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plied to some other use, beneficial to the pub-presents ? and does it not prove what the profic; or have remained ready in the treasury prietaries deny ?" for any emergency.”.

“13. It appears by their thirteenth para In return to the ninth they say, the people graph, that the proprietaries think the part of Pennsylvania pay, proportionably, as much they voluntarily submit to bear, and expect towards the support of his majesty's govern- always to bear, of public expenses, is greater ment, in the shape of duties and excise, as the than their proportion, equitably laid, would proprietary family, or any other subjects ; in- amount to. If this be so, and they are, as they deed as much as an infant colony can bear; say, 'far from desiring to avoid contributing and more they hoped and believed the justice to any public expense which it is reasonable of a British parliament would never burden they should bear a part of, although their esthem with : adding, “the proprietaries ex- tate is not by law liable to be taxed,' your emption was not published till now at their committee are at a loss to conceive, why they own instance; it was made use of as a private should refuse, to enter into an agreement for motive to themselves only in the representa- the payment of any particular proportion of tion."

Indian or other public expenses,' when such To the tenth, which regards the Indian in- agreement might save them money, and is terpreter, among other things equally perti- proposed to prevent dissatisfactions, and to nent, they say, "we suppose the instance al preserve union and harmony between them luded to, wherein the assembly did not fully and the people; unless it be to show their utsatisfy him, must have been such as the pro- ter contempt of such union and harmony, and prietaries were concerned in by the purchase how much they are above valuing the peo of lands; and a part might be accordingly left ple's regard. for them to pay.”—And for themselves and “The charge on former assemblies, that all other assemblies, they declare their hope they neglected the defence of the proprietaand belief, that no service from the proprie- ries' city, your committee cannot but think taries to the province, will ever be suffered unkind, when it is known to the world, that to pass without grateful acknowledgments they gave many thousand pounds during the and proper returns.

war to the king's use, besides paying near Of the proprietary right to a monopoly of three thousand pounds at one time, to make land, whether from the crown or assembly, good the damages done to the masters of serthey, in answer to the eleventh article, waive vants, by the irregular and oppressive proall dispute; it being every way conclusive ceedings of the proprietary's lieutenant; and alike, “ that those in whose favour such mono- that their not providing cannon to defend poly was created, ought, at least, to bear a part the city was not from neglect, but other conof the expense necessary to secure them the siderations set forth at large in the printed full benefit of it.”

proceedings of those times, needless now to Lastly, having already given the conclud- be repeated. At the same time it may be reing five articles of the proprietary paper in the membered, that though the defence of the entire, it is but reasonable to subjoin the en- proprietaries' city, as they are pleased to term tire answers, which were as follow. To wit: it, by batteries of cannon, was more their in

“ 12. In the twelfth paragraph, three things terest (we will not say duty) than any other appear somewhat extraordinary to your com- persons whatsoever, and they now represent mittee. 1. That the proprietaries should de- it as a thing so necessary, yet they themselves ny that treaties for land are made at less ex- really neglected, and even discouraged it; pense on account of provincial presents ac- while some private gentlemen gave sums companying them; which we think any dis nearly equal to that they mention, and many interested judge would at least allow to be contributed vastly more, considering their probable. 2. That they should say the last circumstances, by which means those battepurchase was made on no other account, but ries were not only completed in season, but purely to save the province the expense of a the defence of both town and country in that present; as if they had no occasion to pur- way provided for; whereas this boasted aschase more land of the Indians, or found no sistance of four hundred pounds' worth of advantage in it. 3. That to prove such pur- cannon, was sent, like Venetian succours, afchases were not the cheaper on account of ter the wars were over. Yet we doubt not, provincial presents accompanying them, they but the proprietary who sent them has long should give an instance in which, they them- since had the thanks of those who received selyes say, the purchase was the dearer for them, though we cannot learn that they ever want of such presents. If purchases are dear- were favoured with any from him, for what er to the proprietaries when no provincial pre- they did and expended in defence of his share sents accompany them, does not this clearly of the province property." confirm the assertion of the assembly, that

