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kind, instead of telling over, or weighing me-, eaten than of others, some being of lighter dital in coin, or bullion, is a gain of what is most gestion than others. precious in life, which is time. And there The difficulty lies, in finding out an exact is nothing clearer than that those who must measure; but eat for necessity, not pleasure; be concerned in counting and weighing, being for lust knows not where necessity ends. at liberty to employ themselves on other pur Wouldst thou enjoy a long life, a healthy poses, are an addition of hands in the com- body, and a vigorous mind, and be acquaintmunity.
ed also with the wonderful works of God, laThe idea of the too great extension of cre- bour in the first place to bring thy appetite to dit, by the circulation of paper for money, is reason. evidently as erroneous, as the doctrine of the non-exportation of gold and silver in bul Rules for a Club formerly established in Phi lion or coin: for were it not certain, that paper could command the equivalent of its
ladelphia.* agreed-for value; or that gold and silver in Previous question, to be answered at every meet bullion or coin exported, would be returned in
ing. the course of trade in some other merchandise; HAVE you read over these queries this neither paper would be used, or the metals ex- morning, in order to consider what you might ported. It is by means of the produce of the have to offer the Junto touching any one of land, and the happy situation of this island, them? viz. joined to the industry of its inhabitants, that 1. Have you met with any thing, in the those much adored metals, gold and silver, author you last read, remarkable, or suitable have been procured : and so long as the sea to be communicated to the Junto? particulardoes not overflow the land, and industry conti- ly in history, morality, poetry, physic, tranues, so long will those metals not be wanting. vels, mechanic arts, or other parts of knowAnd paper in the general chain of credit and ledge ? commerce, is as useful as they are: since the 2. What new story have you lately heard issuers or coiners of that paper are understood agreeable for telling in conversation? to have some equivalent to answer for what 3. Hath any citizen in your knowledge failthe paper is valued at: and no metal or coin ed in his business lately, and what have you can do more than find its value.
heard of the cause? Moreover, as incontestable advantages of 4. Ilave you lately heard of any citizen's paper, we must add, that the charge of coin- thriving well, and by what means ing or making it, is by no means proportion 5. Have you lately heard how any present ate to that of coining of metals: nor is subject rich man, here or elsewhere, got his estate? to waste by long use, or impaired by adulte 6. Do you know of a fellow-citizen, who ration, sweating, or filing, as coins may.
has lately done a worthy action, deserving praise and imitation: or who has lately com
mitted an error, proper for us to be warned Rules of Health.-From Poor Richard's Al- against and avoid ? manac, 1742.
7. What unhappy effects of intemperance Eat and drink such an exact quantity as have you lately observed or heard ? of impruthe constitution of thy body allows of, in re- dence? of passion ? or of any other vice or ference to the services of the mind
folly ? They that study much, ought n
8. What happy effects of temperance ? of much as those that work hard, theit gestion prudence? of moderation? or of any other being not so good.
virtue? The exact quantity and quality being found
9. Have you or any of your acquaintance out, is to be kept to constantly.
been lately sick or wounded? If so, what Excess in all other things whatever, as well remedies were used, and what were their efas in meat and drink, is also to be avoided. fects ? Youth, age, and sick, require a different
10. Who do you know that are shortly goquantity.
ing voyages or journies, if one should have And so do those of contrary complexions; occasion to send by them? for that which is too much for a phlegmatic
you think of any thing at present, man, is not sufficient for a choleric.
in which the Junto may be serviceable to The measure of food ought to be (as much mankind ? to their country, to their friends, as possibly may be) exactly proportionable to or to themselves ? the quality and condition of the stomach, be * This was an early performance. The club held in cause the stomach digests it.
