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n'est p us: mais bonheur pour l'humanité, To pursue the thought of this elegant le Docteur Franklin, le Contrôleur-Général writer, let us suppose one of the most robust de la France, Mr. Campomanes, le Duc de of these Hypanians, so famed in history, Braganza, et le Lord North sont tous encore was in a manner coeval with time itself; that en vie.
he began to exist at the break of day, and that C'est le Roy d'Espagne et le Comte de from the uncommon strength of his constituFlorida Blanca qui peuvent mettre tous les tion, he has been able to show himself active in cinq en mouvement. Pour moi je n'ai nulle life, through the numberless minutes of ten autorité des ministres Anglois à présenter ce or twelve hours. Through so long a series of projet, mais vivant en amitié avec la plupart seconds, he must have acquired vast wisdom d'eux et avec les amis des autres, je suis sûr in his way, from observation and experience. qu'il y a des sentiments dans ce mémoire He looks upon his fellow-creatures, who qui sont les leurs. J'avoue que je reçu une died about noon, to be happily delivered from lettre en Portugal, quatorze jours avant que je the many inconveniencies of old age; and partisse pour l'Espagne, de Milord Rocheford, can perhaps recount to his great grandson, a qui n'est pas à cette heure dans le ministère, surprising tradition of actions, before any remais qui entêté d'un projet qui lui fait tant cords of their nation were extant. The young d'honneur, me conseilloit de tâter le poux sur swarm of Hypanians, who may be advanced la possibilité de le faire réussir :
one hour in life; approach his person with reEt que j'ai une lettre sur le même sujet, du spect, and listen to his improving discourse Duc de Braganza qui entroit dans les vues de Every thing he says will seem wonderful to projet de Milord Rocheford, non pas en poli- their short-lived generation. The compass of a tique, mais en ami de l'humanité.
day will be esteemed the whole duration of Encouragé par de tels hommes et encore time; and the first dawn of light will, in their plus par mon propre cour, j'écris à un des chronology, be styled the great era of their ministres du Roy d'Angleterre que si je ne creation. trouvois pas les esprits trop échauffés et si je Let us now suppose this venerable insect, ne trouvois pas que je ne donnois pas offense, this Nestor of Hypania should, a little before j'avois intention de faire justice au projet de his death, and about sun-set, send for all his Milord Rocheford et en Espagne et en France, descendants, his friends, and his acquaintances et je le prie de m'envoyer une réponse à Pa- out of the desire he may have to impart his ris, si le ministère d'Angleterre approuvoit ou last thoughts to them, and to admonish them, désapprouvoit ce que j'allois faire. Je n'ai with his departing breath. They meet, perqu'à ajouter que mes vues étant à unir et non haps, under the spacious shelter of a mushà séparer les nations, je n'ai nulle objection room; and the dying sage addresses himself que les ministres de la France et le Docteur to them after the following manner. Franklin ayent chacun un exemplaire de ce “ Friends and fellow-citizens! I perceive mémoire.
the longest life must however end : the period A true Copy from the Original. of mine is now at hand: neither do I repine Attest. WM. CARMICHAEL, at my fate, since my great age is become a Secretary of the American Legation burden to me; and there is nothing new to at Madrid.
me under the sun: the changes and revolu
tions I have seen, in my country; the maniOn Human Vanity. From the Pennsylvania liable; the fatal diseases incident to our race,
fold private misfortunes to which we are all Gazette. Dec. 4, 1735.
have abundantly taught me this lesson : that MR. FRANKLIN,--Meeting with the follow- no happiness can be secure or lasting which ing curious little piece, the other day, I send it is placed in things that are out of our powerto you to republish, as it is now in very few Great is the uncertainty of life!-À whole hands. There is something so elegant in the brood of our infants have perished in a moimagination, conveyed in so delicate a style, ment, by a keen blast !-Shoals of our strag. and accompanied with a moral so just and gling youth, have been swept into the ocean elevated, that it must yield great pleasure and by an unexpected breeze!What wasteful instruction to every mind of real taste and desolation have we not suffered from the devirtue.
luge of a sudden shower :-Our strongest holds Cicero, in the first of his Tusculan ques are not proof against a storm of hail, and even tions, finely exposes the vain judgment we a dark cloud damps the very stoutest heart. are apt to form, of the duration of human life “I have lived in the first ages, and convers. compared with eternity. In illustrating this ed with insects of a larger size and stronger arguinent, he quotes a passage of natural make, and I must add, of greater virtue than history from Aristotle, concerning a species any can boast of in the present generation. I of insects on the banks of the river Hypanis, must conjure you to give yet further credit to that never outlive the day in which they are my latest words when I assure you, that yonborn.
