« AnteriorContinuar »
is derived from the works of Hippocrates and Galen. The correct text is believed to be the following, some obviously necessary emendations having been made by Petit and others, which will be particularly noticed.
Πύρ μεν πάντη, και δριμύ, και λεπτόν μάλιστα δε τα είσω: αναπνοή θερμή ως εκ πυρός» ήέρος ολκή μεγάλη, ψυχρού επιθυμίη, γλώσσης ξηρότης, αυασμός χειλέων και δέρματος, άκρεαψυχρα, ούρα χολοβαφέα κατακορέως, άγρυπνίη, σφυγμοί πυκνοί, σμικροί, έκλυτοι: οφθαλμοί ευαγέες, λαμπροί, υπέρυθροι» προσώπου εύχρoίη ήν δ' επί μάλλον αύξη το πάθος, μέζω τα πάντα και κακίων σφυγμοί σμικρότατοι και πυκνότατοι πύρ ξηρότατον, δριμύτατον γνώμη παράφορος, πάντων άγνωσίης διψωδέες, ψαύσαι ψυχρού επιθυμία, τοίχου, εσθήτος, εδάφιος, υγρού χείρες ψυχραι, θέναρα θερμότατα, όνυχες πελιδνοί, αναπνοή πυκινή, νότις περί μέτωπα, και κλήίδας. "Ην δ' ες άκρον ξηρότητος και θερμασίης ήκε η φύσις, το μέν θερμόν ες ψυχρόν, ο δε αυχμός ες επομβρίην τρέπεται: αι γαρ των πραγμάτων ες το έσχατον επιτάσιες ες την εναντίον μεταβάλλουσιν ιδέην. "Επην ουν λύθη της φύσιος τα δέσμα, τότε έστι η συγκοπή τότε ίδρως άσχετος πάντη του σώματος, αναπνοή ψυχρή, άτμος ανα ρίνας πουλώς άδιψοι, εξήρανται γάρ τάλλα: άταρ τα άλλα διψάλεα όργανα, στόμα, στώαχος" ούρα λεπτά, υδατωδέα κοιλίη τα πολλα μέν ξηρή έστι δε και οίσι υποφέρει βράχια χολωδέα πουλώς πλάδος διαρρέει δε και τα όστεα λυόμενα, και από πάντων ως εν ποταμώ ες τα έξω η φορή.
Ψυχής κατάστασις, αίσθησις ξύμπασα καθαρή, διάνοια λεπτή, γνώμη μαντική. Προγιγνώσκουσι μέν ούν πρώτιστα ώύτέοισι του βίου την μεταλ. λαγήν έπειτα τοισι παρέoυσι προλέγουσι τα αύθις εσόμενα. οι δε αυτέους μεν, έσθ' ότε, και άλλοφάσσειν δοκέoυσι τη απόβασει δέ των ειρημένων θαυμάζουσιν άνθρωποι. Μετεξέτεροι δε και προσλαλέoυσι των κατοιχομένων τισί, τάχα μεν παρέοντας ορεύντες αυτοί μούνοι, υπό λεπτής και καθαρής αισθήσιος, τάχα δ' αυτού της ψυχής προγιγνωσκούσης και διηγευμένης τους άνδρας οίσι ξυνέσονται. Πρόσθεν μέν γαρ εν λύι, τoίσι υγροίσι έην, και ζόφο έπει δε τάδε εξήντλησε η νούσος, και από των οφθαλμών την αχλύν έλε, ορέουσι τα τε εν τω ήέρι, και γυμνή τη ψυχή γίγνονται μάντιες άτρεκέες: οι δε ες τόσονδε λεπτότητος υγρών και της γνώμης άφιγμένοι, ου μάλα του νονται, εξηερωμένης ήδί της ζωτικής δυνάμιος.
• The chapter is thus rendered by Crassus, according to the best edition of Aretæus, edited under the superintendance of Boerhaave.
Ignis passim, et acer, et tenuis est: sed intus maxime. Spiritus tanquam ab igne calidus : aëris vehemens attractio, frigidi cupiditas, lingua arida, in labiis et cute squalor: algent extrenia,
"There is here a very great error in punctuation; the stop ought to be after χολωδέα. Πουλύς πλάδος has no reference to the bowels but ω ιιue surface of the body, and ought to begin the next septeuce.
