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to avert the mischiefs that threatened this fairs; that they had been at considerable exprovince from the passing of the said bill; pense for the service of the province both in and I have it in cornmand from them to assure England and there : that they pay the Indiyou of their assistance upon all future occa ans for the land they purchase : and that they sions, wherein the welfare and happiness of are no more obliged to contribute to the pubthe people of this province may be concerned.” lic charges than any other chief governor of
This had a favourable appearance towards any other colony." the province, and from hence it might well In answer to this, the assembly, May 1751, rebe supposed, that the issues from this source spectfully represented, that the preserving a would never be productive of any deep or good understanding with the Indians was more lasting strife.
for the interest of the proprietary estate than But though the springs had not as yet broke that of any other estate in the province, as it out with any violence, they were working gave the proprietaries an opportunity of purtheir way under ground. The growing chasing lands on the frontiers at a low price, and charge of Indian affairs, which lay wholly on selling them at a high one, which would otherthe province, and which, on the head of pur- wise be impracticable: that, therefore, the obchases, as before explained, was productive ligations of justice and equity being stronger of great advantages to the proprietaries, began than those of law, they were certainly bound to be the subject of public complaint: and by them to contribute to the expense of those by these suggestions of the importance of the Indian treaties and presents by which the good proprietaries at home, the people were to be understanding so beneficial to them was main-. taught the danger of disobliging them. tained ; that though taxes in form, for the im
But if this was their view, it did not an- mediate support of the proprietaries' substiswer: the assembly had too much discernment tute, and for defraying the charges of these to be diverted from the object before them by Indian treaties, had not of late years been imthe interposition of another, how dextrously posed on the province, the charge of all (by soever the trick was performed, and therefore the interest of the paper-money, which was a proceeded, notwithstanding, to take this affair virtual tax, the excise, which was a real one, into consideration.
producing about 30001. per annum, and the It is scarce necessary to intimate, that the tax arising from licenses of various kinds, governor, and the creatures of the govern- amounting yearly to a sum not inconsiderament, did all they could, not only to discour- ble, and appropriated wholly to the governor's age them in it, but also to convince them, in support,) was paid by the province: that the effect, that, according to the usual current of assembly had always paid the Indian interthe world, all advantages are the prerogative preter for his public services to his full saof those above, and all burdens the inheritance tisfaction: that they believed future assemof those below. This may indeed be agreea- blies would not fail to do whatever could be ble to the usual current of the world: but reasonably expected from them in regard to then as such doctrines are not over palatable his son, when he should be qualified to sucanywhere, so in a free government like Penn- ceed him; as also to discharge all just debts sylvania, it was not to be thought they would for expenses properly chargeable to the probe swallowed at all. They were neither to vince, whether incurred there or in England, be convinced nor discouraged it seems: on whenever the accounts should be exhibited: the contrary, they persevered; they examin- that by the act forbidding all but the proprieed; they reported; they resolved; and at last taries to purchase lands of the Indians, they applied to the proprietaries, to do what equity had obtained a monopoly of the soil, conserequired, by taking a share of the charge upon quently ought to bear the whole charge of themselves.
every treaty for such purchases, as the profit The proprietaries, on the other hand, an was to be wholly theirs: that their paying nounced in their reply, “ that they did not for land (bought as was conceived much cheap conceive themselves to be under any such ob- er on account of the provincial presents acligation, even though the people had been companying those treaties) was not a satisfactaxed for the charges of government: that as tory reason, why they should not bear a part not one shilling had been levied on the peo- of the charge of such other treaties as tended ple for that service, it was so much less rea- to the common welfare and peace of the prosonable in the people to ask any thing of them : vince: and that upon the whole, as the intethat they had, notwithstanding, charged them- rests of the proprietaries were so constantly selves with paying their interpreter even intermixed, more or less, with those of the much more than could be due to him on their province, in all Indian treaties, and as it apaccount, and were also then at the expense peared the proprietaries thought they paid of maintaining his son with a tutor in the In- more than their share, while the people dian country, to learn their language and thought they paid abundantly too much, they customs for the service of the country; as apprehended the surest way to prevent dissawell as of sundry other charges on Indian af- ' tisfaction on all sides, would be to fix a certain
proportion of the charge of all future provin- | seem to act too precipitately in an affair of cial treaties with the Indians, to be paid by such importance, they chose to make a short the proprietaries and province respectively: adjournment before they took his objection inwhich, not only as a proposal equitable in it- to consideration." self, but conducive also to preserve that union Adjourn they did accordingly, and at their and harmony between the proprietaries and next meeting, which was towards the end of people, so evidently advantageous to both, May the same year, found themse they hoped, would, on further consideration, nestly pressed by a message from the gobe agreed to.”
