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Richard says,

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catches no mice," as poor


It “Many estates are spent in the getting,
since women for tea

forsook spinning and knitting, is true, there is much to be done, and perhaps

And men for punch forsook hewing and splitting.* you are weak-handed; but stick to it steadily, and you will see great effects, for “

“ If you would be wealthy, think of saving,

constant dropping wears away stones; and by

as well as of getting. The Indies have not diligence and patience the mouse ate in two made Spain rich, because her outgoes are the cable; and little strokes fell great oaks.” greater than her incomes. • Methinks I hear some of you say, “must

• Away then, with your expensive follies, a man afford himself no leisure ?” I will tell and you will not then have so much cause tó thee, my friend, what poor Richard says; complain of hard times, heavy taxes, and "employ thy time well, if thou meanest to chargeable families; for gain leisure ; and since thou art not sure of “ Women and wine, game and deceit, a minute, throw not away an hour.” Leisure Make the wealth small, and the want great." is time for doing something useful; this leisure And farther, “what maintains one vice, would the diligent man will obtain, but the lazy man bring up two children.” You may think, pernever; for “a life of leisure and a life of la- haps, that a little tea, or a little punch now ziness are two things. Many, without labour, and then, diet a little more costly, clothes a would live by their wits only, but they break little finer, and a little entertainment now and for want of stock;" whereas industry gives then, can be no great matter; but remember, comfort, and plenty, and respect.

many a little makes a mickle.” Beware of pleasures, and they will follow you. The di- little expences; "a small leak will sink a ligent spinner has a large shift; and now I great ship," as poor Richard says; and again, have a sheep and a cow, every one bids me whodainties love, shall beggars prove;" and good-morrow.”

moreover, “fools make feasts, and wise men • II. But with our industry we must like- eat them." wise be steady, settled, and careful, and over “ Here you are all got together to this sale see our own affairs with our own eyes, and of fineries and nick-nacks. You call them not trust too much to others; for, as poor goods, but if you do not take care, they will

prove evils to some of you. You expect they "I never saw an oft-removed tree,

will be sold cheap, and perhaps they may, for Nor yet an oft-removed family,

less than they cost; but, if you have no occa

sion for them, they must be dear to you. ReAnd again, “ three removes is as bad as a member what poor Richard says, “buy what fire;" and again “ keep thy shop, and thy thou hast no need of, and ere long thou shalt shop will keep thee;" and again, "if you sell thy necessaries.” And again, “at a would have your business done, go, if not, great pennyworth pause a

while." He send." And again,

means that perhaps the cheapness is apparent “ He that by the plough would thrive,

only, and not real; or the bargain, by strait

ening thee in thy business, may do thee more And again, “the eye of a master will do harm than good. For in another place he more work than both his hands;" and again, says, “many have been ruined by buying “want of care does us more damage than good pennyworths.” Again, “it is foolish to wan of knowledge;" and again, “not to lay out money in a purchase of repentance;" oversee workmen, is to leave them your purse and yet this folly is practised every day at open.” Trusting too much to other's care is auctions, for want of minding the almanac. the ruin of many; for, “in the affairs of this Many a one, for the sake of finery on the back, world, men are saved, not by faith, but by the have gone with a hungry belly, and half want of it;" but a man's own care is profita- starved their families; “silks and sating, ble; for, “ if you would have a faithful ser- scarlet and velvets, put out the kitchen fire," vant, and one that you like, serve yourself. as poor Richard says. These are not the neA little neglect may breed great mischief; for cessaries of life, they can scarcely be called want of a nail the shoe was lost, and for want of the conveniencies; and yet, only because they a shoe the horse was lost, and for want of a look pretty, how many want to have them? horse the rider was lost," being overtaken and By these and other extravagancies, the genslain by the enemy; all for want of a little teel are reduced to poverty, and forced to borcare about a horse-shoe nail.

row of those whom they formerly despised, • III. So much for industry, my friends, and but who, through industry and frugality, have attention to one's own business, but to these maintained their standing; in which case it we must add frugality, if we would make our appears plainly, that “a

ploughman on bis industry more certainly successful. A man legs is higher than a gentleman on his knees," may, if he knows not how to save as he gets, as poor Richard says. Perhaps they have had “ keep his nose all his life to the grindstone, a small estate left them, which they knew not and die not worth a groat at last. A fat kitch- the getting of; they think “it is day, and it en makes a lean will;" and

will never be night;" that a little to be spent

That throve so well as those that settled be."