Philadelphia, was composed of men considerable for That quantity that is sufficient, the stomach their influence and discretion, the chief measures of
Pennsylvania usually received their first formation in can perfectly concoct and digest, and it suf- this club, it existed thirty years without the nature of ficeth the due nourishment of the body.
its institution being publicly known. This club gave A greater quantity of some things may be itigin to the American Philosophical Society now ex
12. Hath any deserving stranger arrived
Is self-interest the rudder that steers manin town since last meeting, that you heard kind, the universal monarch to whom all are of? and what have you heard or observed of tributaries? his character or merits? and whether think Which is the best form of government, and you, it lies in the power of the Junto to oblige what was that form which first prevailed him, or encourage him as he deserves ?
among mankind ? 13. Do you know of any deserving young Can any one particular form of government beginner lately set up, whom it lies in the suit all mankind ? power of the Junto any way to encourage ? What is the reason that the tides rise higher
14. Have you lately observed any defect in in the Bay of Fundy, than the Bay of Delathe laws of your country, of which it would ware? be proper to move the legislature for an Is the emission of paper-money safe ? amendment? or do you know of any bene
What is the reason that men of the greatest ficial law that is wanting ?
knowledge are not the most happy? 15. Have you lately observed any encroach How may the possessions of the Lakes be ment on the just liberties of the people ? improved to our advantage ?
16. Hath any body attacked your reputation Why are tumultuous, uneasy sensations, lately? and what can the Junto do towards united with our desires ? securing it?
Whether it ought to be the aim of philoso17. Is there any man whose friendship you phy to eradicate the passions ? want, and which the Junto, or any of them, How may smoky chimneys be best cured? can procure for you?
Why does the flame of a candle tend up18. Have you lately heard any member's wards in a spire ? character attacked, and how have you defend
Which is least criminal, a bad action joina ed it?
ed with a good intention, or a good action with 19. Hath any man injured you, from whom a bad intention ? it is in the power of the Junto to procure re
Is it inconsistent with the principles of lidress?
berty in a free government, to punish a man as 20. In what manner can the Junto or any a libeller, when he speaks the truth ? of them, assist you in any of your honourable designs? 21. Have you any weighty affair in hand,
Sketch of an English School, for the consi
deration of the Trustees of the Philadelin which you think the advice of the Junto
phia Academg. may be of service? 22. What benefits have you lately receiv
It is expected that every scholar, to be aded from any man not present ?
mitted into this school, be at least able to proopinion, of justice, and injustice, which you ceived that are under 23. Is there any difficulty in matters of nounce and divide the syllables in reading,
and to write a legible hand. None to be rewould gladly have discussed at this time?
years of age. 24. Do you see any thing amiss in the pre
First, or lowest Class. sent customs or proceedings of the Junto, Let the first class learn the English gramwhich might be amended ?
mar rules, and at the same time let particular Any person to be qualified, to stand up, and care beken to improve them in orthography. lay his hand on his breast, and be asked these Perhahe latter is best done by pairing the questions, viz.
scholars: two of those nearest equal in their 1. Have you any particular disrespect to spelling to be put together. Let these strive any present members ?--Answer. I have not. for victory; each propounding ten words every
2. Do you sincerely declare, that you love day to the other to be spelled. He that spells mankind in general ; of what profession or re- truly most of the other's words is victor for ligion soever ?—Answer. I do.
that day; he that is victor most days in a 3. Do you think any person ought to be month, to obtain a prize, a pretty neat book harmed in his body, name, or goods, for mere of some kind, useful in their future studies. speculative opinions, or his external way of This method' fixes the attention of children worship ?- Answer. No.
extremely to the orthography of words, and 4. Do you love truth for truth's sake, and makes them good spellers very early. It is a will you endeavour impartially to find and re- shame for a man to be so ignorant of this litceive it yourself and communicate it to tle art, in his own language, as to be perpetuothers ? -Answer. Yes.
ally confounding words of like sound and different significations; the consciousness of
which defect makes some men, otherwise of Questions discussed by the Club.
good learning and understanding, averse to Is sound an entity or body?
writing even a common letter. How may the phenomena of vapours be Let the pieces read by the scholars in this explained ?