vernor, on one hand concerning Indian affairs, How this was received we shall see in its and on the other by petitions from a considerplace.
able number of inhabitants, for a further addiThe assembly proceeded soon after, to take tion to their paper-money, supported by a va. into consideration the growth of the province, riety of allegations of the most interesting and and the state of their commerce; and finding affecting nature. both to be such as required an extension of The governor's message, whether prematheir paper-currency, on the same grounds and ture or not will best appear from the sequel, for the same ends as at first gave rise to it, prepared the house to expect, “ that the coununanimously resolved to strike an additional try of Alleghany situate on the waters of the sum of twenty thousand pounds, in order to Ohio, partly within the limits of Pennsylvareplace defective bills, and increase the pro- nia, partly within those of Virginia, already vincial capital, in proportion to the increase was or soon would be invaded by an army of of inhabitants; as also to re-emit and continue French and Indians from Canada: in which the sums already in circulation.
case the Indians inhabiting there, who were A bill was accordingly prepared in Janu- a mixture of the Six Nations, Shawnese, De| ary, 1753, and sent up to the governor (Ha- lawares, and Twigtwees, lately recommended milton) for his concurrence; but though that as allies to the province by the said Six Nagentleman was a native of the province, with tions, would be obliged to leave the country, rather better qualifications for his post, and, and his majesty's subjects trading with them as may be supposed, more affection for the would be cut off, &c. unless timely warned people than is common with governors, he by the messengers sent to them by himself had his reasons for not seeing this provincial for that purpose : that Montour, an interpoint in the same light that the province did, preter, had heard the French declaration deand therefore returned the bill in a day or livered, and the reply of the Indians, which two, with his negative upon it: qualified in- was firm and resolute, but not to be relied deed with expressions of concern for his so upon as they were in want of all things.”differing in opinion with them, but founded So far was matter of intelligence. The rest in the dislike raised in Britain by the late was a pathetic representation of dangers and too general and undistinguishing complaints mischiefs to be apprehended on their own against the plantation bills of credit, which frontiers, and exhortations to enable him to rendered the time very unseasonable for any give the Indians assistance answerable to their application to the crown concerning the ex- exingencies. tension or re-emission of theirs : and fortified And upon the heels of this message, the by a caveat, which sounded so much the more governor also communicated to them the anplausible, as it seemed to be drawn from their swer of the proprietaries to the representation own premises, namely, that the many advan- of the assembly above exhibited; and which tages they derived from the use of paper-mo- if purposely calculated to divide the province pey ought to make them extremely careful, and inflame the animosities already kindled, how they took any step which might possibly could not have been better framed or better endanger it.