Himself must either hold or drive."

out of so much is not worth minding; but “al- that such an edict would be a breach of your ways taking out of the meal-tub, and never privileges, and such a government tyranniputting in soon comes to the bottom," as poor cal? And yet you are about to put yourself Richard says; and then, “when the well is under that tyranny, when you run in debt for dry, they know the worth of water.” But such dress! your creditor has authority, at this they might have known before, if they his pleasure, to deprive you of your liberty, by had taken his advice : " if you would know confining you in gaol for life, or by selling you the value of money go and try to borrow some; for a servant, if you should not be able to pay for he that goes a borrowing goes a sorrow- him. When you have got your bargain, you ing,” as poor Richard says; and indeed so may, perhaps, think little of payment; but, does he that lends to such people, when he as poor Richard says, “ creditors have better goes to get it again. Poor Dick farther ad- memories than debtors; creditors are a suvises, and says,

perstitious sect, great observers of set-days "Fond pride of dress is sure a curse,

and times.” The day comes round before you Ere fancy you consult, consult your purse." are aware, and the demand is made before And again, “pride is as loud a beggar as you are prepared to satisfy it; or, if you bear want, and a great deal more saucy.” When your debt in mind, the term, which at first you have bought one fine thing, you must seemed so long, will as it lessens, appear exbuy ten more, that your appearance may be tremely short, time will seem to have added all of a piece; but poor Dick says, “it is ea- wings to his heels as well as his shoulders. sier to suppress the first desire than to satisfy “Those have a short lent, who owe money to all that follow it:" and it is as truly folly for be paid at Easter.” At present, perhaps, you the poor to ape the rich, as for the frog to may think yourselves in thriving circumswell in order to equal the ox.

stances, and that you can bear a little extra“ Vessels large may venture more,

vagance without injury; but But little boats should keep near shore."

“For age and want save while you may, It is, however, a folly soon punished; for, as No morning sun lasts a whole day." poor

Richard says, “ pride that dines on va. Gain may be temporary and uncertain, but nity, sups on contempt; pride breakfasted ever, while you live, expense is constant and with plenty, dined with poverty, and supped certain; and, “it is easier to build two chimwith infamy.” And, after all, of what use is neys than to keep one in fuel," as poor Richthis pride of appearance, for which so much is ard says : so, “ rather go to bed supperless risked, so much is suffered ? It cannot pro- than rise in debt.” mote health, nor ease pain; it makes no in “Get what you can, and what you get hold, crease of merit in the person ; it creates

'Tis the stone that will turn all your lead into gold." envy, it hastens misfortune.

And when you have got the philosopher's But what madness must it be to run in stone, sure you will no longer complain of debt for these superfluities! We are offered bad times, or the difficulty of paying taxes. by the terms of this sale six months credit; • IV. This doctrine, my friends, is reason and that perhaps has induced some of us to and wisdom : but, after all, do not depend too attend it, because we cannot spare the ready much upon your own industry, and frugality, money, and hope now to be fine without it. and prudence, though excellent things; for But ah! think what you do when you run in they may all be blasted, without the blessing debt ; you give to another power over your of Heaven; and therefore ask that blessing liberty. Ify you cannot pay at the time, you humbly, and be not uncharitable to those that will be ashamed to see your creditor, you at present seem to want it, but comfort and, will be in fear when you speak to him, when help them. Remember Job suffered, and was you will make poor, pitiful, sneaking excuses, afterwards prosperous. and by degrees come to loose your veracity, • And now, to conclude, “ experience keeps and sink into base, downright lying; for, a dear school, but fools will learn in no other," “the second vice is lying ; the first is run- as poor Richard says, and scarce in that; for, ning debt,” as poor Richard says; and again it is true, "we may give advice, but we canto the same purpose, “lying rides upon debt's not give conduct:" however, remember this, back;" whereas a free-born Englishman " they that will not be counselled cannot be ought not to be ashamed nor afraid to see or helped ;" and farther, that “if you will not hear speak to any man living. But poverty often reason she will surely rap your knuckles," as deprives a man of all spirit and virtue. “It poor Richard says.' is hard for an empty bag to stand upright. Thus the old gentleman ended his harangue. What would you think of that prince, or of The people heard it, and approved the docthat government, who should issue an edict trine; and immediately practised the contraforbidding you to dress like a gentleman or ry, just as if it had been a common sermon, gentlewoman, on pain of imprisonment or ser- for the auction opened, and they began to buy vitude ? Would you not say, that you were extravagantly.-I found the good man hand free, have a right to dress as you please, and thoroughly studied my almanacs, and digested