der sun, which now appears westward, be
yond the water, and seems not to be far dis- | that silver rivulet the Thames, may not show tant from the earth, in my remembrance stood a specious mole-hill, covered with inhabitants in the middle of the sky, and shot his beams of the like dignity and importance. The directly down upon us. The world was much busy race of being attached to these fleeting more enlightened in those ages, and the air enjoyments are indeed all of them engaged much warmer. Think it not dotage in me, if in the pursuit of happiness : and it is owing to I affirm, that glorious being moves : I saw his their imperfect notions of it, that they stop so first setting out in the east, and I began my far short in their pursuit. The present prosrace of life, near the time when he began his pect of pleasure seems to bound their views, immense career. He has for several ages and the more distant scenes of happiness, advanced along the sky with vast heat and when what they now propose shall be attained, unparalleled brightness, but now by his de- do not strike their imagination. It is a great clination and a sensible decay, more especially stupidity, or thoughtlessness, not to perceive, of late, in his vigour, I foresee, that all nature that the happiness of rational natures is insepa. must fall in a little time, and that the creation rably connected with immortality. Creatures will lie buried in darkness, in less than a cen- only endowed with sensation, may in a low tury of minutes.
sense, be reputed happy, so long as their sen" Alas! my friends, how did I once flatter sations are pleasing; and if these pleasing myself with the hopes of abiding here for sensations are commensurate with the time of ever; how magnificent are the cells which I their existence, this measure of happiness is hollowed out for myself: what confidence did complete. But such beings as are endowed I
repose in the firmness and spring of my with thought and reflection, cannot be made joints, and in the strength of my pinions! But happy by any limited term of happiness, how I have lived enough to nature, and even to great soever its duration may be. The more glory. Neither will any of you, whom I leave exquisite and more valuable their enjoyments behind, have equal satisfaction in life, in the are, the more painful must be the thought that dark declining age which I see is already they are to have an end; and this pain of exbegan."
pectation must be continually increasing the Thus far this agreeable unknown writer, nearer the end approaches. And if these betoo agreeable we may hope, to remain always ings are themselves immortal, and yet inseconcealed; the fine allusion to the character cure of the continuance of their happiness, the of Julius Cæsar, whose words he has put case is far worse, since an eternal void of deinto the mouth of this illustrious son of Hypa- light, if not to say a state of misery, must sucnis, is perfectly just and beautiful, and aptly ceed. It would here be of no moment, whepoints out the moral of this inimitable piece, ther the time of their happiness were meathe design of which would have been quite sured by days or hours, by months or years, perverted, had a virtuous character, a Cato or by periods of the most immeasurable length: or a Cicero, been made choice of, to have these swiftly flowing streams bear no probeen turned into ridicule. Had this life of a portion to that ocean of infinity, where they day been represented as employed in the ex- must finish their course. The longest duraercise of virtue, it would have had equal dig. tion of finite happiness avails nothing, when nity with a life of any limited duration ; and it is past: nor can the memory of it have any according to the exalted sentiments of Tully, other effect than to renew a perpetual pining would have been preferable to an immortali- after pleasures never to return, and since virty filled with all the pleasures of sense, if tue is the only pledge and security of a happy void of those of a higher kind: but as the immortality, the folly of sacrificing it to any views of this vain-glorious insect were con- temporal advantages, how important soever fined within the narrow circle of his own ex- they may appear, must be infinitely great, and istence, as he only boasts the magnificent cannot but leave behind it an eternal regret. cells he had built, and the length of happi Note.-The reader familiar with the happy views of ness he had enjoyed, he is the proper emblem moral good which distinguishes the writings of Dr.
Franklin above all the writers of his age, cannot fail to of all such insects of the human race, whose perceive in this beautiful production,
the first concepambition does not extend beyond the like tions, which were amplified and digested into the alle. narrow limits; and notwithstanding the gory of the Ephemeron, which is to be found in another splendour they appear in at present, they Editor. will no more deserve the regard of posterity than the butterflies of the last spring. In on True Happiness. From the Pennsylvavain has history been taken up in describing
nia Gazette, Nov: 20, 1735. the numerous swarms of this mischievous spe The desire of happiness is in general so nacies which has infested the earth in the suc- tural, that all the world are in pursuit of it; cessive ages : now it is worth the inquiry of all have this one end solely in view, though the virtuous, whether the Rhine or the Adige they take such different methods to attain it, may not perhaps swarm with them at present, and are so much divided in their notions of as much as the banks of Hypanis ; or whether what it consists of.
part of this edition; addressed to Madam Brillon.
