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of the language, he may, according to his instructor's discretion, be encouraged to undertake the making of an index to some considerable Greek author ; the publication of which index will be a real service to the learned world. While young persons are composing an index only with a view to their own improvement, several of them may very properly be employed in making an index to the same book. But when they employ themselves in the same kind of work with a design of publishing their performances, it may be most advisable that each of them should take a different author: for which reason I beg leave to set down a list of some Greek books to which I have known indexes already composed. Such are the following:
Plato's Select Dialogues. Ed. Ejusdem et Democratis SentenForster.
liæ. Longinus. Ed. Pearce. 8vo. Agathemeri Geographica. Cebes. Ed. Gronov.
Marmora Oxoniensia.' Epictetus.
Olympiodorus de Vitâ Platonis. Theophrastus de Lapidibus. Ed. Albini Introductio ad Platonis Hill. .
Dialogos. Lycurgus. Ed. Taylor.
Sallustius de Diis et Mundo. Erastosthenes. Ed. Amst. 1688. Secundi Philosophi Sententiæ. Heraclitus de Incredibilibus. Ed. Fabricii. ibid.
Anatolii Fragm. Ed. Fabricii. Anonymus de Incredibilibus. Hieroclis AXTELA. Ed. Needibid.
ham. Porphyrius de Vitâ Pythagoræ. Monumentum Adulitanum Pto Ed. Kuster.
lemæi Euergetæ. Ed. FaSpeusippi Definitiones.
brici. Demophili Similitudines. Juliani Imp. Epistolæ Quatuor.
Greek Books already transcribed in order to an Index. Aristeas
Soranus de Vitâ Hippocratis. Onosander
Phalaridis Epistolæ. Exc. ex Heraclide de Polit. Plutarcbi Vitæ. vol. i.
· The Verbal Index to the Marmora Oxoniensia was composed by my learned and very valuable friend Mr. Juhn Loveday, of Magdalen College, Oxford, and has lately been published in the same volume wiih the Marbles themselves, together with eighit Indexes more, composed by the same accu. rate hand, which may greatly assist in explaining other ancient Monuments.
Indexes begun or designed, to Diodorus Siculus. Ed. Wesse- Xenophontis Memorabilia. ling
Vita Homeri (inter Galei Opusc, Simplicius in Epictetum.
Mythol., &c.) M. Antoninus.
Epigrammata Græca. Ed. JolinHieroclis Comm. in Aurea Carnina.
Theophrasti Characteres. P. P. Apostolici.
Plutarch. de Aud. Poëtis.
Antiquitates Asiaticæ Edmundi
The preceptor, in examining his scholar's index,, need not, as I apprehend, take the trouble of reading the whole of it
, but may, in a competent degree, judge whether it be so far exact as is necessary in order to the composer's own. improvement, by dipping casually into distant parts of it, and comparing a few of the words with the place in the book to which they are referred: or he may, vice versů, take a few lines that lie in distant parts of the book, and see whether the words of those lines are rightly set down in the index. Wben an index composed by a young person is designed for the
press, it will be necessary that sone person more intimately acquainted with the Greek language should read over the words of the index before it be published, or that the maker of it should keep
A learned and ingenious Gentlenian, the Rev. Mr. Whalley, Master of Christ-church School, London, (one of whose Scholars has, at the age of fifteen, voluntarily composed an Index to Dr. Gale's Anonymous Writer de Incredibilibus, and has transcribed the Excerpta de Pulitiis for the same purpose,) has enabled me to enlarge the List of Books to which Indexes are begun or designed, by the tühowing passage in a Letter with which he has lately favored me: “_Your Index-compilation is certainly a very useful and improving method. I have strongly recommended it to the Boys under my care designed for the University.” Into the hands of one I have put Aristotle's Poetics; of another, the last Oxford Edition of Moschus and Bion, by a Gentleman of Christ-church. And to others I propose giving Moupieney's Select Orations of Demosthenes, Aristotle's Ethics by Wilkin. son, Platu's Republic in 2 vuls. by Massey, who was edncated on this foundation,” &c.-The Rev. Dr. Hunt, the celebrated Professor of the Hebrew and Arabic Languages, (a Gentleman to whom I have many and singular obligations,) bas intimated to me the usefulness of such an Iodex with regard to the latter of those Languages, if composed for some valuable Arabic Writer.
it by him, till he is so far improved as to be capable of correcting it limself.
The employment which I have been recommending, if it were only enjoined to persons at school instead of some other task or lesson, and never as an additional exercise, would, I am apt 10 imagine, be rather acceptable than disagreeable to the generality of them ; and, when they trave for some time willingly applied them: selves to it, there is reason to hope that the sense of the advantage arising from it will incline many to undertake some considerable work of this sort for their farther improvement. Few, I believe, who are really desirous of learning the Greek language, would be deterred from such an attempt by the degree of labor which attends it, were they sensible bow much both of labor and tine is saved by it in the acquisition of that kind of knon ledge. Add to ibis, that the assistance which every student in the language may bope to receive, (when he is farther improved in it,) from the use of ibe indexes themselves, is such as a well-disposed person cannot but greatly value, were it only contined to the illustration of the Sacred Writings; for, though this branch of literature ought most particularly to be cultivated by those who are designed for holy crders, there is no profession or rank to which it can justly be thought foreign or unimportant: as the only circumstance that discriminates a clergyman from other men is this ; that it is his peculiar eniployment to teach what it is every man's concern to know.
I am, Dear Sir,
LETTERS ON THE ANCIENT BRITISH
LANGUAGE OF CORNWALL.
