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much higher than B, and so the pressure on of the three-sided box C, figure 5, which is it is greater and more forcible, and beats down cast in one piece. the frame to that part where it finds the least D, figure 6, its cover, showing its under resistance. Carrying the machine first to the side with grooves to receive the upper edges kitchen fire for preparation, is on this account, SS S of the sides of C, figure 5, also a groove that in the beginning the fire and smoke na- R, R, which when the cover is put on comes turally ascend, till the air in the close barrel right over another Q Q in C, figure 5, beC is made thinner by the warmth. When tween which it is to slide. that vessel is heated, the air in it is rarefied, E, figure 7, the front plate of the box. and then all the smoke and fire descends un P, a hole three inches diameter through der it.
D, figure 6, over which hole stands “ The wood should be thoroughly dry, and the vase F, figure 8, which has a correspondcut into pieces five or six inches long, to fit ing hole two inches diameter through its it for being thrown into the funnel A.” Thus bottom. far the German book.
The top of the vase opens at 0, 0, 0, figure It appears to me, by Mr. Leutmann's ex- 8, and turns back upon a hinge behind when planation of the operation of this machine, coals are to be put in; the vase has a grate that he did not understand the principles of within at N N of cast iron H, figure 9, and it, whence I conclude he was not the inventor a hole in the top, one and a half inchés diaof it; and by the description of it, wherein meter, to admit air, and to receive the ornathe opening at A is made so large, and the mental brass gilt flame M, figure 10, which pipe E, D, so short, I am persuaded he never stands in that hole, and, being itself hollow made nor saw the experiment, for the first and open, suffers air to pass through it into ought to be much smaller and the last much the fire. higher, or it hardly will succeed. The car G, figure 11, is a drawer of plate iron, that rying it in the kitchen, too, every time the slips in between the partitions 2 and 3, fire should happen to be out, must be so trou- figure 2, to receive the falling ashes. It is blesome, that is not likely ever to have concealed when the small sliding plates Y Y, been in practice, and probably has never figure 12, are shut together. been shown but as a philosophical experiment. I, I, I, I, figure 8, is a niche built of brick The funnel for conveying the vapour out of in the chimney and plastered. It closes the the room would besides have been uncertain chimney over the vase, but leaves two fun. in its operation, as a wind blowing against its nels, one in each corner, communicating with mouth would drive the vapour back. the bottom box K K, figure 2.
The stove I am about to describe was also formed on the idea given by the French ex
Dimensions of the Parts. periment, and completely carried into execution before I had any knowledge of the Ger: Front of the bottom box,
.0 46 man invention; which I wonder should re- Length of No. 1, 2, 3, and 4, each,
.0 81 main so many years in a country, where men Length of No: 5 and 6. each,..
Breadth of the passage between No. 2 and 3, ....0 6 are so ingenious in the management of fire, Breadth of the other passages each,
.0 31 without receiving long since the improve Breadth of the grate,....
Length of ditto, ments I have given it.
Bottom moulding of box, C, square,...
Height of the sides of ditto,...
Length of the back side,
Length of the right and left sides, each,. .0 94 A, the bottom plate which lies flat upon Length of the front plate E, where longest,. the hearth, with its partitions, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, Hole in ditto, diameter, (Plate, figure 2.) that are cast with it, and Sliding plates Y Y, their length, each,
their breadth, each,.... a groove Ž Z, in which are to slide, the bot
Drawer G, its length, tom edges of the small plates Y, Y, figure
............051 12; which plates meeting at X close the front.
...depth, B 1, figure 3, is the cover plate showing Grate H in the vase, its diameter to the extremity
...depth of its further end only,......0 1 its under side, with the grooves 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, of its knobs, :
O 01 6, to receive the top edges of the partitions Thickness of the bars at top, that are fixed to the bottom plate. It shows Depth of the bars at the top,
.0 03 also the grate W W, the bars of which are Height of the vase,... cast in the plate, and a groove V V, which Diameter of the opening 0, 0, in the clear, ...... 8
........0 14 comes right over the groove Z Z, figure 2, receiving the upper edges of the small sliding plates Y Y, figure 12.