14. The fourteenth paragraph of the prothey are the cheaper when there are such prietaries' answer seems calculated merely


for the same design with which they charge be obtained from chief governors, at three the representation, viz., to amuse the weaker thousand miles distance, often ignorant or mispart of the people. If they are really dispos- informed in our affairs, and who will not be ed to favour the drinkers of spirituous liquors, applied to or reasoned with when they have they may do it without a law, by instructing given instructions. We cannot but esteem their lieutenants to abate half the license those colonies that are under the immediate fees, which would enable the retailers to sell care of the crown in a much more eligible proportionably cheaper; or to refuse licenses situation; and our sincere regard for the meto more than half the present number of public mory of our first proprietary, must make us aphouses, which might prevent the ruin of many prehend for his children, that if they follow families, and the great increase of idleness, the advice of Rehoboam's counsellors, they drunkenness, and other immoralities among will, like him, absolutely lose --- at least, the

affections of their people. A loss, which how“15. In return to the good resolutions ex- ever they affect to despise, will be found of pressed by the proprietaries in their fifteenth more consequence to them than they seem at section, your committee hope that future, as present to be aware of.” well as past assemblies, will likewise endea The assembly returned in October, for the vour to make the public good the rule of their remainder

of the year 1753, and to last till actions, and upon all occasions consult the true October 1754, being composed of nearly the interest and honour of the proprietary family, same persons as the last, met with the same whatever may be the sentiments or conduct dispositions, and proceeded on the same prinof any of its particular branches. To this end, ciples. we think the honest and free remarks con To have a sufficient currency was, as we tained in this report, may be more conducive have seen, the great provincial point; and than a thousand flattering addresses. And we from the facts already stated, it is sufficiently hope, that when the proprietaries shall think clear, that the proprietary-concurrence therefit to reconsider this matter, they will be per- with was not to be obtained, but upon such suaded, that agreeing to an equitable propor- terms as even silver and gold could never be tion of expense will be a good means of tak- worth. The loan-office, which was in the ing away one handle of dissension from men hands of the assembly, was still considered as of warm, uneasy spirits, if such should ever an over balance for the land-office, in the unhappily procure themselves to be elected." hands of the proprietary, though they never

“16. Yet if the proprietaries are really de- came into competition, and no benefit could sirous of preserving an union and harmony any way result to the province, but the probetween themselves and this people, we can- prietaries were sure to have their share of it. not but be surprised at their last paragraph, What encouragement the near prospect of whereby they endeavour to cut off the assem- a war furnished to either; and what use was bly's access to them, in cases where the an- made of it; and at whose door the obstructions swers received from their deputies may not given to the public service are to be laid, will be thought agreeable to the public good. No best be deduced from the sequel. king of England, as we can remember, has With the consideration of the state of their ever taken on himself such state, as to refuse commerce, and the accumulated proofs resultpersonal applications from the meanest of his ing therefrom, that with the increase of their subjects, where the redress of a grievance currency, the trade of the province, as well by could not be obtained of his officers. Even importations from England as the exportations sultans, sophies, and other eastern absolute of their own product, had amazingly increasmonarchs will, it is said, sometimes sit whole ed, the assembly opened their sessions in Fedays to hear the complaints and petitions bruary, 1754; and taking in also the consiof their very slaves; and are the proprieta- deration of their currency with it, came to the ries of Pennsylvania, become too great to following unanimous resolutions. To wit: be addressed by the representatives of the “ That it is necessary that the paper-money freemen of their province? if they must not of this province should be re-emitted for a farbe reasoned with, because they have given ther time. instructions, nor their deputy because he has “ That there is a necessity of a farther adreceived them; our meetings and delibera- dition to the paper-money at present current tions are henceforth useless; we have only to by law within this province. know their will and to obey.