lotium quam biliosissimum, insomnietas, arteriarum motus crebri, parvi, imbecilli; oculi puri, lucentes, subrubri: facies bene colorata. Quod si morbus ulterius crescat, omnia majora et sæviora fiunt. Arteriæ minimis motibus et creberrimis agitantur : ignis aridissimus et acerrimus, mens delirat, omnia ignorat. Siticulosi fiunt; omnia frigida attrectare cupiunt, parietem, vestem, pavimentum, humorem. Manus frigidæ, sed palmæ perquam calidæ : ungues livent : spiratio crebra est, roscidus humor circa frontem et jugula. Cuin ad summam ariditatem, caloremque corporis, natura pervenerit, tum calidum in frigidum, squalor in imbrem convertitur. Rerum namque ad maximam molem incrementa in contrarium statum prolabuntur. Ubi ergo naturæ nexus soluti fuerint, ea syncope est. Tunc sudor ingens toto corpore funditur, et nullo pacto compescitur. Spiratio frigida est, vapor e naribus multus exhalat, siti non vexantur: cætera enim exaruerunt, quin etiam alia instrumenta sitiunt, os et gula : urina tenuis et aquea redditur, alvus plurimum adstricta est : nonnunquam tameu pauca quædam biliosa descendunt. Copiosa et aliena humiditas redundat; ossa quoque tabescentia defluunt: et undique, ut in flumine, ad extrema omnia dilabuntur.
. Animus stabilis et constaus est : sensus omnis purus et integer, subtile ingenium, mens vaticinando idonea. Primum quidem se ipsos de vita migraturos præsentiunt : deinde præsentibus futura denuntiant. Nonnulli vero interdum eorum dictis fideni non habendam putant; sed dictorum eventus homines in eorum admirationem concitat. Aliqui præterea ex his cum quibusdam vita defunctis sermonem habent ; fortasse quidem ipsi soli
, præ sensus acumine et puritate, eos adesse cernentes ; aut forte ipsorum animo viros cum quibus versaturi sint prænoscente atque enarrante. Quippe antea in lutulentis humoribus, et caligine demersus erat ; quos ubi morbus exhausit, et ab oculis tenebras detersit, quæ in aëre fiunt prædicunt; exutoque sordibus animo, veracissimi vates efficiuntur. Sed quorum succi et ingenium ita extenuati sunt, non diu admodum solent esse superstites, cum eorum vitalis potentia jam in aërem cesserit atque abierit.
This translation is in many respects faully; and as it is proposed to consider the chapter sentence by sentence, some inaccuracies of the text and the errors of the translation will the more evidently appear.
The first sentence appears to me to be improperly pointed, and ought to stand thus:
Πυρ μεν πάντη, και δριμύ και λεπτον, μάλιστα δε τα είσω. In the conclusion of the chapter immediately preceding, concerning Syncope, the author mentions that Causus is frequently the cause of that disease, and he here proceeds to enumerate the symptoms. In
puuctuation the Editors appear to have overlooked the constant relation of the particles rèv and dè, and have divided them by a colon, which is rather unusual, while the translator passes over the pèy as a mere unmeaning expletive. “Ignis passim, et acer, et tenuis est : sed intus maxime." The obvious meaning of the author is." A fierce and subtle sever pervades indeed the whole system, but chiefly affects the internal parts."- Müp and Augesòs express fever in the Greek medical authors, but to render either of these words by ignis in Latin is scarcely allowable unless in poetic language, as when Virgil says of Dido, who was wasting away in consequence of her unhappy passion for Æneas, “ Caco carpitur igni.” Febris, a word derived from the Celtic, and literally signifying quickvess of pulse, is always used by the Latin writers.
The learned Petit says of this sentence, that he cannot divine what the word Aertò can here signify unless it may be rendered acute.--The Febris passim et acris would, however, give the idea of acute, and the entòv appears to be used in the same sense, as when Plato calls light φλόξ μανή και λεπτόν, « a rare and subtle flame.”- In the following enumeration of symptoms the avanvon θερμή ως εκ πυρός refers to expiration έκπνευσις; but as the qualities of air expired are only perceptible to those about the sick, the word ávan vor may be used without impropriety. The raging heat about the heart and lungs necessarily occasions a vehement effort to procure fresh and cool air, négos onxn Mercan, and a strong desire for whatever by its coldness may allay the preternatural heat.-The tongue in such a case is dry and the lips and skin shrunk and as it were withered. Aúaopós, which the translator renders squalor, shrunk, shrivelled, signifies literally a withering or drying up, and we find it opposed as we proceed to an excess of moisture écoußpín. The axper vuxpe cannot be construed to mean that the extremities are in reality cold, because we have already been informed that fever pervades the whole system, but they are comparatively cold, because the beat chiefly affects the thorax and trunk of the body. The urine is most abundantly tinged with bile, oupa xons Bapea xataxogéws, the translator says, lotium quam biliosissimum; the patient cannot sleep, the pulse is quick, small and weak: and this, Galen assures us, will always be the case when the beart is affected by an unnatural degree of heat. The epithet súayées applied to the eyes, the translator renders puri. It is true that the adjective evayns has different significations, as it is derived from ayos or äyw duco : derived from the first it may in a figurative sense be rendered purus; but no such meaning can be attached to the word in this place, as it can in no respect be applicable, and were it otherwise, the naprepoi immediately following conveys the idea of bright and glistening much more conipletely. 'Oplanmoi eúdyéss
signifies that the eyes are active, easily moveable; and it is added that they are bright or glistening with a slight suffusion of blood, úrégu@pos, and this while the complexion remains good.