As evil can never be preferred, and though I on it: health of body, though so far necessary evil is often the effect of our own choice, yet that we cannot be perfectly happy without it, we never desire it, but under the appearance is not sufficient to make us happy of itself.of an imaginary good.
Happiness springs immediately from the mind: Many things we indulge ourselves in, may health is but to be considered as a condition be considered by us as evils ; and yet be de- or circumstance, without which this happisirable: but then, they are only considered ness cannot be tasted pure and unabated. as evils in their effects and consequences, not Virtue is the best preservative of health, as evils at present, and attended with immedi- as it prescribes temperance, and such a reguate misery
lation of our passions as is most conducive to Reason represents things to us, not only as the well being of the animal economy. So they are at present, but as they are in their that it is at the same time the only true hap whole nature and tendency: passion only re- piness of the mind, and the best means of pregards them in the former light; when this go- serving the health of the body. verns us, we are regardless of the future, and If our desires are for the things of this are only affected by the present.
world, they are never to be satisfied. If our It is impossible for us ever to enjoy our great view is upon those of the next, the exselves rightly, if our conduct be not such as pectation of them is an infinitely higher satisto preserve the harmony and order of our fa-faction than the enjoyment of those of the preculties, and the original frame and constitu- sent. tion of our minds: all true happiness, as all There is no true happiness then but in a that is truly beautiful, can only result from virtuous and self-approving conduct; unless order.
our actions will bear the test of our sober judgWhilst there is a conflict betwixt the two ments and reflections upon them, they are not principles of passion and reason, we must be the actions, and consequently not the happimiserable, in proportion to the ardour of the ness of a rational being. struggle, and when the victory is gained, and reason is so far subdued, as seldom to trouble us with its remonstrances, the happiness we
On Self-Denial.- From the Pennsylvania have then attained, is not the happiness of our
Gazette, Feb. 18, 1734. rational nature, but the happiness only of the It is commonly asserted, that without selfinferior and sensual part of us; and conse- denial there is no virtue, and that the greater quently a very low and imperfect happiness, the self-denial is, the greater is the virtue. compared with that which the other would If it were said, that he who cannot deny have afforded us.
himself any thing he inclines to, though he If we reflect upon any one passion and dis- knows it will be to his hurt, has not the virposition of mind abstracted from virtue, we tue of resolution or fortitude, it would be in. shall soon see the disconnexion between that telligible enough; but as it stands, the propeand true solid happiness; it is of the very es-sition seems obscure or erroneous. sence, for instance, of envy to be uneasy and Let us consider some of the virtues singly. disquieted: pride meets with provocations If a man has no inclination to wrong people and disturbances upon almost every occasion : in his dealings; if he feels no temptation to it, covetousness is ever attended with solicitude and therefore never does it, can it be said, that and anxiety: ambition has its disappointments he is not a just man? if he is a just man, has to sour us, but never the good fortune to sa- he not the virtue of justice? tisfy us; its appetite grows the keener by in If to a certain man, idle diversions have no dulgence, and all we can gratify it with at thing in them that is tempting, and therefore present, serves but the more to inflame its in- he never relaxes his application to business satiable desires.
for their sake, is he not an industrious man; The passions, by being too much convers. or has he not the virtue of industry? ant with earthly objects, can never fix in us a I might in like manner instance in all the proper composure, and acquiescence of mind. rest of the virtues; but to make the thing Nothing but an indifference to the things of short, as it is certain, that the more we strive this world, an entire submission to the will of against the temptation to any vice, and pracProvidence here, and a well-grounded expec- tise the contrary virtue, the weaker will that tation of happiness hereafter, can give us a temptation be, and the stronger will be that true satisfactory enjoyment of ourselves. Vir- habit; till at length the temptation bath no tue is the best guard against the many un- force, or entirely vanishes: does it follow avoidable evils incident to (18; nothing better from thence, that in our endeavours to overalleviates the weight of the afflictions, or gives come vice, we grow continually less and less a truer relish of the blessings of human life. virtuous, till at length we have no virtue at
What is without us has not the least con- all ? nexion with happiness, only so far as the pre If self-denial be the essence of virtue, then servation of our lives and health depends up-lit follows, that the man who is naturally tem
perate, just, &c.; is not virtuous, but that in | lution ; but the most perfect virtue is above order to be virtuous, he must, in spite of his all temptation, such as the virtue of the saints natural inclinations, wrong his neighbours, in heaven: and he who does any foolish, inand eat and drink, &c., to excess.