“ That there is a necessity, that a sum " To conclude; if this province must be at should be struck to exchange the ragged and more than two thousand pounds a year ex- torn bills now current by law in this propense, to support a proprietary's deputy, who vince." shall not be at liberty to use his own judg Upon which resolutions, they afterwards or ment in passing laws (as is intimated to us dered in a bill for striking forty thousand in the fourteenth section of the answer we pounds, to be made current and emitted on have been considering] but the assent must loan, and for re-emitting and continuing the


currency of the bills already in circulation ; majesty having been pleased to order a sum of and on the other hand, the governor sent them money to be issued for presents to the Six Nadown a written message, accompanied with a tions of Indians, and to direct his governor of letter to himself from the earl of Holder- New York to hold an interview with them, for nesse, a second from the lords of trade, and a delivering the same, for burying the hatchet, third from the French commandant on the and for renewing the covenant chain, they Ohio to Mr. Dinwiddie, deputy governor of thought it their duty to signify the same; and it Virginia.

having been usual


the like occasions forThe earl of Holdernesse's letter was dated | merly, for all his majesty's colonies, whose inAugust 28, 1753, and as it may be presum- terest or security were connected with or deed, was nearly the same with the other let- pended upon them, to join in such interview; ters, sent at the same time, to the governors and that, as the present disposition of those of the other provinces.

Indians and the attempts made upon them to The contents of it were, " That his majes- withdraw them from the British interest, apty having received information of the march pear to theni" to make such a general interof a considerable number of Indians, support- view more particularly necessary at that time, ed by some regular European troops, with an their desire was, that he, the governor, would intention, as it was apprehended, to commit lay this matter before the council and general some hostilities on parts of his majesty's do- assembly or the province under his governminions in America, his lordship had receiv- ment, and recommend to them forth with to ed the king's commands to send him (the go- make a proper provision for appointing comvernor) intelligence thereof; as also to direct missioners to be joined with those of the other him, to use his utmost diligence to learn how governments, for renewing the covenant far the same might be well grounded; and to chain, &c. and that the said commissioners put him upon his guard, that he might be at might be men of character, ability, integrity, all events, in a condition to resist any hostile and well acquainted with Indian affairs." attempts that might be made upon any parts

The letter of the French commandant was of his majesty's dominions within his govern- in answer to the representations of governor ment; and to direct him in the king's name, Dinwiddie, concerning the French encroachthat in case the subjects of any foreign priące ments on the Ohio, (for the European reguor state should presume to make any encroach- lars mentioned in lord Holdernesse's letters, ments on the limits of his majesty's domi- were of that nation, though so much caution nious, or to erect forts on his majesty's lands, had been used to suppress the very name) or commit any other act of hostility, he was and in very polite terms denied the whole immediately to represent the injustice of such charge. proceedings, and to require them forthwith In the governor's written message accomto desist from any such unlawful undertaking; panying these papers, something was said of but if, notwithstanding such requisition, they each; and of the last rather more (whatever should still persist, he was then to draw forth the matter of fact really was) than it seems to the armed force of the province, and to use contain. The F'rench commandant says, “ it his best endeavours to repel force by force.- belongs to his general at Canada, not to him, But as it was his majesty's determination to demonstrate the reality of the king his not to be the aggressor, he had the king's master's right to the lands situated along the commands most strictly to enjoin him, the Ohio: that he shall forward the letter he has said governor, not to make use of the armed received to him; that his answer would be a force under his direction, excepting within law to him; that as to the requisition made the undoubted limits of his majesty's domi- to him, to retire, he could not think himself nions: and that, whereas it might be greatly obliged to submit to it; that he was there by conducive to his majesty's service, that all his his general's orders, which he was deterprovinces in America should be aiding and as- mined to obey; that he did not know of any sisting each other in case of any invasion, he thing that had passed during the campaign, had it particularly in charge from his majesty which could be esteemed an hostility; that if to acquaint him, that it was his royal will and the governor had been more particular in his pleasure, that he should keep up an exact cor- complaints, he had been more particular in his respondence with all his governors on the con- answer, &c." tinent; and that in case he should be inform The governor's comment is in these words, ed by them of any hostile attempts, he was “An express has this week brought me go immediately to assemble the general assem- vernor Dinwiddie's account of that gentlebly, and lay before them the necessity of mu- man’s [col. Geo. Washington's] return with tual assistance, and engage them to grant the answer of the commander of the fort, who such supplies as the exigency of affairs avows the hostilities already committed, and might require."

declares his orders from the king of France The letter from the lords of trade, was are to build more forts, take possession of all dated September 18, and imported, “ That his the country, and oppose all who shall resist,

English as well as Indians, and that he will Indian trade had, in the course of the confercertainly execute these orders as early as the ences, been made undeniably apparent, by the season will permit.”