timed for those fatal purposes. The assembly, on the other hand, gladly Professions of attachment to the true and fastened on an acknowledgment so express real interest of the province, of sparing no in favour of the thing; and, from the same cost or pains whenever it should appear to sense of it, declared themselves to be equally them necessary to advance it, and acting such careful with the governor in the conduct and a part in considering the matter of the repredirection of it: but having so done, they went sentation as all disinterested persons should
" that as they did not think the dis- think just, they set out with : and, having like raised in Britain of the plantation bills, made this ground for themselves, they prowas so general and undistinguishing, or still ceed to charge the assembly with being ac$0 warmly subsisted as the governor seemed tuated by ill will to them on one hand, and to apprehend, so neither did they conceive a desire to ingratiate themselves with the the time to be unseasonable for an application weaker part of the electors on the other. In to the crown about theirs : that they were the next paragraph they say, after we had equally concerned with the governor for their " ordered our governor to give you the answer difference of opinion, and that they might not | which he did, to your former application, we
on to say,
had no reason to expect a repetition of the ap- arising from the excise and the provincial plication directly to ourselves, as you might bills : again assert, that the annual expense well suppose we had considered the matter of government for a series of years, including before we had returned our first answer, and Indian charges, amounts to little more than the repeating the request could only produce half that sum: and that of all this revenue, the repeating the answer, the occasion for about four hundred pounds a year only has, which does not appear to us. It is possible, on an average, for twenty years past (and that one purpose may be in order to show great part of that time during war) been exmore publicly this difference in opinion be- pended in presents to the Indians and charges tween us and yourselves; and if that was ever on that account, which they could not conintended, it will be convenient we should set ceive to be a large sum, compared with that this matter in a clear light (although it may revenue, the manner of its being raised, and make our answer longer than we could wish) so important a service as that of keeping the that the true state of the matter may appear.
"united nations of Indians in the interest of They then urge the authority of the board Great Britain. of trade, in justification of their former asser They then talk of the taxes paid by their tion, that they were no more obliged to con- family here at home, as an equivalent to the tribute to the public charges, than the chief Indian article; and then proceed in the folgovernor of any other colony: they will not lowing remarkable terms.
" And at the same allow that their honoured father had any as- time that we show you that we do pay all sistance from the people in making his pur- other taxes here, that on land only excepted, chases, or that there is the least colour for we must advise you to be very careful not to pressing them so unseasonably to contribute put people here in mind of that signal exempto the public charge, seeing that the said tion. Several proposals have been made for charge did not much exceed one half of the laying taxes on North America, and it is most revenue :—and they not only return to their easy to foresee, that the self-same act of parliafirst charge, that the assembly by so doing, ment that shall lay them on our, will also lay could only mean to captivate the weakest of them on your estates, and on those of your conthe people, and so by their assistance continue stituents.” to hold their seats in the assembly, but farther, In the next article, having denied that the cite as so many proofs, the time of making assembly had always paid the interpreter to their first representation, which was just be- his satisfaction, and insisted that they themfore an election: their printing the report selves had gratified him when the assembly and most extraordinary resolutions on which had refused to pay him what he thought his the said representation was founded, which services deserved; they add, in a higher tone: seemed to argue it was rather intended as an "however, with respect to any expense of address to them the said populace, than to the that sort, and many others here, we entered proprietaries, and the solemn repetition of the into them without any expectation of being same request as if it was a matter of great repaid, and should think it'far beneath us to value and importance.
send the accounts of them to the house of reTake the next article in their own words. presentatives, as your agents employed by “Wherefore, on this occasion, it is necessary yourselves might do, for the expenses incurred that we should inform the people, through by them.” yourselves their representatives, that, as by the Proceeding in the same style, they say in constitution, our consent is necessary to their the next article, “we do not conceive that laws, at the same time that they have an un- any act of assembly does, or can establish doubted right to such as are necessary for the what you call a monopoly in us for the purdefence and real service of the country; so, chase of lands: we derive no right or properit will tend the better to facilitate the several ty from any such law: it is under the king's matters which must be transacted with us, for royal charter that we have the sole right to their representatives to show a regard to us make such purchases,” &c. and our interest: for, considering the rank It is fit the last five articles should be inwhich the crown has been pleased to give us serted entire; and they are verbatim as folin Pennsylvania, we shall expect from the lows, viz. people's representatives on all occasions, a “ 12. Your assertion, that treaties for land treatment suitable thereto; and that whilst are made at a less expense to us, on account we desire to govern the province according to of provincial presents being given at the same law only, they should be as careful to support time, does not appear to us to be founded on our interests, as we shall always be to sup-fact: the last purchase was made on no other