To fix this machine. B2, figure 4, shows the upper side of the Spread mortar on the hearth to bed the same plate, with a square impression or groove bottom plate A, then lay that plate level, fur receiving the bottom mouldings TIT T'equally distant from each jamb, and project
.....0 8 .........10
0 11 ....1 0
.0 3 ......10
....at bottom less,
Diameter of the air-hole at top...
of the flame hole at bottom,
ing out as far as you think proper. Then put-one part of it passes round the far end of the ting some Windsor loam in the grooves of partition 2, then coming forward it turns round the cover B, lay that on: trying the sliding the near end of partition 1, then moving back. plates Y Y, to see if they move freely in the ward it arrives at the opening into the bottom grooves Z Z, V V, designed for them. of one of the upright corner fundels bebind
Then begin to build the niche, observing the niche, through which it ascends into the to leave the square corners of the chimney chimney, thus heating that half of the box and unfilled; for they are to be funnels. And ob that side of the niche. The other part of the serve also to leave a free open communication divided flame passes round the far end of parbetween the passages at K K, and the bottom tition 3, round the near end of partition 4, and of those funnels, and mind to close the chim- so into and up the other corner funnel, thus ney above the top of the niche, that no air heating the other half of the box, and the may pass up that way. The concave back of other side of the niche. The vase itself, and the niche will rest on the circular iron parti- the box C will also be very hot, and the air tion 1 A 4, figure 2, then with a little loam surrounding them being heated, and rising put on the box C over the grate, the open as it cannot get into the chimney, it spreads side of the box in front.
into the room, colder air succeeding is warmed Then, with loam in three of its grooves, in its turn, rises and spreads, till by the conthe grooves R R being left clean, and brought tinual circulation the whole is warmed. directly over the groove Q Q in the box, put If you should have occasion to make your on the cover D, trying the front plate E, to first fire at hours not so convenient as those see if it slides freely in those grooves. above mentioned, and when the chimney does
Lastly, set on the vase, which has small not draw, do not begin it in the vase, but in one holes in the moulding of its bottom to receive or more of the passages of the lower plate, first two iron pins that rise out of the plate D at I covering the mouth of the vase. After the I, for the better keeping it steady.
chimney has drawn a while with the fire thus Then putting in the grate H, which rests low, and begins to be a little warm, you may on its three knobs hh h against the inside of close those passages and kindle another fire the vase, and slipping the drawer into its place; in the box C, leaving its sliding shutter a little the machine is fit for use.
open; and when you find after some time that
the chimney being warmed draws forcibly, To use it.
you may shut that passage, open your vase, Let the first fire be made after eight in the and kindle your fire there, as above directed. evening or before eight in the morning, for The chimney well warmed by the first day's at those times and between those hours all fire will continue to draw constantly all winnight, there is usually a draft up a chimney, ter, if fires are made daily. though it has long been without fire; but be You will, in the management of your fire, tween those hours in the day there is often, have need of the following implements : in a cold chimney, a draft downwards, when, A pair of small light tongs, twelve or fifteen if you attempt to kindle a fire, the smoke will inches long, plate, figure 13. come into the room.
A light poker about the same length with But to be certain of your proper time, hold a flat broad point, figure 14. a flame over the air-hole at the top. If the · A rake to draw ashes out of the passages flame is drawn strongly down for a continu- of the lower plate, where the lighter kind ance, without whiffling, you may begin to escaping the ash-box will gather by degrees, kindle a fire.
and perhaps once more in a week or ten days First put in a few charcoals on the grate H. require being removed, figure 15. Lay some small sticks on the charcoals. And a fork with its prongs wide enough to Lay some pieces of paper on the sticks.
slip on the neck of the vase cover, in order to Kindle the paper with a candle.
raise and open it when hot, to put in fresh Then shut down the top, and the air will coals figure 16. pass down through the air-hole, blow the flame In the management of this stove there are of the paper down through the sticks, kindle certain precautions to be observed, at first them, and their flame passing lower kindles with attention, till they become habitual. To the charcoal.
avoid the inconvenience of smoke, see that the When the charcoal is well kindled, lay on it grate H be clear before you begin to light a the seacoals, observing not to choak the fire by fresh fire. If you find it clogged with cinders putting on too much at first.