representations and complaints of the Indian It is certain, at least, this language was chiefs. never echoed at home:-and not a little ex And the reader will of himself be furnished traordinary it is, to find this gentleman in his with proper reflections on the earl of Holdervery next paragraph, making so very free with nesse's letter to the governors of the sevethe French name, which the secretary of state ral provinces, imposing the double care upon had been so extremely careful to avoid the them, of defending themselves against the enmention of.

croachments of the enemy, and also against “Gentlemen (he proceeds to say) French all objections at home, in case of doing it imforts and French armies so near us, will be properly. To say nothing of the peculiar everlasting goads in our sides; our inhabitants difficulty laid both on the province and gofrom thence will feel all the miseries and dread- vernor of Pennsylvania, where there never ful calamities that have been heretofore suf- had been any armed force on a provincial esfered by our neighbour colonies; all those tablishment at all. outrages, murders, rapines, and cruelties, to The assembly took the whole into immediwhich their people have been exposed, are ate consideration, and agreed upon the follownow going to be experienced by ourselves, un- ing answer, which was sent up to the governless a force be immediately raised sufficient to or the same day. To wit: repel these invaders. It is to be hoped, there “ The distressed circumstances of the Indifore, that as loyal subjects to his majesty, and ans, our allies, on the river Ohio, demand in justice to your country, you will not fail our closest attention, and we shall not fail to to take into your consideration the present proceed in the matters contained in the goexigency of affairs; and, as it will be attend- vernor's message with all the despatch an afed with a very considerable expense, and re- fair of so much importance will admit of, in quire a large number of men, make provision which we doubt not to comply with every accordingly, that I may be enabled to do what thing that can be reasonably expected on our his majesty, as well as the neighbouring co- part. lonies, will expect from a government so po “ In the mean time, having some days pulous, and likely to be so nearly affected with since prepared a bill, which we conceive abthe neighbourhood of French garrisons.” solutely necessary, not only to the trade and

In subsequent paragraphs, he farther in- welfare of this province, but to the support of forms the assembly, that the governors of Vir- government, upon the success of which our ginia, New York, and the Massachusetts, had deliberations at this time must in a great made a tender of their assistance to the pro- measure depend; we now lay it before him vince, and expressed an earnest desire to act as a bill of the utmost importance, and to in concert with it; enforces the necessity of a which we unanimously request he would be general union of all the provinces, both in coun- pleased to give his assent. cil and forces; recommends the appointment Four days the governor and his council emof some trusty person to reside, in behalf of the ployed in considering what return should be province, among the Indians upon the Ohio; made to it; or, rather in searching out such as also the preparation of a bill for better re- an expedient as should force the province ingulating the Indian trade; and concludes with to the measures of the proprietaries, or else, the following stimulative, to wit:

by their refusal, embroil them with the go“ Gentlemen,

vernment. In his very first paragraph he “ There is so much to be done, and so little gave an absolute negative to their bill. He time to do it in, the season being so far ad- told them, that the product of their present vanced, and governor Dinwiddie expecting funds was greatly more than sufficient for the the forces from this province to join those of support of government; that he hoped to find Virginia, early in March, on Potowmack, that them better subjects to his majesty, and great

I most earnestly entreat you will not delay er lovers to their country, than to make the ; the supplies, nor deal them out with a sparing issue of their bill, in which he and they had

hand, but use all the expedition in your pow- an equal right to judge for themselves, the rule er; for you will undoubtedly agree with me, of their conduct. “ If, however, (continued he) that so alarming an occasion has not occurred you should be of opinion, that there will be a since the first settlement of the province, nor necessity to strike a farther sum in bills of any one thing happened that so much de- credit, to defray the charges of raising supserves your serious attention."

plies for his majesty's service in this time of A treaty with the Ohio Indians, it is to be imminent danger, and will create a proper observed, had been just concluded at the ex- fund or funds for sinking the same in a few pense of the province, by three commissioners, years, I will concur with you in passing a law two of them selected out of the assembly by the for that purpose, thinking myself sufficiently governor ; and the necessity of regulating the warranted so to do, in cases of real emergency,

