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Methinks I see her (England) as an eagle mueing her mighty youth, and kindling her undazzled eyes at the full mid-day beam ; purging and unscaling her long-abused sight at the fountain itself of heavenly radiance; while the whole noise of timorons and flocking birds, with those also that love the twilight, Autter about, amazed at what she means, and in their envious gabble would prognosticate a year of sects and schisms.-Milton's Areopagitica.
Methinks I see her (the University) renewing her immortal youth, and purging her opening sight at the unobstructed beams of our benign meridian sun; which some pretend to say had been dazzled and abused by an inglorious pestilential meteor; while the ill-affected birds of night would, with their envious hootings, prognosticate a length of darkness, of decay.-Warburton's Enquiry into the Causes of Prodigies and Miracles, as related by historians.
12. A learned writer in the same work (1819) has compared Cowper's beautiful vindication of himself, (Task, iii.) “ I was born of woman," &c. to a passage in Plato, beginning, Kai un pou déye to Yuχρόν τούτο, ως Ουδέν μοι μέλει of which he has not given the continuation or the reference, and which your learned readers will identify for themselves. The passage itself of Cowper is perhaps an unconscious imitation (in part) of one in Fletcher's Faithful Shepherdess, Act i. Sc. 1, beginning, “ Sure I am mortal.”
** Errata in No. VI. of the Misc. Class. (Cl. Journ. No. XXXIX.) p. 9. two lines from the bottom, for dpūuev read dpợpev; p. 10. 1. 8. for χρήσασθαι read χρήσασθαι; ib. 1. 16. for δοξακοπίαν, δοξοκοπίαν. P. 8. three lines from the bottom, read,
A banquet, unseemly,
of flesh without fire. P, 16. (Art. 15.) after Tņ pa napadpapérny, supply peúywv.–The opening of the Latin poem in No. XXXVIII. of the Class. Journ. p. 328. is borrowed from an extract of a poem by some Jesuit (wliose name I have forgotten) quoted by D'Alembert, in an essay on the imperfect knowledge possessed by the moderns of the ancient language. The part imitated is as follows:
Ultra terrarum fines, et monia vasti
Συ δε μή προς οργήν, Αισχύλο, αλλά πραόνως
άνδρας ποιητές, ώσπερ άρτοπώλιδας.
'Αλλά τίη έριδας και νείκεα νωϊν ανάγκη
Like a village nurse
In the course of last year (1818,) a quarto volume of two hundred and twenty pages, and eight engravings, appeared at Göttingen, under the title of “ Veteris Media et Persia Monumenta.". In this work the learned Carolus F.C. Hoeck has compiled, from a variety of authors, and has illustrated with his own remarks, the most authentic accounts of several Median and Persian Monuments which still attract the notice of travellers. Although it does not appear that Mr. Hoeck himself ever actually visited any of the monuments described in this volume, yet he has selected with so much judgment every important or interesting passage respecting them, and his own observations possess so much intrinsic and original merit, that we are justified in recommending his work to our antiquarian readers. For their immediate gratification we shall here enumerate the different articles of which it consists, observing the order adopted by Mr. Hoeck, who, after a preface of twelve pages, indicates the chief sources of his information in a list of writers, among whom we find the Biblical Esdras, Nehemiah, Daniel, Judith, Tobias, and others. Among the classical, Greek and Latin, Herodotus, Xenophon, Ctesias, Arrian, Strabo, Diodorus Siculus, Isidorus Characenus, Plutarch, Josephus, Ptolemy, Stephanus Byzantinus, Pliny and Curtius–Among Eastern