class be short; such as Croxall's fables, and VOL. II. ...3 L
little stories. In giving the lesson, let it be end each boy should have an English dictionread to them; let the meaning of the difficult ary, to help him over difficulties. When our words in it be explained to them: and let boys read English to us, we are apt to imathem con over by themselves before they are gine they understand what they read, because called to read to the master or usher, who is we do, and because it is their mother tongue. to take particular care, that they do not read But they often read, as parrots speak, knowtoo fast, and that they duly observe the stops ing little or nothing of the meaning. And it and pauses. A vocabulary of the most usual is impossible a reader should give the due difficult words might be formed for their use, modulation to his voice, and pronounce prowith explanations; and they might daily get perly, unless his understanding goes before a few of those words and explanations by his tongue, and makes him master of the senheart, which would a little exercise their timent. Accustoming boys to read aloud what memories; or at least they might write a they do not first understand, is the cause of number of them in a small book for the pur- those even set tones so common among reapose, which would help to fix the meaning of ders, which, when they have once got a hathose words in their minds, and at the same bit of using, they find so difficult to correct: time furnish every one with a little dictionary by which means, among fifty readers we for his future use.
scarcely find a good one. For want of good The Second Class
reading, pieces published with a view to in
fluence the minds of men, for their own or To be taught reading with attention, and the public benefit, lose half their force. Were with proper modulations of the voice, accord- there but one good reader in a neighbourhood, ing to the sentiment and the subject. Some short pieces, not exceeding the nation with the same advantages, and have
a public orator might be heard throughout a length of a Spectator, to be given this class the same effect upon his audience, as if they for lessons (and some of the easier Spectators stood within the reach of his voice. would be suitable for the purpose). These lessons might be given every night as tasks;
The Third Class the scholars to study them against the morn To be taught speaking proper and graceing. Let it then be required of them to give fully ; which is near akin to good reading, an account, first of the parts of speech, and and naturally follows it in the studies of youth. construction of one or two sentences. This Let the scholars of this class begin with learnwill oblige them to recur frequently to their ing the elements of rhetoric from some short grammar, and fix its principal rules in their system, so as to be able to give an account of memory. Next, of the intention of the wri- the most useful tropes and figures. Let all ter, or the scope of the piece, the meaning of their bad habits of speaking, all offences each sentence, and of every uncommon word. against good grammar, all corrupt or foreign This would early acquaint them with the accents, and all improper phrases, be pointed meaning and force of words, and give them out to him. Short speeches from the Roman, that most necessary habit, of reading with at- or other history, or from the legislative detention.
bates, might be got by heart, and delivered The master then to read the piece with the with the proper action, &c. Speeches and proper modulations of voice, due emphasis, scenes in our best tragedies and comedies and suitable action, where action is quired: (avoiding every thing that could injure the and put the youth on imitating his tunner. morals of youth) might likewise be got by rote,
Where the author has used an expression and the boys exercised in delivering or acting not the best, let it be pointed out; and let his them; great care being taken to form their beauties be particularly remarked to the manner after the truest models. youth.
For their farther improvement, and a little, Let the lessons for reading be varied, that to vary their studies, let them now begin to the youth may be made acquainted with read history, after having got by heart a short good styles of all kinds, in prose and verse, table of the principal epochas in chronology, and the proper manner of reading each kind They may begin with Rollin's Ancient and -sometimes a well told story, a piece of a Roman histories, and proceed at proper hours, sermon, a general's speech to his soldiers, a as they go through the subsequent classes, speech in a tragedy, some part of a comedy, with the best histories of our own nation and an ode, a satire, a letter, blank verse, Hudi- colonies. Let emulation be excited among brastic, heroic, &c. But let such lessons be the boys, by giving, weekly, little prizes, or chosen for reading, as contain some useful in- other small encouragements to those, who are struction, whereby the understanding or mo- able to give the best account of what they rals of the youth may at the same time be im- have read, as to time, places, names of persons, proved.