and ashes, turn it up with your tongs and let The flame descending through the hole in them fall upon the grate below; the ashes the bottom of the vase, and that in plate D into will go through it, and the cinders may be the box C, passes down farther through the raked off and returned into the vase when you grate W W in plate B 1, then passes horizon- would burn them. Then see that all the tally towards the back of the chimney; there sliding plates are in their places and close dividing, and turning to the right and left, 'shut, that no air may enter the stove but
through the round opening at the top of the fit of its heat, whereas in common chimneys a
And to avoid the inconvenience of dust great part goes away in smoke which you see from the ashes, let the ash drawer be taken as it rises, but it affords you no rays of warmth. out of the room to be emptied: and when you One may obtain some notion of the quantity rake the passages, do it when the draft of the of fuel thus wasted in smoke, by reflecting on air is strong inwards, and put the ashes care- the quantity of soot that a few weeks firing fully into the ash-box, that remaining in its will lodge against the sides of the chimney, place.
and yet this is formed only of those particles If, being about to go abroad, you would of the column of smoke that happen to touch prevent your fire burning in your absence, the sides in its ascent. How much more must you may do it by taking the brass flame from have passed off in the air? And we know that the top of the vase, and covering the passage this soot is still fuel: for it will burn and flame with a round tin plate, which will prevent the as such, and when hard caked together is inentry of more air than barely sufficient to keep deed very like and almost as solid as the coal a few of the coals alive. When you return, it proceeds from. The destruction of your though some hours absent, by taking off the fuel goes on nearly in the same quantity whetin plate and admitting the air, your tire will ther in smoke or in flame: but there is no comsoon be recovered.
parison in the difference of heat given. ObThe effect of this machine, well managed, serve when fresh coals are first put on your fire, is to burn not only the coals, but all the smoke what a body of smoke arises. This smoke is of the coals, so that while the fire is burning, for a long time too cold to take flame. If you if you go out and observe the top of your chim- then plunge a burning candle into it, the canney, you will see no smoke issuing, nor any dle instead of inflaming the smoke will inthing but clear warm air, which as usual stantly be itself extinguished. Smoke must makes the bodies seen through it appear have a certain degree of heat to be inflammawaving.
ble. As soon as it has acquired that degree, But let none imagine from this, that it may the approach of a candle will inflame the whole be a cure for bad or smoky chimneys, much body, and you will be very sensible of the difless, that as it burns the smoke it may be used ference of the heat it gives. A still easier in a room that has no chimney. It is by the experiment may be made with the candle itself. help of a good chimney, the higher, the better, Hold your hand near the side of its flame, and that it produces its effect; and though a flue observe the heat it gives; then blow it out, of plate iron sufficiently high might be raised the hand remaining in the same place, and in a very lofty room, the management to pre- observe what heat may be given by the smoke vent all disagreeable vapour would be too nice that rises from the still burning snuff
. You for common practice, and small errors would will find it very little. And yet that smoke have unpleasing consequences.
has in it the substance of so much flame, and It is certain that clean iron yields no offen- will instantly produce it, if you hold another sive smell when heated. Whatever of that candle above it so as to kindle it. Now the kind you perceive where there are iron stoves, smoke from the fresh coals laid on this stove, proceeds therefore from some foulness burning instead of ascending and leaving the fire or fuming on their surface. They should while too cold to burn, ing obliged to detherefore never be spit upon, or greased, nor scend through the burning coale, receives should any dust be suffered to lie upon them. among them that degree of heat which conBut as the greatest care will not always pre- verts it into flame, and the heat of that flame vent these things, it is well once a week to is communicated to the air of the room, as wash the stove with soap lees and a brush, rins- above explained. ing it with clean water.
4. The flame from the fresh coals laid on
in this stove, descending through the coals alThe Advantages of this Stove.
ready ignited, preserves them Iong from con1. The chimney does not grow foul, nor ever suming, and continues them in the state of need sweeping; for as no smoke enters it, no red coals as long as the flame continues that soot can form in it.
surrounds them, by which means the fires 2. The air heated over common fires in- made in this stove are of much longer durastantly quits the room and goes up the chim- tion than in any other, and fewer coals are ney with the smoke; but in the stove, it is therefore necessary for a day. This is a very obliged to descend in flame and pass through material advantage indeed. That flame should the long winding horizontal passages, commu- be a kind of pickle, to preserve burning coals nicating its heat to a body of iron plate, which, from consuming, may seem a paradox to many, having thus time to receive the heat, commu- and very unlikely to be true, as it appeared to nicates the same to the air of the room, and me the first time I observed the fact. I must thereby warms it to a greater degree. therefore relate the circumstances, and shall
3. The whole of the fuel is consumed by be- mention an easy experiment, by which my ing turned into flame, and you have the bene- reader may be in possession of every thing
VOL. II. ... 3 G