writers, Moses Chorenensis, whose historical work was composed in the fifth century, and published in Armenian and Latio by the Whistons, 1736. Ebn Haucal, an Arabian traveller of the tenth century, whose geography was translated into English, and published by Sir William Ouseley in 1800. Ebu Haucal, says Mr. Hoeck, is, “ Orientalium omnium, qui mihi innotuere, in geographicis facile princeps.” He then notices Sherif Edrisi, or, as he is generally styled, the Nubian Geographer; Abulfeda ; Sherif Eddin's History of Timur, or Tamerlane ; Abulgazi (Histoire Gecalogique des tars ;) Ta Khojen Abdulkurreem's Memoirs (translated by Gladwiu). Ainong European travellers, Don Garcias de Silva Figueroa (whose original
Spanish work is of the utmost rarity), Pietro della Valle, Sir Thomas Herbert, Mandelslo, Olearius, Thevenôt, Tavernier, Daulier Deslandes, Struys, Chardin, Pietro Bembo, Kæmpfer, Gemelli Careri, Le Brun, Bell (of Antermony,) Otter, Ives, Niebuhr, Sauvebæuf, Francklin, Olivier, Scott Waring, Gardane, Morier, Macdonald Kinneir, Malcolm, Mountstuart Elplinstone, and Pottinger, with the abstract of Captain Christie's Journal. We have made this enuneration, as it may prove useful to those engaged in researches similar to Mr. Hoeck's; and we now proceed to his first section, which contains some general Pramonenda respecting the region of Persis Proper, the province now called Fars or Farsistan. These naturally lead to the “Monumenta Persepolitana, tota Persia facile præstantissima,” those magnificent remains now called most commonly Chehil Minar, or the “Forty Columns," and supposed by some to have been Darius's palace, which Alexander partly destroyed, and by others regarded as a Temple. The various conjectures of learned writers on this subject, and concerning the ancient city of Persepolis, Mr. Hoeck examines, aud declares that in his own opinion the ruins at Chehil Minar are vestigęs of a Palace, which he would ascribe to Darius Hystaspis; though Persepolis (in an extended sense) undoubtedly owed its origin to the illustrious Cyrus.
Our author proceeds (p. 22.) to some inconsiderable reninants of antiquity in the neighbourhood of those splendid ruins above njentioned; and in p. 24, he describes the extraordinary sculptures at Nakshi Rustem, cut in the face of a rock, the sepulchral excavations, resembling those at Persepolis, and an extraordinary square edifice standing on the plain nearly opposite to one of the sepulchres. Some of the sculptures he distinguishes as works of the Sassanidan Kings, whose dynasty commenced in the third century; but the tombs he considers as coeval with the Persepolitan ruins, and the square edifice, on Mr. Morier's authority, he pronounces a pyræum or ancient Fire-Temple (p. 29.). Two turrets, or small towers, called the Sengi Salmun, or, “Stone of Solomon," some remains of colunins, altars, and other objects, near Nakshi Rustem, he briefly notices as monuments of an uncertain age.
Not far from those, are the Sculptures at Nakshi Rujeb ; cut likewise in the hard rock, and exhibiting figures of kings and warriors; these, our learned author is convinced, are Sassanidan, and probably relate to the history of Sapor, first Monarch of that name (p. 53.).
Chapter V. is devoted to that extraordinary monument, called Meschid Mader Suleiman, “ the Temple, or the Tomb of Solomon's Mother,” situated near the village of Murghab. It is a small house or chamber constructed of a few very large stones; and was first noticed by Josaphat Barbaro. Mandelslo and Morier have given engraved representations of it. Rejecting the popular YOL. XX. Cl. Jl.
