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ately over it, however, may receive so much pulse against the water, and probably thence warmth from it as to be rarefied and rise, be- shorten the voyage. Query, In returning ing rendered lighter than the air on each side does the contrary happen, and is her voyage of the stream; hence those airs must flow in thereby retarded and lengthened ???* to supply the place of the rising warm air, Would it not be a more secure method of and, meeting with each other, form those tor- planking ships, if, instead of thick single nadoes and water-spouts frequently met with, planks laid horizontally, we were to use planks and seen near and over the stream; and as of half the thickness, and lay them double and the vapour from a cup of tea in a warm room across each other as in figure 23? To me it and the breath of an animal in the same room, seems that the difference of expense would are hardly visible, but become sensible imme- not be considerable, and that the ship would diately when out in the cold air, so the va- be both tighter and stronger. pour from the gulph stream, in warm latitudes The securing of the ship is not the only is scarcely visible, but when it comes into the necessary thing ; securing the health of the cool air from Newfoundland, it is condensed sailors, a brave and valuable order of men, is into the fogs, for which those parts are so re- likewise of great importance. With this view markable.
the methods so successfully practised by capThe power of wind to raise water above tain Cook in his long voyages cannot be too its common level in the sea is known to us in closely studied or carefully imitated. A full America, by the high tides occasioned in all account of those methods is found in sir John our sea-ports when a strong north-easter Pringle's speech, when the medal of the Royal blows against the gulph stream.
Society was given to that illustrious naviThe conclusion from these remarks is, that gator. I am glad to see in his last voyage a vessel from Europe to North America may that he found the means effectual which I had shorten her passage by avoiding to stem the proposed for preserving flour, bread, &c. from stream, in which the thermometer will be moisture and damage. They were found dry very useful; and a vessel from America to and good after being at sea four years. The Europe may do the same by the same means method is described in my printed works, page of keeping in it. It may have often happened 452, fifth edition. In the same, page 469, 470,4 accidentally, that voyages have been short- is proposed a means of allaying thirst in case ened by these circumstances. It is well to of want of fresh water. This has since been have the command of them.
practised in two instances with success. HapBut may there not be another cause, in- py if their hunger, when the other provisions dependent of winds and currents, why pas- are consumed, could be relieved as commo. sages are generally shorter from America to diously; and perhaps in time this may be found Europe than from Europe to America ? This not impossible. An addition might be made question I formerly considered in the follow- to their present vegetable provision, by drying ing short paper.
various roots in slices by the means of an oven. The sweet potatoe of America and Spain is
excellent for this purpose. Other potatoes, On board the Pennsylvania Packet, Captain with carrots, parsnips, and turnips, might be Osborne.
prepared and preserved in the same manner At Sea, April 5, 1775.
With regard to make-shifts in cases of ne“ SUPPOSE a ship make a voyage east- cessity, seamen are generally very ingenious ward from a place in lat. 40° north, to a place themselves. They will excuse, however, the in lat. 50° north, distance in longitude 75 de- mention of two or three. If they happen in grees.
any circumstance, such as after shipwreck, “ In sailing from 40 to 50, she goes from a taking to their boat, or the like, to want a place where a degree of longitude is about compass, a fine sewing-needle laid on clear eight miles greater than in the place she is water in a cup will generally point to the going to. A degree is equal to four minutes north, most of them being a little magnetical, of time; consequently the ship in the harbour or may be made so by being strongly rubbed she leaves, partaking of the diurnal motion of or hammered, lying in a north and south directhe earth, moves two miles in a minute faster tion. If their needle is too heavy to float by than when in the port she is going to; which itself, it may be supported by little pieces of is 120 miles in an hour.
cork or wood. A man who can swim, may “ This motion in a ship and cargo is of great be aided in a long traverse by his handkerchief force; and if she could be lifted up suddenly formed into a kite, by two cross sticks extendfrom the harbour in which she lay quiet, and ing to the four corners; which, being raised set down instantly in the latitude of the port in the air when the wind is fair and fresh, she was bound to, though in a calm, that force
* Since this paper was read at the Society, an ingeni. contained in her would make her run a great ous member, Mr. Patterson, has convinced the writer way at a prodigious rate. This force must be that the returning voyage would not, from this cause, lost gradually in her voyage, by gradual im See the Paper referred to in this volume, page 358.