No. V.-[Continued from No. XXXIX. p. 172.]
DISGUISE OF WORDSDIGAMMA. Tae disguise of words, to which I have often had occasion to allude, is a matter of the highest importance in the theory and the structure of language. It is also an object of difficulty, as in their transition from foreign languages the original primitives can be scarcely recognised. It is, however, a long and intricate subject, and which would require to be discussed in a separate treatise, and with the greatest accuracy. It would be thus that niany philological affinities, might
be discovered, which are not even supposed to exist. The following observations are rather made with a view to vindicate myself than otherwise, as niany of my derivations would perhaps appear fanciful without such an esplanation.
1. The disguise of some words consists a great deal more in the spelling than in the pronunciation; and thus an Englishman, when lie meets with foreign words, will naturally articulate the letters according to his own language, and destroy whatever similarity might have still remained. What can be more different than journal and day, young and juvenis? and yet there can be no doubt of their commou origin. This becomes much more probable, when we recollect, that the Roman j and v were pronounced like our Englislı y and w. The Italians have retained the souod of y to their j, as in Jaspide, Jasper, tempj, times ; while the Spaniards have nearly digammated it into an aspirate, as in Boda'os ; Junta, A Junta. Tlie variations of Young are Giovane, It.; Joven, Sp.; Jeune, French ; and Jeran, Cornish; all of which have the same origin as Juvenis; and though thiey are totally different, when pronounced in English according to their orthograplıy, yet they evidently retain a certain resemblance as they are pronounced by those different nations.
2. Foreigners will not express the same words alike in writing ; but will modify them in some nieasure according to the sounds, to which they have been accustomed. This accounts for the extraordinary discrepancies of navigators, when they give us the same appellations derived from barbarous and unwritten languages. This is remarkably striking in the imitation of the sounds of animals, and indeed in rone more than in the discrepant similarity in the name of the cuckoo ;' KOKKUE; cuculus ; cuculo and cucù, It. ; Coucou, Fr. ; Cuclillo, Sp.; Cucó, Port.; Gog, Corn. Is it then wonderful, when there is such a variety in expressing a sound, which is annually repeated in the ears of millious, that travellers should disagree in reporting words, which they may have never heard pronounced but once?
3. Foreign words have often in themselves sonething, which cannot be pronounced in the language of the countries, where they be. come naturalised. Having never been accustomed to corresponding sounds, the Soutb-Sea Islanders could imitate no nearer the names of Cook and an are, than toutee and opys8 ; thus contrary to all the usual substitutions of letters turning the ciuto a t, and the x into yss; and vet however strange this perversion, and distant the resemblance, there can be no doubt of the derivativo. We
that our vavigators, on the other hand, did not corrupt their words less. Even nearer home to us, the French turu the th into d and t and the
· The llebrew word for a cuckoo is any, which is thus rendered in our translation; but it may also mean a sea-mew, which I should prefer, as the word and bears no analogy whatever to the note of the bird, contrary tu what is the case in so many other languages. (Lev. xi. 16.)
w into v; or like the Greeks in Ovipyídeos and Leßúpos into ou and b, as in ouest, bicétre, &c.
4. Another cause of the disguise of foreign words, is when there exists a natural impediment to the pronunciation of the people, I mean when they are called on to imitate sounds which are unknown to their language. An immediate corruption follows; the Dearest sounds can only be had recourse to, and the words become totally different from their origival, though the constant regularity of their deviation indicates the particular letters which could not be pronounced. Thus some modern pations, unable to articulate the Roman pl, have adopted other letters, as for pluere and plangere, we have piovere, and piangere, It. ; llover and llorar, Sp.; and chover and chorar, Port. These nations, therefore, finding this difficulty in the pl, expressed it in the best way they could, and employed those letters, which seemed to their ear to approximate most to the original sound. But nothing can be more dissimilar to the eye, or as read by an Englishman; and I confess, tbat unless I had paid attenlion to the subject, I could not have guessed that these letters were substituted for each other. The Greeks and Romans could express the s followed by a consonant, as in okédos, spondeo, and in this they are followed by the English, Italians, and Cornish in spunge, spongia, spong ; spirit, spirito, speris ; star, stella, steren ; which in French, Spanislı, and Portuguese, make éponge, esponja; esprit, espiritu, espirito, étoile, estrella.
5. Words are not only disguised when they lose or alter some of their letters; but this likewise happens, when the original pronunciation remains the same throughout several languages. Different națions employ different symbols to represent similar sounds. It is thus that what is in fact similar in sound and signification, loses every trace of its former appearance, so that it cannot even be suspected, what it originally was, except by those wlio bave studied the subject. Even many who understand the languages, and are acquainted with the synonyms and their meanings, have no idea that, when they are analysed, they spring from one common origin. It only happens, however, when the languages have corresponding sounds; for if they have not, the words either change their letters as cilium; It. ciglio, or else they retain their form, without any attempt to designate the pronunciation, as in the Italian, certo and cima, which are in French certain and cime. Of different but similarly pronounced symbols, we have major; It. maggiore; giudizio, jugement, judgment. The correspondents of gn iv It. compagno, are in the Hebrew up, ke upheld; Sp. compañero. Port. conipanheiro, and the Euglish companion. Again, Vemiglio, It.; bermello, Sp. ; vermelho, Port.; and vermillion, French and English, are all nearly symbols of the same sounds. It is therefore plain, without an unnecessary multiplication of examples, that this disguise of the letters is not less common, or less intricate to be discovered, ihan that of the others, which depend on a combined alteration of the letters and the pronunciation.
6. When the disguise is constant, there is no difficulty in restoring