“ And now, gentlemen, I hope you will, up-paper-money'instructions, by a long and ang on due consideration, be of opinion with me, paper sent to the house March 1; and, fa that the chief end of your bill will be hereby, getting what he had formerly said in the fi in a great measure answered, as the sum to lowing paragraph, " I do not blame you, ge be struck and circulated upon this occasion, tlemen, for contending for what you are pe will be such an addition to your present cur- suaded are your rights and privileges, ai rency, as probably may be thought sufficient consequently can have no objection to yoi for some time.”

examining the validity of the king's instru The assembly also, in their turn, took a suffi- tions;" flames out as follows, “ Had I been a cient time for deliberation, and having touch- enemy to the liberties and privileges of tl ed on the unusual manner in which the go people, or been desirous of gratifying my ow vernor had been pleased to reject their bill, passions at their expense, it must be confesse and assumed some merit to themselves, in not you have furnished me with the fairest occ suffering any separate interests of their own sion a governor so disposed could possibly har to interfere with the common good, observed, wished for. For example, you have voted there was some difference between the royal clause, proposed to be added to your bill ! orders and the governor's manner of repre- his majesty's express direction, at the reque senting them; chose therefore to adhere to of his two houses of parliament, to be di the former; availed themselves most pru- structive to the liberties of the people of th dently and sensibly of the cautions so circum- province, &c, and have even threatened 1 stantially recommended and enforced in them; examine the validity of the king's instructio more especially concerning the undoubted if, by a perseverance in my opinion, I laid ya limits, and the restrictions thereupon, that his under the necessity of doing it. What I majesty may not be rendered the aggressor; this less than declaring, that the lords an said it would be highly presumptuous in them commons, and his majesty's privy counci to judge of those undoubted limits; that instead consisting, among others, of the most em of being called upon to resist any hostile at- nent lawyers in Great Britain, have reques tempt made upon any part of Pennsylvania, ed, and his majesty enjoined, an act direct] they were called upon to grant such a supply contrary to law ?" as might enable the governor to raise forces And he concludes with making a merit t to be ready to join those of Virginia ; that the province of the moderation he had shown therefore they hoped the governor, under these in suppressing his sense of the provocation circumstances, would concur with them, that then offered to him, in hopes of a more dis the most prudent part for them would be to passionate behaviour for the future. wait the result of the government of Virginia, The very next day this paper was follower where no provision had as yet been made that by another more immediately in point: th they knew of, nor in any of the neighbouring governor, therein, undertaking first to defen colonies, though the several governors, in pur- his negative, and the use he had made of it suance of the king's command, had made the and, secondly, so to turn the tables on the as necessary requisitions of their several assem- sembly, that all the wrong should be on theil blies, and they were equally bound by all the side, and all the right on his own. ties of general interest. They also superad The use made of the different language ded the regard due to the scruples of those used by the secretary of state and him, he conscientiously principled against war, yet calls an evasion; and what they ought not, ir deeply sensible of the blessings they enjoyed, point of duty, to have taken any advantage of and willing to demonstrate their duty and loy- He then declares he has undoubted assurance alty, by giving such occasional sums of money that part of his majesty's dominions, within for the king's use, as might be reasonably ex- his government was, at that time, invaded by pected from so young a colony; took notice the subjects of a foreign prince, who had they had contracted a debt of fourteen hun- erected forts within the same; and requires dred pounds for presents to the Indians, and them to take notice, that he did then call other charges arising from the late treaty, upon them, pursuant to his majesty's orders, which they should cheerfully discharge, in the present emergency to grant such supthough their proprietaries had refused to con- plies as might enable him to draw forth the tribute any part of their Indian expenses; armed force of the province, &c. He then agreed to send commissioners to Albany, as undertook to prove, that the place where the required, though the place was so remote, and French had then their head-quarters was to defray the expense, &c.

within the limits of the province; and tells The difficulty thus retorted on the governor, them, that if he did not communicate mateand his resentment it must be supposed quick- rials before to assist their inquiries into this ened thereby, he takes up the minutes of the fact, so neither had they applied to him for last day's sessions of the last assembly, and un- them; that if they had inquired for themder the pretence of justifying his own charac- selves and suppressed the truth, it was exter, revives the old controversy concerning the tremely disingenuous; if not, their neglect

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