These are enumerated as the symptoms of ardent fever at the commencement, and the author proceeds to enumerate other and more formidable affections that come on, if the malady continue to gain ground. “ If,” says he," the disease continue to increase, all the symptoms become stronger, and worse. The pulse is exceedingly smaller and quick, the beat becomes extreme, and the patient delirious, and ignorant of all that is passing around him. A distressing thirst comes on, and a strong desire is manifested 10 touch any thing cold, the wall, clothes, the pavement, or any cold Auid. The fingers are cold, but the palms of the hand very hot, the nails livid, the respiration burried, a dewy humor appears
about the forehead and neck. When the heat arrives at its extreme height, then the hot is changed into cold, and dry and withering heat into copious humidity; for whatever has reached its extreme point is changed into its contrary. When then the bonds of nature are dissolved, this is the fatal termination of the case : then profuse sweats not to be modified break out from all parts of the body, the respiration becomes cold, much vapor issues from the nostrils, the patient is no longer distressed with thirst, for although other parts are parched, yet the mouth and stomach, the organs occasioning thirst, are not so. The urine is thin and watery, the bowels for the most part in a costive state, but sometimes bilious stools are passed, with a profusion of watery humor. Even the bones are wasted away in the general colliquation, and as in a river, the humors flow to the external parts.”
Here the description of symptons ends, as far as the body is immediately affected, and its functions altered, impaired or destroyed; and then follows a description of the state of the incorporeal part, the soul, and how it is aftected amidst the general wreck of the animal functions. In the commencement of this part of the chapter, an error in punctuation has led to a grievous error in translation and mistranslation of the word xatáOTATIS. In the original Edition of Goupylus, the passage runs thus : Yuxñs xatádτασις, αίσθησις ξύμπασα καθαρή, διάνοια λεπτή, γνώμη μαντική. This is translated, “Animus stabilis et constans est; subtile ingenium, mens vaticinando idonea.”
The word xatáctavis cannot be rendered stabilis et constans, and it would have been equally proper had the mind been altogether enfeebled in proportion to the bodily infirmities and decay. It merely implies state or condition, and the two first words of the sentence, as it now stands, ought to have formed a sentence of thein
selves, and a title to what remains of the chapter, thus; vuxn's κατάστασις. Αίσθησις ξύμπασα καθαρή, διάνοια λεπτή, γνώμη μαντική. The xatártaris is here in construction with a genitive, while all "the other qualities are in the nominative case, agreeing with their respective substantives. Translating animus stabilis into Greek, we should probably render the words puxen Béßr14, but nothing can justify the rendering tuxñs xatáOTATIS, animus stabilis. Petit, and, perhaps, the translator, may have been misled in this instance by the authority of Celsus, for Petit quotes the Greek words, and immediately subjoins, Mentem constare dicit Celsus. I. iii. c. 19.Aretæus immediately after these words gives the state of the alo Angis, νούς and γνώμη. Αίσθησις, or sensation, is what the soul immediately perceives through corporeal organs, and this, says Aristotle, is evident by reason, and even without the aid of reasoning: ý 8 aioθησις, ότι δια σώματος γίνεται, τη ψυχή δήλον διά τε λόγου, και του λόγου, zoopis. Askvoic is the exercise of the mind, the discursus mentis concerning the information received by the senses, by means of which we increase our knowledge, by ulterior conclusions drawn from that information; and I'veuen is the judgınent formed after due exercise of the mind, which in this case, we are informed, is correct, and relating to future events, is called prophetic.
To the Rev. Mr. JOSEPH WARTON, chiefly relating to the Composition of Greek Indexes, and the advantage to be received from it in learning the Greek Language.
To this we prefix an Extract from the Bishop of St. David's
Preface to the Lexicon Græcum of the Pentalogia. “Indices Græci solerter constituti quam vere usui Tyronum sint accommodati, quantumque ad linguæ scientiam comparandam pertineant, et apud eruditos constat, et a Jacobo Merrick, viro doctissimo, imnature rebus humanis non ita pridem erepto, dilucidius in Epistola ad virum reverendum, et merito celeberrimum,