&c. This will make them read with attenIt is required that they should first study tion, and imprint the history well on their and understand the lessons, before they are memories. In remarking on the history, the put opon reading them properly; to which I master will have fine opportunities of instil
ling instruction of various kinds, and improv
The Fifth Class. ing the morals, as well as the understandings, To improve the youth in composition, they
may now, besides continuing to write letters, The natural and mechanic history, con- begin to write little essays in prose, and sometained in the Spectacle de la Nature, might times in verse; not to make them poets, but also be begun in this class, and continued for this reason, that nothing acquaints a lad through the subsequent classes, by other books so speedily with variety of expression, as the of the same kind; for, next to the knowledge necessity of finding such words and phrases of duty, this kind of knowledge is certainly the as will suit the measure, sound and rhyme of most useful, as well as the most entertaining. verse, and at the same time well express the The merchant may thereby be enabled better sentiment. These essays should all pass under to understand many commodities in trade; the master's eye, who will point out their the handicraftsman, to improve his business faults, and put the writer on correcting them. by new instruments, mixtures and materials ; Where the judgment is not ripe enough for and frequently hints are given for new manu- forming new essays, let the sentiments of a factures, or new methods of improving land, Spectator be given, and required to be clothed that may be set on foot greatly to the advan- in the scholar's own words; or the circumtage of a country.
stances of some good story, the scholar to find The Fourth Class
expression. Let them be put sometimes on To be taught composition. Writing one's abridging a paragraph of a diffuse author : own language well, is the next necessary ac- sometimes on dilating or amplifying what is complishment after good speaking.
It is the wrote more closely. And now let Dr. Johnwriting-master's business, to take care that son's Noetica, or First Principles of Human the boys make fair characters, and place them Knowledge, containing a logic, or art of reastraight and even in the lines: but to form soning, &c. be read by the youth, and the diftheir style, and even to take care that the ficulties, that may occur to them, be explained stops and capitals are properly disposed, is by the master. The reading of history, and the part of the English master. The boys
the exercises of good reading and just speakshould be taught to write letters to each other ing still continued. on any common occurrences, and on various
The Sixth Class. subjects, imaginary business, &c. containing In this class, besides continuing the studies little stories, accounts of their late reading, of the preceding in history, rhetoric, logic, what parts of authors please them, and why; moral and natural philosophy, the best English letters of congratulation, of compliment, of re- authors may be read and explained;
as Tillotquest, of thanks, of recommendation, of admo- son, Milton, Locke, Addison, Pope, Swift, the nition, of consolation, of expostulation, excuse, higher papers in the Spectator and Guardian, &c. In these, they should be taught to ex- the best translations of Homer, Virgil, and press themselves clearly, concisely, and na- Horace, of Telemachus, Travels of Cyrus, &c. turally, without affected words or high-flown Once a year, let there be public exercises phrases. All their letters to pass through the in the hall; the trustees and citizens present. master's hand, who is to point out the faults, Then let fine bound books be given as prizes advise the corrections, and commend what he to such boys, as distinguish themselves, and finds right. Some of the best letters pub-excel the others in any branch of learning, lished in our own language, as sir William making aree degrees of comparison : giving Temple's, those of Pope and his friends, and the best prize to him, that performs best; a some others, might be set before the youth less valuable one to him, that comes up next as models, their beauties pointed out and ex- to the best, and another to the third. Complained by the master, the letters themselves mendations, encouragement, and advice to the transcribed by the scholar.
rest; keeping up their hopes, that, by indusDr. Johnson's Ethices Elementa, or First try, they may excel another time. The names Principles of Morality, may now be read by of those, that obtain the prize, to be yearly the scholar, and explained by the master, to printed in a list. lay a solid foundation of virtue and piety in The hours of each day are to be divided their minds. And as this class continues the and disposed in such a manner, as that some reading of history, let them now, at proper classes may be with the writing-master, imhours, receive some farther instruction in chro-proving their hands; others with the mathenology, and in that part of geography (from matical master, learning arithmetic, accounts, the mathematical master) which is necessary geography, use of the globes, drawing, meto understand the maps and globes. They chanics, &c. while the rest are in the Engshould also be acquainted with the modern lish school, under the English master's care. names of the places they find mentioned in Thus instructed, youth will come out of ancient writers. The exercises of good read this school fitted for learning any business, ing, and proper speaking, still continued at calling, or profession, except such wherein suitable times.
