaflew taropsa; 34ty. I would wish the fabulous to assume the appearance of history. (which is usually the case, when the

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