notion that this was the Tomb of Bathsheba, Mr. Hoeck examines and condemns the opinion of those who would derive its name from the mother of Solyman, the fourteenth Khalif. Were it possible to reconcile its geographical position with the classical Pasargadæ, Mr. Morier acknowledges that he should have regarded this structure as the Tomb of Cyrus; but it lies about fifty miles northward of Persepolis, while geographers place Pasargadæ much farther to the south of that ancient capital. Yet the ingenious Grotefend, adopting Mr. Morier's hint, endeavours to prove that Cyrus's body once occupied the structure now ascribed to the mother of Solomon, and consequently that some ruins visible near it must have belonged to Pasargadæ. Our author, however, (p. 59.) seems inclined to believe that Persepolis and Pasargadæ were almost the same, both situated on or near the river, now called Bendemir, one facing eastward, the other westward, and the “ Tomb of Solomon's mother," he degrades to a sepulchre constructed in the Sassanidan
ages. Some ruins near Shiraz, which bear also the name of Meschid Mader Suleiman, and resemble exactly the Persepolitan structures, Mr. Hoeck (p: 74.) would class among the oldest monuments of Persia, and the sculptures within a mile of them, called Kademgah, he attributes to the Sassanidans. The City of Fasa, about 120 miles south-eastward from Shiraz, and by Arabian authors called Basa, many have supposed to be the ancient Pasagarda or Pasargadæ. From an inhabitant of Fasa, Mr. Morier heard that ruins existed there more worthy of admiration, in many respects, than were the stupendous remains of Persepolis itself; and our author laments that neither Mr. Morier, nor any other European traveller, had personally explored such interesting antiquities. On this subject his curiosity will probably be soon gratified, as Sir William Ouseley tells us in the first volume of his Travels, (Pref. p. vii.) that he had visited Fassa or Passa, “ the supposed Pasagarda.” Whatever monuments are there visible, we may trust will be described in his second volume not yet publislied. He also visited Darabgerd (ibid.) a city respecting which Mr. Hoeck (p. 77.) complains that but little information has hitherto been obtained ; and he thinks that it corresponds to a place in the inner Persis, near the borders of Carmania described by Strabo as Τα εν Γάβαις βασίλεια.
Our author next recommends to the attention of travellers, Firuzabad, about twenty leagues distant from Fasa, and remarkable for a square editice of singular architecture, probably a Fire-temple, also a very lofty column and some sculptures, the works of Sassanidan Princes (p. 77). In chapter xi. are described the monuments at Shapour, of which we have lately received ample accounts from Morier, Ouseley, and other English travellers. To the
interesting sculptures at this place, Mr. Hoeck applies a memorable passage, as he styles it, from Ebn Haucal (p. 129). “ In the territory of Shapour, there is a mountain ; and in that mountain are the statues of all the kings, and generals, and high-priests, and illustrious men who have existed in Pars; and in that place are some persons who have representations of them, and the stories of them written,” &c. It cannot be doubted that some of those sculptures relate to the victory obtained by Sapor, or Shapur, over the Roman Emperor Valerian (p. 85.).
We are next introduced into the province of Susiana, now called Khuzistan : the ancient city of Susa is described, and its situation examined; some placing it on the river Eulæus, others on the Choaspes. Several heaps of clay, bricks, and marble fragments, some of which are sculpiured with hieroglyphical figures, indicate, according to Mr. Hoeck, the remains of Susa in the place now denominated Shush (p. 96.). At the neighbouring town of Shuster, or Tuster, the ruins of a castle, a bridge, and a canal are still visible, but imperfectly known. They have been ascribed to one of the most ancient kings of Persia ; but may, perhaps, be more reasonably supposed the work of Sapor, the conqueror above mentioned, who probably employed his Roman captives in the construction of them (p. 93.). Twelve miles southward of Shuster, is Ahwaz, once a flourishing city, and still claiming notice on account of its ruined palace and bridge, besides some extraordinary recesses hollowed in the rock. Mr. Hoeck thinks it probable that Ahwaz was founded by Hormizdas, eighth Monarch of the Sassanidan race (p. 99.).
Proceeding to the greater Media, our author examines the Tak Kesra, near the ruins of ancient Ctesiphon, on the river Tigris. This Tak is the front of a palace, once most magnificent and spacious, and still extending 270 feet, and rising to the height of 86, having in the middle a noble vaulted ball of 148 feet by 97. The nanie of this edifice (which is built with very large bricks) signifies “the Dome or Palace of Chosroes,” and Mr. Hoeck attributes it to Chosroes surnamed Nushirvan, wlio reigned from 532, to 579. Northward of Baghdad thirty German miles, are remains of walls and subterraneous structures, indicating (as Mr. Hoeck believes, p. 106.) the situation of a splendid palace erected at Dastagerd, by another Chosroes, (surnamed Parviz, who reigned from 590 to 628,) for his beloved mistre:s Shirin, after whom the ruins are still called the Keser Shirin, or “ Shirin's palace.”
Our author next advances to the monuments of antiquity near Kirmanshah; various buman figures, angels or genii, hunting parties, and other devices, sculptured in the rock of a mountain called Tak Bostan, and supposed by Danville, Mannert, Della