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we may undeniably claim and vindicate; though the number (of American representatives in Parwe might safely grant them independency.” liament] might be properly limited, as those of

You may claim it; but you have not, Scotland were at the union.” never had, nor, I trust, ever will have it. A proper limitation can only be this, that You, that is, the people of England, cannot they shall from time to time have such a grant the Americans independency of the number of additional members, as are proking. It can never be, but with his consent portioned to their increasing share of the and theirs.

taxes and numbers of people. Preserving our sovereignty over them, “ An exact estimate can scarcely be made although at the expense of some portion of of what expense their protection stands in to their natural prerogatives. They partly consist Great Britain.” of our own plantations, and partly of the conquests we have made from a nation in whose always in time of war at as much expense

The protection is mutual. They are hands it would have been dangerous for us to

as would be necessary to protect themselves ; have continued."

first, by the troops and armed ships they Our sovereignty! Our sovereignty for raise and equip; secondly, by the higher

Of their, not our plantations. The price they pay for all commodities, wher. conquests may be yours partly; but they drawn into war by English European quarare partly conquests belonging to the colo- rels; thirdly, by obstructions to the vent nies, who joined their forces with yours in of their produce by general embargo. equal proportion.

“ They are justly chargeable with a certain “ Our very being, therefore, at least as a free portion of the civil list; for this most indubitapeople, depends upon our retention of them." bly constitutes a part of government. How Take care, then, how you use them.

this article at present is managed in England, “ They are now treated as children. Their

is not now my business to inquire." complaints are heard, and grievances redressed. I will tell you how it is managed. The But then they would be treated rather as slaves, colonies maintain their governors, who are having the swords of their masters perpetually the king's representatives; and the king held at their throats, if they should presume to receives a quitrent from the lands in most offer half the indignities to the officers of the of the colonies. French crown, which they have often with im

“ In many parts they are little, perhaps, or punity done to those of the British."

nothing at all inferior in respect of their conThe direct contrary is true; they are not veniences to the mother country.” redressed; they are refused to be heard, As these differences cannot be known in Fresh oppressions and insults are continually Parliament here, how can you proportion added. English swords are now held at and vary your taxes of America so as to our throats. Every step is taking to con- make them equal and fair? It would be vince us, that there is no difference in go- undertaking what you are not qualified for, vernment.

as well as doing what you have no right to Nay, they have Assemblies of their own to do. redress their grievances."

“ Yet it must be granted, that they know best It is well they have.

the state of their own funds, and what taxes “And if that should be done, what marks of they can afford to pay." sovereignty will they allow us to enjoy ? What And yet you would be meddling. sort of claim will they indulge us with! Only, “It is very certain, that England is entitled I

suppose, a mere titular one. And if so, would to a great deal of gratitude from her colonies." they then expect, that we should 'still protect them with our forces by sea and land? Or will string, the great obligation the colonies are

The English are eternally harping on this they themselves maintain an army and navy under for protection from the French. I sufficient for that purpose ? This they cer- have shown, already, that the defence was tainly at present are not able to do, if they were mutual. Every man in England, and every not sheltered by the wings of Great Britain."

man's estate, have been defended from the What would you have ? Would you, the French; but is it sense to tell any particular people of England, be subjects and kings at man, " The nation has incurred a debt of the same time? Don't be under any appre- one hundred and forty-eight millions to prohensions for them. They will find allies

and and friends somewhere ; and it will be worth owe a great deal of gratitude to the nation ?"

your estate; and therefore you no one's while to make them enemies, or to He will say, and justly, “I paid my proattack so poor a people, so numerous, and portion, and I am under no obligation.” so well armed.

The colonies, as I have shown in preceding “Nor is there any reason to apprehend, that notes, have always paid more in various they should be at all formidable to England; as ways, and besides extending your trade VOL. II.

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sometimes (from which you exclude the “ And if she had not thought proper to centre colonies), and for whims about the balance almost all her care, as she has done, upon makof power, and for the sake of continental ing the late peace, in procuring them a safe esconnexions in which they were separately tablishment, and to sacrifice to it, in a manner, unconcerned. On the other hand, they every other object, she might, at least, expect have, from their first settlement, had wars from them a more decent and dutiful demeanin America, in which they never engaged our.” you. The French have never been their In the last war America kept up twentyenemies, but on your account.

five thousand men at her own cost for five “That the late war was chiefly kindled and years, and spent many millions. Her troops carried on, on your account, can scarcely be were in all battles, all service. Thousands denied.”

of her youth fell a sacrifice. The crown

gained an immense extent of territory, and It is denied.

a great number of new subjects. Britain .“ By the steps they seem to take to shake gained a new market for her manufactures, off our sovereignty.”

and recovered and secured the old one among Our sovereignty again! This writer, like the Indians, which the French had inter

But what did the the Genoese queens of Corsica, deems him- rupted and annihilated. self a sprig of royalty !

Americans gain, except that safe establish"For as soon as they are no longer dependent ment, which they are now so taunted with?