account, but purely to save the province the Recurring again to the revenue, they af- expense of making another present to some fected to be truly concerned for being oblig- Indians, who come down after the time that ed to acquaint the public with a state of it, the principle deputation had received the presettle that state at six thousand pounds a year, sents intended for the whole, and were on
their return back; and the land was bought not be sensible of the trifle you propose we very dear on that account, other treaties for should contribute to the public expense. We land have been made when provincial pre- have directed the governor to consent to such sents have not been given; and we do not or a law when you shall think fit to present it to ever did desire that the inhabitants should him. bear any part of the expense of Indians, who “ 15. As we shall ever, in the first place, come down solely at our request to consentendeavour to promote the real interests of the to the sale of lands, unless they stay on other good people of Pennsylvania, we make no public business also; and whenever they doubt of preserving an union and harmony behave come down on both accounts, we are tween us and them, unless men of warm or sensible the expense has been divided in a uneasy spirits should unhappily procure themmanner very favourable to the public. selves to be elected for representatives, and
“13. We are far from desiring to avoid should, for the supporting of their own pricontributing to any public expense which it vate views, or interests, influence their breis reasonable we should bear a part of, al- thren, otherwise honest and well-designing, though our estate is not, by law, liable to be to espouse their cause; in such case indeed, taxed. As we have already been, so we disputes may arise, wherein we shall engage doubt not we shall always be, at a far greater with the utmost reluctance; but even then, expense in attending the affairs of the province, as we shall make the general good the rule than our estate could be taxed at, if all the es- of our actions, we shall, on all such occasions, tatcs in the province were rated to the public if ever they should happen, steadily, and charges, which would be the only fair way of without wavering, pursue measures the most establishing a proportion. If we were willing likely to conduce to that good end. to consent to any such matter, the value of our “ 16. The representatives being annually estate, and of the estates of all the inhabitants, chosen, we are aware that we are not writing ought to be considered, and the whole ex- now to the same persons who sent the reprepense proportionably laid upon the whole value; sentation to us; the persons most forward to in which case, you will find, that the ex- push on a measure (which, from the answer, pense which we voluntarily submit to, out of we directed our governor to give to the foraffection to the inhabitants, is much more mer application he was desired to make to us, than such our proportion so laid would amount must be supposed disagreeable) may not now to: besides these general expenses, the first be in the house, but may be succeeded by of us sent cannon, at his own charge, to the more prudent persons returned for their places, amount of above four hundred pounds sterling, who would be careful not to press a matter for the defence of our city of Philadelphia, ne- too far, in which the rights of the people are glected by a late house of representatives; not really concerned: however, the answer which, alone, is such a sum as the proportion we give must be to the representation sent of a tax on our estate would not in many us. And we desire, in any matter of the like years amount to. And, as this is the case, nature, that the house will be satisfied with we are not disposed to enter into any agree- such an answer, as the governor may have ment with the house of representatives for orders to give on our behalf. payment of any particular proportion of In
" THOMAS PENN, dian or other public expense, but shall leave
RICHARD PENN." it to them (to whom it of right belongs) to In the temper the assembly was in before provide for such expense, as they shall judge the reading of this ungracious paper, it was necessary for the public service.
but natural to expect, that they would have s 14. As you desire to appear willing on taken fire immediately, and proceeded at once your parts, to ease your constituents of a to their own justification. small part of the Indian's expense, by throw But, much to the honour of their prudence, ing it upon us, we shall, on our part, and they took a different method. They ordered hereby do recommend it to you to give them it to lie on the table, together with their own a real and far greater relief, by taking off a votes, report, representation, &c. alluded to large share of that only tax which is borne by in it; and returning to the two points already them. As the general expense amounts to before them, resolved to clear their way, by des little more than three thousand pounds a year, patching them first. we conceive it may very well be provided for These, it will be remembered, were the out of the interest of the paper-money, and currency-bill, returned to the house by the one half of the present excise: especially if governor before their adjournment, with a newe shall be induced, from the state of your gative, and the governor's message with retrade (which we expect soon to receive) to spect to the resolution of the Indians to withconsent to an increase of your paper-curren- stand the French, in case they should be incy; this would ease the inhabitants of about vaded by them on the Ohio. fifteen hundred pounds a year, which would They had also under consideration several be felt by many of them, when they would new despatches from their agent here at home,