decent, or wicked thing, merely because it is But, perhaps it may be said, that by the contrary to his inclination, like some mad enword virtue, in the above assertion, is meant thusiasts I have read of, who ran about in pubmerit, and so it should stand; thus without lic naked, under the notion of taking up the self-denial there is no merit; and the greater cross, is not practising the reasonable science the self-denial the greater the merit. of virtue, but is lunatic.
The self-denial here meant must be, when Newcastle, Feb. 5. our inclinations are towards vice, or else it would still be nonsense.
By merit is understood desert; and when Rivalship in Almanac making.–From Poor we say a man merits, we mean that he de
Richard's Almanac, 1742. serves praise or reward.
COURTEOUS READER,—This is the ninth We do not pretend to merit any thing of year of my endeavours to serve thee in the caGod, for he is above our services, and the be- pacity of a calendar-writer. The encouragenefits he confers on us are the effects of his ment I have met with must be ascribed, in a goodness and bounty.
great measure, to your charity, excited by the All our merit then is with regard to one open, honest declaration I made of my poverty another, and from one to another.
at my first appearance. This my brother PhiTaking then the proposition as it stands- lomaths could, without being conjurers dis
If a man does me a service, from a natu- cover; and Poor Richard's success, has proral benevolent inclination, does he deserve duced ye a Poor Will, and a Poor Robin ; less of me than another, who does me the like and no doubt, Poor John, &c., will follow, kindness against his inclination?
and we shall all be, in name, what some folks If I have two journeymen, one naturally say we are already in fact, a parcel of poor industrious, the other idle, but both perform almanac makers. During the course of these a day's work equally good, ought I to give nine years, what buffetings have I not sustainthe latter the most wages?
ed: The fraternity have been all in arms. Indeed lazy workmen are commonly ob- Honest Titan, deceased, was raised, and made served to be more extravagant in their de to abuse his old friend. Both authors and mands than the industrious; for if they have printers were angry. Hard names, and many, not more for their work, they cannot live as were bestowed on me. They denied me to well as the industrious. But though it be be the author of my own works; declared true to a proverb, that lazy folks take the there never was any such person ; asserted most pains, does it follow that they deserve that I was dead sixty years ago; prognostithe most money? If you were to employ cated my death to happen within a twelveservants in affairs of trust, would you pay month: with many other malicious inconsismore wages to one you knew was naturally tencies, the effects of blind passion, envy at m. honest, than for one naturally roguish, but success; and a vain hope of depriving me, dea. who had lately acted honestly: for currents reader, of thy wonted countenance and favour. whose natural channels are dammed up, till - Who knows him? they cry: Where does he a new course is by time worn sufficiently live ?—But what is that to them? If I delight deep, and become natural, are apt to break in a private life, have they any right to drag their banks. If one servant is more valuable me out of my retirement? I have good reathan another, has he not more merit than the sons for concealing the place of my abode. other, and yet this is not on account of supe- It is time for an old man, as I am, to think of rior self-denial.
preparing for his great remove. Is a patriot not praiseworthy, if public spi- j tual teasing of both neighbours and strangers, rit is natural to him?
to calculate nativities, give judgments on Is a pacing horse less valuable for being a schemes, and erect figures, discover thieves, natural pacer ?
detect horse-stealers, describe the route of Nor in
any man less merit runaways and strayed cattle; the crowd of for having in general naturally virtuous in- visiters with a thousand trifling questions; clinations.