Lands were divided among none of them. upon England, they may be assured they will

The immediately become dependent upon France.” very fishery, which they fought to obWe are assured of the contrary. Weak der of the Havana was not for them. And

tain, they are now restrained in.

The plunstates, that are poor, are as safe as great this very safe establishment they might as ones that are rich. They are not objects of well have had by treaty with the French, envy. The trade, that may be carried on their neighbours, who would probably have with them, makes them objects of friend: been easily made and continued their friends, ship. The smallest states may have great if it had not been for their connexion with allies; and the mutual jealousies of great Britain. nations contribute to their security.

“ And it seldom happens, that any one fares “ And whatever reasons there might the better for his insolence." exist to dispose them in our favour in prefer

Then don't be insolent with your power. ence to the French; yet, how far these would operate, no one can pretend to say.”

“For should matters on all sides, as I hope Then be careful not to use them ill. It they never will, be carried to extremities, I canis a better reason for using them kindly. produce both a Ministry and Parliament, that

not take upon me to say but England may yet That alone can retain their friendship. would rather share them once more with the Your sovereignty will be of no use if the French, than totally relinquish her present pre people hate you. Keeping them in obe- tensions." dience will cost you more than your profits from them amount to.

We have been often threatened with this

wise measure of returning Canada to France. “ It is not, indeed, for their jealousy of their Do it when you please. Had the French rights and liberties, but for their riotous and

power, which you were five years subduing seditious manner of asserting them.”

with twenty-five thousand regulars, and Do you Englishmen then pretend to cen- twenty-five thousand of us to help you, sure the colonies for riots ? Look at home! continued at our backs ready to support and I have seen, within a year, riots in the coun- assist us, whenever we might think proper try about corn; riots about elections; riots to resist your oppressions, you would never about work-houses; riots of colliers; riots have thought of a Stamp Act for us; you of weavers ; riots of coal-heavers; riots of would not have dared to use us as you have sawyers ; riots of sailors; riots of Wilkes- done. If it be so politic a measure to have ites; riots of government chairmen; riots enemies at hand (as the notion is) to keep of smugglers, in which custom-house officers your subjects in obedience, then give part of and excisemen have been murdered, the Ireland to the French to plant. Plant anoking's armed vessels and troops fired at, &c. ther French colony in the Highlands, to keep In America, if one mob rises, and breaks a rebellious Scotland in order. Plant another few windows, or tars and feathers a single on Tower Hill, to restrain your own mobs. rascally informer, it is called rebellion; There never was a notion more ridiculous. troops and fleets must be sent, and military Don't you see the advantage you may have, execution talked of, as the decentest thing if you preserve our connexion? The fifty in the world. Here, indeed, one would thousand men and the fleet employed in think riots part of the mode of government. America, during the last war are now so

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much strength at liberty to be employed The charters are sacred. Violate them, elsewhere.

and then the present bond of union (the “ The legislative power of every kingdom or kingly power over us) will be broken. empire should centre in one supreme assembly." “ The Americans may insist upon the same

Distinguish here what may be convenient rights, privileges, and exemptions, as are allowed from what is fact. Before the union it was the Irish, because of the similarity, if not identhought convenient, and long wished for, tity, of their connexions with us.' that the two kingdoms should join in one Surely the Americans deserve a little parliament. But, till that union was formed, more. They never put you to the trouble the fact was that their

parliaments were dis- and expense of conquering them, as Ireland tinct, and the British Parliament would not has done three times over. They never make laws for Scotland. The same fact were in rebellion.— I speak now of the nanow subsists in America. The parliaments tive Irish. The English families settled and states are distinct; but the British Par there lost no rights by their merit in conliament has taken advantage of our mino quering that country. rity, and usurped powers not belonging to it. “ It would be amiss, perhaps, to ask them

“ But if any distinction were to be made, what bounds they would be content to fix to most certainly, of the two nations, the Ametheir claims and demands upon us, as hitherto ricans are least entitled to any lenity on that

score.” they seem to be at a loss where to stop.”

I wonder much at this most certainly." : They only desire, that you would leave them where you found them; repeal all “ The terms she may not think safe and proyour taxing laws, and return to requisitions per to grant the Irish, she may judge full as where you would have aids from them. dangerous and imprudent to grant the Ameri

“I must freely own, that whatever opinion I cans." may have of their right, I certainly have not It is very imprudent to deprive America quite as favourable one of their conduct, which of any of her privileges. If her commerce often is neither consistent nor prudent.” and friendship are of any importance to you, They think the same of yours.

they are to be had on no other terms, than “ If they are really willing we should exercise leaving her in the full enjoyment of her any acts of sovereignty among them at all, the rights. imposition they have so riotously resisted might “ Long before we could send among them not improperly, perhaps, have been allowed bet- any considerable number of forces, they might ter quarter."

do a great deal of mischief, if not actually overLeave the king, who alone is the sove- turn all order and government." reign, to exercise his acts of sovereignty in They will take care to preserve order and appointing their governors, and in approving

government for their own sakes. or disapproving their laws. But do you leave it to their choice to trade elsewhere

“ Several other reasons might be offered, why for commodities; to go to another shop? the same measures, in regard to both nations, No! you say they shall buy of you, or no- might not be altogether alike convenient and body.

advisable." “ Nor should mere custom, nor any charter Where you cannot so conveniently use or law in being, be allowed any great weight in force, there you should endeavour to secure the decision of this point.”

affection.