and also an account of the value of their im- to six hundred and forty-seven thousand thri ports from hence; which for the year 1749 hundred and seventeen pounds eight shilling was in all two hundred and thirty-eight thou- and nine pence sterling; and our numbers sand six hundred and thirty-seven pounds two people, and domestic trade, and the occasion shillings and ten pence. For the year 1750, for a medium of commerce, are equally in two hundred and seventeen thousand seven creased, there cannot, we think, be any doub hundred and thirteen pounds and ten pence. but the British merchants will now likewis And for the year 1751, one hundred and be of opinion, that the small addition we : ninety thousand nine hundred and seventeen present propose is absolutely necessary, thoug pounds five shillings and one penny. Whence they may not think it so suitable to our ci it was apparent, that for want of a sufficient cumstances as a larger sum; one hundre currency, to invigorate the industry, and sup- thousand pounds of paper-currency bearing b ply the wants of the province, the importa- no means the same proportion to our trade nov tions from hence were in a gradual course of as eighty thousand pounds did then. And declension. And after mature deliberation is certain, that, as the money circulating amon on the whole matter, they again sent up their us diminishes, so must our trade and usefu bill to the governor with the following mes ness to Great Britain, and our consumption o
its manufactures, diminish. May it please the Governor,
“ Upon the whole, we entreat the governd “'The governor's apprehension, at our last to consider the distressing circumstances un sitting, that the dislike raised in Great Britain der which the trade, and in consequence th of the bills of credit in the plantations, by the whole province, must languish, if, contrary t late too general and undistinguishing com- should not be enacted into a law.
our expectations, the bill we now present hin plaints, so warmly subsisted, as to make any application to the crown about our currency been pleased to declare his sentiments of th
are well assured, that as the governor ha at that time unseasonable, induced the house, notwithstanding their different sentiments, to many advantages we derive from the use of make a short adjournment, to consider farther paper-money, his transmitting it home, in of the weight of that objection; and also of the true light, will make our application to the
crown as effectual as it is seasonable." sums by that bill proposed to be made, and continued current in this province. And now, and by his secretary gave the house to under
The governor now demurred in his turn when we reflect, that though the complaints stand, that, as it was usual for the assembly tg against a paper-currency, arising from the ex- meet again in August to finish the business of cesses of some colonies therein, were indeed
the at first too general and undistinguishing, so as
he chose for that and some other rea.
year, to occasion the bringing into parliamenta bill sons, to keep the bill under consideration, till
that time. for restraining the same in all the colonies ;
In this the house acquiesced : and havyet, as upon strict inquiry (a state of our currency then lying before them) the parliament etăries" paper, and the draught prepared by a
ing suspended all resolutions on the proprithought fit to alter the bill, and lay the re- committee of their own in answer to it, till straint only on those colonies where that cur- their next sitting, proceeded to the Indian rency had been abused, we cannot but look on this as distinguishing in our favour; espe- thereon, transmitted them also, together with
affairs, and having come to proper resolutions cially as we are assured, that no complaints the following judicious message to the go were ever made of our currency by the British merchants trading hither, who only could vernor, to wit: be affected by it ; but that on the contrary
May it please the Governor, they have, whenever called upon for their “We have, on all occasions, acknowledged opinion, by the parliament or the lords of trade, our grateful sentiments of the governor's reappeared openly and warmly in its favour, and gard and justice towards the Indians, our aldeclared (as they did in 1739, when our act lies; and we now again return our hearty for eighty thousand pounds, the present sum, thanks for his continued care, and for commuwas under consideration) That it was not on- nicating the intelligence he has received conly a reasonable sum, but absolutely necessary cerning their present distresses. In pursufor carrying on the commerce of the country; ance of which, we have resumed the considerwhich appears by the report of the said lords, ation of the letters laid before the house, with made on that occasion to the council. And the message of the 16th of October last, togeas the exports from Britain to this province, ther with the governor's late message of which we have authentic accounts, had pers, sent down to us before and since the rethen, in the three preceding years, amounted turn of the expresses despatched to Ohio. We to no more than one hundred and seventy-nine have also carefully examined the messenger thousand six hundred and fifty-four pounds himself, and such Indian traders, and others, nine shillings and two pence sterling; and now who could give us any information of the numin the years 1749,1750, and 1751, they amount bers, and designs of the forces, raised by the