will tow him along while lying on his back. I ment in the mass of stores laid in by him for Where force is wanted to move a heavy body, the passengers, it is good to have some parand there are but few hanus and no machines, ticular things in your own possession, so as to a long and strong rope may make owerful be always at your own command. instrument. Suppose a boat is to be drawn 1. Good water, that of the ship being often up on a beach, that she may be out of the surf; bad. You can be sure of having it good only a stake drove into the beach where you would by bottling it from a clear spring or well and have the boat drawn, and another to fasten in clean bottles. 2. Good tea. 3. Coffee the end of the rope to, which comes from the ground. 4. Chocolate. 5. Wine of the sort boat, and then applying what force you have you particularly like, and cyder. 6. Raisins. to pull upon the middle of the rope at right 7. Almonds. 8. Sugar. 9. Capillaire. 10. angles with it, the power will be augmented Lemons. 11. Jamaica spirits. 12. Eggs in proportion to the length of rope between greased. 13. Diet bread. 14. Portable soup. the posts. The rope being fasted to the stake 15. Rusks. As to fowls, it is not worth while A, and drawn upon in the direction CD, will to have any called yours, unless you could slide over the stake B; and when the rope is have the feeding and managing of them acbent to the angle A D B, represented by the cording to your own judgment under your pricked line in figure 24, the boat will be own eye. As they are generally treated at at B.
present in ships, they are for the most part Some sailors may think the writer has sick, and their flesh tough and hard as whitgiven himself unnecessary trouble in pretend leather. All seamen have an opinion, broached ing to advise them ; for they have a little re- I supposed at first prudently, for saving of pugnance to the advice of landmen, whom water when short, that fowls do not know they esteem ignorant and incapable of giving when they have drank enough, and will kill any worth notice; though it is certain that themselves if you give them too much, so most of their instruments were the invention they are served with a little only once in two of landmen. At least the first vessel ever days. This poured into troughs that lie made to go on the water was certainly such. sloping, and therefore immediately runs down I will therefore add only a few words more, to the lower end. There the fowls ride upon and they shall be addressed to passengers.
one another's backs to get at it, and some are When you intend a long voyage, you may not happy enough to reach and once dip their do well to keep your intention as much as pos- bills in it. Thus tantalized, and tormented sible a secret, or at least the time of your de- with thirst, they cannot digest their dry food, parture; otherwise you will be continually in they fret, pine, sicken, and die. Some are terrupted in your preparations by the visits of found dead, and thrown overboard every mornfriends and acquaintance, who will not only ing, and those killed for the table are not eatrob you of the time you want, but put things able. Their troughs should be in little diout of your mind, so that when you come to visions, like cups, to hold the water separatesea, you have the mortification to recollect ly, figure 25. But this is never done. The points of business that ought to have been sheep and hogs are therefore your best dedone, accounts you intended to settle, and con- pendence for fresh meat at sea, the mutton veniences you had proposed to bring with being generally tolerable, and the pork exyou, &c. all which have been omitted through cellent. the effect of these officious friendly visits. It is possible your captain may have proviWould it not be well if this custom could be ded so well in the general stores, as to render changed; if the voyager after having, with some of the particulars above recommended of out interruption, made all his preparations, little or no use to you. But there are frequentshould use some of the time he has left, in ly in the ship poorer passengers, who are taken going himself, to take leave of his friends at at a lower price, lodge in the steerage, and their
own houses, and let them come to con- have no claim to any of the cabin provisions, gratulate him on bis happy return.
or to any but those kinds that are allowed the It is not always in your power to make a sailors. These people are sometimes dejectchoice in your captain, though much of your ed, sometimes sick, there may be women and comfort in the passage may depend on his per- children among them. In a situation where sonal character, as you must for so long a time there is no going to market, to purchase such be confined to his company, and under his di- necessaries, a few of these your superfluities rection; if he is a sensible, sociable, good distributed occasionally may be of great sernatured, obliging man, you will be so much vice, restore health, save life, make the mithe happier. Such there are ; but if he hàp- serable happy, and thereby afford you infinite pens to be otherwise, and is only skilful, care pleasure. ful, watchful, and active in the conduct of his The worst thing in ordinary merchant ship, excuse the rest, for these are the essen- ships is the cookery. They have no professtials.