languages are required : and, though unac
quainted with any ancient or foreign tongue, sia, perfectly unknown as much as China, bethey will be masters of their own, which is of yond it, and India only by a little commerce more immediate and general use, and withal upon the coast, about Surat and Malabar; Afriwill have attained many other valuable accom- ca had been more unknown, but by the ruin plishments: the time usually spent in acquir- of the Carthaginians, all the western coast of it ing those languages, often without success, was sunk out of knowledge again, and forgotbeing here employed in laying such a founda- ten; the northern coast of Africa, in the Metion of knowledge and ability, as, properly diterranean, remained known, and that was improved, may qualify them to pass through all, for the Saracens overrunning the nations and execute the several offices of civil life, which were planted there, ruined conimerce, with advantage and reputation to themselves as well as religion; the Baltic Sea was not and country.
discovered, nor even the navigation of it known; for the Teutonic knights came not
thither till the 13th century. On Discoveries.-From the Pennsylvania America was not heard of, nor so much as Gazette, No. 409, Oct. 14, 1736.
a suggestion in the minds of men, that any The world but a few ages since, was in a part of the world lay that way. The coasts very poor condition, as to trade and navigation, of Greenland, or Spitsbergen, and the whale nor indeed, were they much better in other fishing, not known; the best navigators in the matters of useful knowledge. It was a green world, at that time, would have fied from a headed time, every useful improvement was whale, with much more fright and horror, hid from them, they had neither looked into than from the devil, in the most terrible heaven, nor earth, into the sea, nor land, as shapes they had been told he appeared in. has been done since. They had philosophy The coasts of Angola, Congo, the Gold and without experiments, mathematics without the Grain coasts, on the west side of Africa, instruments, geometry without scale, astro- from whence, since that time, such immense nomy without demonstration.
wealth has been drawn, not discovered, nor They made war without powder, shot, can- the least inquiry made after them. All the non, or mortars; nay, the mob made their East India and China trade, not only undiscobonfires without squibs, or crackers. They vered, but out of the reach of expectation ! went to sea without compass, and sailed Coffee and tea, (those modern blessings of manwithout the needle. They viewed the stars, kind) had never been heard of: all the unwithout telescopes, and measured latitudes bounded ocean, we now call the South Sea, without observation. Learning had no print- was hid, and unknown: all the Atlantic ing-press, writing no paper, and paper no ink; Ocean, beyond the mouth of the Streights, the lover was forced to send his mistress a was frightful and terrible in the distant prosdeal board for a love-letter, and a billet doux pect, nor durst any one peep into it, othermight be the size of an ordinary trencher.-wise than as they might creep along the They were clothed without manufacture, and coast of Africa, towards Sallee, or Santa Cruz. their richest robes were the skins of the The North Seas was hid in a veil of impene. most formidable monsters; they carried on trable darkness; the White Sea, or Arch Antrade without books, and correspondence with-gel, was a very modern discovery; not found out posts; their merchants kept no accounts, out till sir Hugh Willoughby doubled the their shop-keepers no cash-books, they had North Cape, and paid dear for the adventure, surgery without anatomy, and physicians with being frozen to death with all his crew on the out the materia medica, they gave emetics coast of Lapland ; while his companion's ship, without ipecacuanha, drew blisters without with the famous Mr. Chancellor, went on to cantharides, and cured agues without the bark. the Gulph of Russia, called the White Sea,
As for geographical discoveries, they had where no Christian strangers had ever been neither seen the North Cape, nor the Cape before him. of Good Hope south, All the discovered In these narrow circumstances stood the inhabited world, which they knew and con- world's knowledge at the beginning of the versed with, was circumscribed within very 15th century, when men of genius began to narrow limits, viz. France, Britain, Spain, look abroad and about them. Now, as it was Italy, Germany, and Greece; the Lesser Asia, wonderful to see a world so full of people, and the west part of Persia, Arabia, the north people so capable of improving, yet so stupid, parts of Africa, and the islands of the Medi- and so blind, so ignorant, and so perfectly unterranean sea, and this was the whole world improved; it was wonderful to see, with what to them; not that even these countries were a general alacrity they took the alarm, almost fully known neither, and several parts of them all together; preparing themselves as it were not inquired into at all. Germany was known on a sudden, by a general inspiration, to little farther than the banks of the Elbe; Po spread knowledge through the earth, and to land as little beyond the Vistula, or Hungary search into every thing, that it was impossible a litt.e beyond the Danube ; Muscovy or Rus- to uncover.