to me,

all I had dropt on those topics during the world than punctuality and justice in all his course of twenty-five years. The frequent dealings: therefore, never keep borrowed mention he made of me must have tired any money an hour beyond the time you promised, one else; but my vanity was wonderfully de- lest a disappointment shut up your friend's lighted with it, though I was conscious, that purse for ever. not a tenth part of the wisdom was my own, The most trifling actions that affect a man's which he ascribed to me, but rather the glean- credit are to be regarded. The sound of your ings that I had made of the sense of alì ages hammer at five in the morning, or nine at and nations. However, I resolved to be the night, heard by a creditor, makes him easy six better for the echo of it; and, though I had months longer: but if he sees you at a billiardat first determined to buy stuff for a new coat, table, or hears your voice at a tavern, when I went away, resolved to wear my old one a you should be at work, he sends for his money little longer. Reader, if thou wilt do the the next day; demands it before he can receive same, thy profit will be as great as

it in a lump RICHARD SAUNDERS. It shows, besides, that you are mindful of

what you owe; it makes you appear a careful

as well as an honest man, and that still inTo my Friend A. B.

creases your credit. Advice to a Young Tradesman.-Written Anno Beware of thinking all your own that you 1748.

possess, and of living accordingly. It is a misAs you have desired it of me, I write the take that many people who have credit fall following hints, which have been of service into. To prevent this, keep an exact account

if observed, be so to you.

for some time, both of your expenses and your Remember, that time is


He, that income. If you take the pains at first to mencan earn ter shillings a day by his labour, and tion particulars, it will have this good effect: goes abroad, or sits idle one half that day, you will discover how wonderfully small trithough he spends but sixpence during his di- Aling expenses mount up to large sums, and version or idleness, ought not to reckon that will discern what might have been, and may the only expense; he has really spent, or ra- for the future be saved, without occasioning ther thrown away, five shillings besides. any great inconvenience.

Remember, that credit is money. If a man In short, the way to wealth, if you desire it, lets his money lie in my hands after it is due, lis as plain as the way to market. It depends he gives me the interest, or so much as I can chiefly on two words, industry and frugality; make of it, during that time. This amounts that is, waste neither time nor money, but to a considerable sum where a man has good make the best use of both. Without indusand large credit, and makes good use of it. try and frugality nothing will do, and with

Remember, that money is of a prolific ge- them every thing. He, that gets all he can nerating nature. Money can beget money, honestly, and saves all he gets (necessary exand its offspring can beget more, and so on. penses excepted,) will certainly become rich Five shillings turned is six, turned again it is-if that Being who governs the world, to seven and three-pence, and so on till it be- whom all should look for a blessing on their comes a hundred pounds. The more there honest endeavours, doth not, in his wise proviis of it, the more it produces every turning, dence, otherwise determine. 80 that the profits rise quicker and quicker. He that kills a breeding sow destroys all her offspring to the thousandth generation. He Necessary Hints to those that would be rich. that murders a crown destroys all that it might

Written Anno 1736. have produced, even scores of pounds. The use of money is all the advantage there

Remember, that six pounds a year is but a is in having money. groat a day. For this little sum (which may For six pounds a year you may have the use be daily wasted either in time or expense un- of one hundred pounds, provided you are a man perceived) a man of credit may, on his own of known prudence and honesty. security, have the constant possession and use He, that spends a groat a day idly, spends of a hundred pounds. So much in stock, idly above six pounds a year, which is the price briskly turned by an industrious man, produces for the use of one hundred pounds. great advantage.

that wastes idly a groat's worth of his Remember this saying, “the good paymas- time per day, one day with another, wastes ter is lord of another man's purse.” He that the privilege of using one hundred pounds is known to pay punctually and exactly to the each day. time he promises may at any time, and on any He, that idly loses five shillings worth of occasion, raise all the money his friends can time, loses five shillings, and might as praspare. This is sometimes of great use. After dently throw five shillings into the sea industry and frugality, nothing contributes He, that loses five shillings, not only loses more to the raising of a young man in the that sum, but all the advantage that might be



made by turning it in dealing, which, by the thy soul walk upright, nor stoop to the silken time that a young man becomes old, will wretch because he hath riches, nor pocket an amount to a considerable sum of money.

abuse because the hand which offers it wears Again : he, that sells upon credit, asks a a ring set with diamonds. a price for what he sells equivalent to the principal and interest of his money for the time he is to be kept out of it; therefore, he

The Handsome and Deformed Leg. that buys upon credit, pays interest for what

THERE are two sorts of people in the world, he buys, and he, that pays ready money, might who, with equal degrees of health and wealth, let that money out to use: so that he, that pos- and the other comforts of life, become, the one sesses any thing he bought, pays interest for happy, and the other miserable. This arises the use of it.


much from the different views in which Yet, in buying goods, it is best to pay ready they consider things, persons, and events; and money, because he that sells upon credit, ex- the effect of those different views upon their pects to lose five per cent. by bad debts ; minds. therefore he charges, on all he sells upon cre In whatever situation men can be placed, dit, an advance, that shall make up that defi- they may find conveniences and inconveniciency.