ed cook, and the worst hand as a seaman is apWhatever right you may have by agree-pointed to that office, in which he is not only
very ignorant but very dirty. The sailors transporting slavės, it is clearly the means of have therefore for a saying, that God sends augmenting the mass of human misery. It meat and the devil cooks. Passengers more is amazing to think of the ships and lives piously disposed, and willing to believe Hea- risked in fetching tea from China, coffee from ven orders all things for the best, may sup- Arabia, sugar and tobacco from America, all pose, that, knowing the sea-air and constant which our ancestors did well without Sugar exercise by the motion of the vessel would employs near one thousand ships, tobacco algive us extraordinany appetites, bad cooks most as many. For the utility of tobacco were kindly sent to prevent our eating too there is little to be said ; and for that of sumuch; or that, foreseeing we should have gar, how much more commendable would it bad cooks, good appetites were furnished to be if we could give up the few minutes gratiprevent our starving. If you cannot trust to fication afforded once or twice a day by the these circumstances, a spirit-lamp, with a taste of sugar in our tea, rather than encoublaze-pan, may enable you to cook some little rage the cruelties exercised in producing it. things for yourself; such as a hash, a soup, &c. An eminent French moralist says, that when And it might be well also to have among he considers the wars we excite in Africa to your stores some potted meats, which if well obtain slaves, the numbers necessarily slain put up will keep long good. A small tin in those wars, the many prisoners who perish oven, to place with the open side before the at sea by sickness, bad provisions, foul air, &c. fire, may be another good utensil in which in the transportation, and how many afteryour own servant may roast for you a bit of wards die from the hardships of slavery, he pork or mutton. You will sometimes be in cannot look on a piece of sugar without conduced to eat of the ship's salt beef, as it is ceiving it stained with spots of human blood ! often good. You will find cider the best had he added the consideration of the wars we quencher of that thirst which salt meat or fish make to take and retake the sugar islands occasions. The ship biscuit is too hard for from one another, and the fleets and armies some sets of teeth. It may be softened by that perish in those expeditions, he might toasting. But rusk is better; for being made have seen his sugar not merely spotted, but of good fermented bread, sliced and baked a thoroughly dyed scarlet in grain. It is these second time, the pieces imbibe the water ea wars that make the maritime powers of Eusily, soften immediately, digest more kindly, rope, the inhabitants of London and Paris, pay and are therefore more wholesome than the dearer for sugar than those of Vienna, a thouunfermented biscuit. By the way, rusk is the sand miles from the sea; because their sugar true original biscuit, so prepared to keep for costs not only the price they pay for it by the sea, biscuit in French signifying twice baked. pound, but all they pay in taxes to maintain If your dry peas boil hard, a two-pound iron the fleets and armies that fight for it.-With shot put with them into the pot, will by the great esteem, I am, sir, your most obedient motion of the ship grind them as fine as mus. humble servant, B. FRANKLIN. tard.
The accidents I have seen at sea with large dishes of soup upon a table, from the motion
On the Gulph Stream, of the ship, have made me wish, that our pot- Remarks upon the Navigation from Newfoundters or pewterers would make soup dishes in land to New York, in order to avoid the Gulph divisions, like a set of small bowls united to Stream on one hand, and on the other the gether, each containing about sufficient for
Shoals that lie to the Southward of Nantucket one person, in some such form as fig. 26; for
and of St. George's Banks. then when the ship should make a sudden AFTER you have passed the banks of Newheel, the soup would not in a body flow over foundland in about the 44th degree of latitude, one side, and fall into people's laps and scald you will meet with nothing, till you draw them, as is sometimes the case, but would be near the Isle of Sables, which we commonly retained in the separate divisions, as in figure pass in latitude 43. Southward of this isle, 27.
the current is found to extend itself as far After these trifles, permit the addition of a north as 41° 20' or 30', then it turns towards few general reflections. Navigation, when the E. S. E. or S. E. 4 E. employed in supplying necessary provisions Having passed the Isle of Sables, shape to a country in want, and thereby preventing your course for the St. George's Banks, so as famines, which were more frequent and de- to pass them in about latitude 40°, because structive before the invention of that art, is the current southward of those banks reaches undoubtedly a blessing to mankind. When as far north as 39o. The shoals of those banks employed merely in transporting superfluities, lie in 41° 35.' it is a question whether the advantage of the After having passed St. George's Banks, employment it affords is equal to the mischief you must, to clear Nantucket, form your of hazarding so many lives on the ocean. But course so as to pass between the latitudes 380 when employed in pillaging merchants and 30' and 40° 45'.
The most southern part of the shoals of Nan- , practice of whaling on the edges of it, from tucket lie in about 40° 45'. The northern their island quite down to the Bahamas, this part of the current, directly to the south of draft of that stream was obtained from one of Nantucket, is felt in about latitude 38° 30' them, captain Folger, and caused to be en
By observing these directions, and keeping graved on the old chart in London, for the bebetween the stream and the shoals, the pas- nefit of navigators, by B. FRANKLIN. sage from the Banks of Newfoundland to New York, Delaware, or Virginia, may be consi Note. The Nantucket captains who are acderably shortened; for so you will have the quainted with this stream, make their voyages advantage of the eddy current, which moves from England to Boston in as short a time gecontrary to the Gulph Stream. Whereas if nerally as others take in going from Boston to to avoid the shoals you keep too far to the England, viz. from twenty to thirty days. southward, and get into that stream, you will A stranger may know when he is in the be retarded by it at the rate of 60 or 70 miles Gulph Stream, by the warmth of the water, a day.
which is much greater than that of the water The Nantucket whale-men being extremely on each side of it. If then he is bound to the well acquainted with the Gulph Stream, its westward, he should cross the stream to get course, strength, and extent, by their constant out of it as soon as possible. B. F.
Observations of the Warmth of the Sea-water, &c., by Fahrenheit's Thermometer, in
crossing the Gulph Stream; with other remarks made on board the Pennsylvania Packet, captain Osborne, bound from London to Philadelphia, in April and May, 1775.