Will my ship return safe? Will my mare The truth is, that temperance, justice, cha- win the race? Will her next colt be a pacer ? rity, &c., are virtues whether practised with When will my wife die? Who shall be my or against our inclinations; and the man who husband ? and HOW LONG first? When practises them, merits our love and esteem: is the best time to cut hair, trim cocks, or and self-denial is neither good nor bad, but sow salad? These and the like impertinences as it is applied. He that denies a vicious in- I have now neither taste nor leisure for. I clination, is virtuous in proportion to his reso- have had enough of them. All that these
my opinion has
angry folks can say, will never provoke mezings had been made a sacrifice to support his to tell them where I live-I would eat my carcase, and how much corn and wine had nails first.
been mingled with those offerings. He had My last adversary is J. J -n, philomat. not quite lost all the arithmetic that he learnwho declares and protests (in his preface, ed when he was a boy, and he set himself to 1741) that the false prophecy put in my al- compute what he had devoured since he came manac, concerning him, the year before, is to the age of man. altogether false and untrue: and that I am “ About a dozen feathered creatures, small one of Baal's false prophets. This false, and great, have one week with another (said
false prophecy he speaks of, related to his re- he) given up their lives to prolong mine, conciliation with the church of Rome; which, which in ten years amounts to at least six notwithstanding his declaring and protesting, thousand. is, I fear, too true. Two things in his ele Fifty sheep have been sacrificed in a giac verses confirm me in this suspicion. year, with half a hecatomb of black cattle, He calls the first of November All-Hallows that I might have the choicest part offered day. Reader, does not this smell of popery? weekly upon my table. Thus a thousand Does it in the least savour of the pure lan- beasts out of the flock and the herd have been guage of Friends ? But the plainest thing is, slain in ten years time to feed me, besides his adoration of saints, which he confesses to what the forest has supplied me with. Many be his practice, in these words, page 4. hundreds of fishes have in all their varieties, When any trouble did me befall,
been robbed of life for my repast, and of the To my dear Mary then I would call: smaller fry as many thousands. Did he think the whole world were so stupid “A measure of corn would hardly afford as not to take notice of this ? So ignorant as fine flour enough for a month's provision, and not to know, that all catholics pay the high- this arises to above six score bushels; and est regard to the Virgin Mary? Ah! friend many hogsheads of ale and wine, and other John, we must allow you to be a poet, but liquors, have passed through this body of you are certainly no protestant. I could mine, this wretched strainer of meat and heartily wish your religion were as good as
drink. your verses. RICHARD SAUNDERS. “ And what have I done all this time for
God or man? What a vast profusion of good
things upon an useless life, and a worthless The Waste of Life.
liver? There is not the meanest creature ANERGUS was a gentleman of a good es- among all these which I have devoured, but tate, he was bred to no business, and could hath answered the end of its creation better not contrive how to waste bis hours agreea- than I. It was made to support human nably; he had no relish for any of the proper ture, and it hath done so. Every crab and works of life, nor any taste at all for the im- oyster I have eat, and every grain of corn I provements of the mind; he spent generally have devoured, hath filled up its place in the ten hours of the four-and-twenty in his bed; rank of beings with more propriety and honour he dozed away two or three more on his couch, than I have done: 0 shameful waste of life and as many were dissolved in good liquor every and time!" evening, if he met with company of his own In short, he carried on his moral reflections humour. Five or six of the rest he saunter- with so just and severe a force of reason, as ed away with much indolence: the chief busi- constrained him to change his whole course ness of them was to contrive his meals, and of life, to break off his foīlies at once, and to to feed his fancy before-hand, with the pro apply himself to gain some useful knowledge, mise of a dinner and supper; not that he was when he was more than thirty years of age; he 80 very a glutton, or so entirely devoted to lived many following years, with the character appetite; but chiefly because he knew not of a worthy man, and an excellent Christian; how to employ his thoughts better, he let he performed the kind offices of a good neighthem rove about the sustenance of his body. bour at home, and made a shiping figure as a Thus he had made a shift to wear off ten patriot in the senate-house, he died with a years since the paternal estate fell into his peaceful conscience, and the tears of his counhands : and yet according to the abuse of try were dropped upon his tomb. words in our day, he was called a man of vir The world, that knew the whole series of tue, because he was scarce ever known to be his life, stood amazed at the mighty change quite drunk, nor was his nature much inclined They beheld him as a wonder of reformation, to lewdness.
while he himself confessed and adored the diOne evening as he was musing along, his vine power and mercy, which had transforme thoughts happened to take a most unusual ed him from a brute to a man. turn, for they cast a glance backward, and be But this was a single instance; and we gan to reflect on his manner of life. He be- may almost venture to write MIRACLE Upon it thought himself what a number of living be- Are there not numbers of both sexes among