ences; in whatever company, they may find Those, who pay for what they buy upon persons and conversation more or less pleascredit, pay their share of this advance.

ing: at whatever table, they may meet with He, that pays ready money, escapes, or may meats and drinks of better and worse taste, escape, that charge.

dishes better and worse dressed ; in whatever A penny sav'd is two-pence clear,

climate, they will find good and bad weather : A pin a day 's a groat a year.

under whatever government, they may find

good and bad laws, and good and bad admiThe way to make Money plenty in every nistration of those laws; in whatever poem, Man's Pocket.

or work of genius, they may see faults and At this time, when the general complaint beauties; in almost every face, and every peris, that “money is scarce," it will be an act of son, they may discover fine features and dekindness to inform the moneyless how they fects, good and bad qualities. may reinforce their pockets. I will acquaint Under these circumstances, the two sorts of them with the true secret of money-catching, people above mentioned fix their attention, the certain way to fill empty purses, and how those who are disposed to be happy, on the to keep them always full. Two simple rules, conveniences of things, the pleasant parts of well observed, will do the business.

conversation, the well-dressed dishes, the First, let honesty and industry be thy con- goodness of the wines, the fine weather, &c. stant companions; and

and enjoy all with cheerfulness. Those, who Secondly, spend one penny less than thy are to be unhappy, think and speak only clear gains.

of the contraries. Hence they are continuThen shall thy hide-bound pocket soon be ally discontented themselves, and by their gin to thrive, and will never again cry with the remarks, sour the pleasures of society, offend empty belly-ache: neither will creditors in- personally many people, and make themselves sult thee, nor want oppress, nor hunger bite, every where disagreeable. If this turn of nor nakedness freeze thee. The whole he- mind was founded in nature, such unhappy misphere will shine brighter, and pleasure persons would be the more to be pitied. But spring up in every corner of thy heart. Now, as the disposition to criticise, and to be distherefore, embrace these rules and be happy. gusted, is, perhaps, taken up originally by Banish the bleak winds of sorrow from thy imitation, and is, unawares, grown into a habit, mind, and live independent. Then shalt thou which, though at present strong, may neverbe a man, and not hide thy face at the ap- theless be cured, when those who have it are proach of the rich, nor suffer the pain of feel convinced of its bad effects on their felicity; ing little when the sons of fortune walk at I hope this little admonition may be of serthy right hand: for independency, whether vice to them, and put them on changing a with little or much, is good fortune, and plac- habit, which, though in the exercise it is eth thee on even ground with the proudest of chiefly an act of imagination, yet has serithe golden fleece. Oh, then, be wise, and let ous consequences in life, as it brings on real industry walk with thee in the morning, and griefs and misfortunes. For, as many are ofattend thee until thou reachest the evening fended by, and nobody loves this sort of peo hour for rest. Let honesty be as the breath ple, no one shows them more than the most of thy soul, and never forget to have a penny common civility and respect, and scarcely when all thy expenses are enumerated and that; and this frequently puts them out of paid: then shalt thou reach the point of hap- humour, and draws them into disputes and piness, and independence shall be thy shield contentions. If they aim at obtaining some and buckler, thy helmet and crown; then shall advantage in rank or fortune, nobody wishos VOL. IL...3 P


them success, or will stir a step, or speak a | there being no instrument invented to disword, to favour their pretensions. If they in- cover, at first sight, this unpleasing disposition cur public censure or disgrace, no one will in a person, he, for that purpose, made use of defend or excuse, and many join to aggravate his legs; one of which was remarkably handtheir misconduct, and render them complete- some,

the other, by some accident, crooked and ly odious. If these people will not change deformed. If a stranger, at the first interview, this bad habit, and condescend to be pleas- regarded his ugly leg more than his handsome ed with what is pleasing, without fretting one, he doubted him. If he spoke of it, and themselves and others about the contraries, took no notice of the handsome leg, that was it is good for others to avoid an acquaintance sufficient to determine my philosopher to have with them; which is always disagreeable, no further acquaintance with him. Every and sometimes very inconvenient, especially body has not this two-legged instrument; but when one finds oneself entangled in their quar- every one, with a little attention, may observe rels.

signs of that carping, fault-finding disposition, An old philosophical friend of mine was and take the same resolution of avoiding the grown from experience, very cautious in this acquaintance of those infected with it. I particular, and carefully avoided any intima- therefore advise those critical, querulous, discy with such people. He had, like other contented, unhappy people, that, if they wish philosophers, a thermometer, to show him the to be respected and beloved by others, and heat of the weather, and a barometer, to mark happy in themselves, they should leave off when it was likely to prove good or bad; but looking at the ugly leg.

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