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« THE TRUE CONSTITUTIONAL MEANS FOR PUTTING AN END TO THE DISPUTES BETWEEN GREAT BRITAIN AND THE AMERICAN

COLONIES. LONDON, 1769."

“EVERY British subject must acknowledge, at some entertainments the attendants have ap that the directive influence of the British state peared almost as numerous as the guests." remains with the British legislature, who are the

Was not the gold first purchased by the only proper judges of what concerns the general produce of his land, obtained by hard labour! welfare of the whole empire.”

Does gold drop from the clouds in Virginia The British state is only the island of into the laps of the indolent? Their very Great Britain; the British legislature are purchasing plate and other superfluities from undoubtedly the only proper judges of what England is one means of disabling them concerns the welfare of that state; but the from paying taxes to England. Would you Irish legislature are the proper judges of have it both in meal and malt? It has been what concerns the Irish state, and the Ame- a great folly in the Americans to entertain rican legislatures of what concerns the Ame- English gentlemen with a splendid hospirican states respectively. By the whole tality, ill suited to their circumstances ; by empire” does this writer mean all the king's which they excited no other grateful senti

. dominions? If so, the British Parliaments ments in their guests, than that of a desire should also govern the isles of Jersey and to tax the landlord. Guernsey, and Hanover; but this is not so.

“It cannot be deemed exorbitant considering “But the land tax, which I have proposed, is their traffic with the French sugar-islands, as in its very nature unoppressive, and is equally well as with our own; and this will make the well suited to the poorest as to the richest pro-whole of their importations four millions per vince of the British empire."

annum.' This writer seems ignorant, that every This is arguing the riches of a people colony has its own civil and military esta- from their extravagance; the very thing blishment to provide for; new roads and that keeps them poor. bridges to make; churches and all public “ The inhabitants of Great Britain pay above edifices to erect; and would he separately thirteen millions sterling every year, including tax them, moreover, with a tax on lands turnpikes and the poor's rates, two articles which equal to what is paid in Britain ?

the colonies are exempt from." “The colonists must possess a luxuriant A turnpike tax is no burthen, as the turnabundance to be able to double their inhabitants pike gives more benefit than it takes. And in so short a space.”

ought the rich in Britain, who have made How does this appear? Is not a mere such numbers of poor by engrossing all the competence sufficient for this purpose ? If small divisions of land, and who keep the America

will consent to pay thus its propor- labourers and working people poor by limittion of British taxes, will Britain pay out ing their wages,- ought those gentry to of the whole all the American taxes ? Or complain of the burden of maintaining the is America to pay both ?

poor that have worked for them at unreason

As well “ The produce of the planters purchases for ably low rates all their lives? them what others buy with gold and silver; but might the planter complain of his being even several of the colonists of the rank of obliged to maintain his poor negroes, when good livers have often been seen to pay the price they grow old, are sick, or lame, and unable of a negro with gold. As instances of Virgi- to provide for themselves. nian luxury, I have been assured, that there are “For though all pay by the same law, yet few families there without some plate ; and that none can be required to pay beyond his ability;

and the fund from whence the tax is raised, is, “I beg to know if the returns of any traffic in the colonies that are least inhabited, just as on earth ever produced so many per cent. as able to bear the burden imposed, as in the most the returns of agriculture in a fertile soil and populous country of Great Britain.”

favourable climate." The colonies are almost always considered How little this politician knows of agriby these ignorant, flimsy writers, as unwill-culture! Is there any county where ten ing to contribute to the general exigencies bushels of grain are generally got in for one of the state; which is not true. They are sown ? And are all the charges and advances always willing, but will have the granting for labour to be nothing ? No farmer of of their own money themselves ;-in which America in fact makes five per cent. of his they are right for various reasons,

money. His profit is only being paid for They would be content to take land from his own labour, and that of his children. us gratuitously.”

The opulence of one English or Dutch What land have they ever taken from merchant would make the opulence of a you? The lands did not belong to the hundred American farmers. crown, but to the Indians, of whom the colonists either purchased them at their the riches of the colonists would not increase

“It may, I think, be safely concluded, that own expense, or conquered them without so fast, were the inhabitants to leave off enlargassistance from Britain. The engagement ing their settlements and plantations, and run to settle the American lands, and the ex- eagexly upon manufactures." pense of settlement, are more than equivalent for what was of no value to Britain plantations; they can manufacture in their

There is no necessity of leaving their without a first settlement.

families at spare times. Depend upon it, “ The rental of the lands in Great Britain the Americans are not so impolitic as to and Ireland amounts to about twenty-two mil neglect settlements for unprofitable manulions; but the rental of the same extent of factures; but some manufactures may be lands in America is not probably one million more advantageous to some persons than sterling."

the cultivation of land, and these will proseWhat signifies extent of unsettled lands, cute such manufactures notwithstanding that produce nothing?

your oratory.

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