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under legal titles, but only agreeably to the tions, nor the dread and horrors of a savage ancient usage of location? Certainly not. war, were sufficient (even before the country But, on the contrary, their lordships have was purchased from the Indians) to prevent the recommended, that his majesty should be ad- settlement of the lands over the mountains, vised to take every method to check the pro- can it be conceived, that, now the country is gress of their settlements;—and thereby leave purchased, and the people have seen the prothem in their present lawless situation, at the prietors of Pennsylvania, who are the hererisk of involving the middle colonies in a war ditary supporters of British policy in their with the natives, pregnant with a loss of sub- own province, give every degree of encoujects, loss of commerce, and depopulation of ragement to settle the lands westward of the their frontier counties.

mountains, the legislature of the province, at Having made these observations, it may the same time, effectually corroborate the next be proper to consider how the laws and measure, and several thousand families, in constitution of Virginia can possibly be ex- consequence thereof, settle in the new countended, so as effectually to operate on the tag of Bedford,—that the inhabitants of the territory in question? Is not Williamsburg, middle colonies will be restrained from cultithe capital of Virginia, at least four hundred vating the luxuriant country of the Ohio, miles from the settlements on the Ohio? Do joining to the southern line of Pennsylvania ? not the laws of Virginia require that all per- But, even admitting that it might formerly sons guilty of capital crimes shall be tried have been a question of some propriety, wheonly in Williamsburg ? Is not the general as- ther the country should be permitted to be sembly held there? Is not the court of king's settled,--that cannot surely become a subject bench, or the superior court of the dominion, of inquiry now, when it is an obvious and kept there ? Has Virginia provided any fund certain truth, that at least thirty thousand for the support of the officers of these distant British subjects are already settled there. Is settlemer or for the transporting offenders, it fit to leave such a body of people lawless. and paying the expense of witnesses travelling and ungoverned ? will sound policy recomeight hundred miles (viz. going and return- mend this manner of colonizing and increasing,) and during their stay at Williamsburg ? ing the wealth, strength, and commerce of the And will not these settlers be exactly (for the empire? or will it point out, that it is the inreasons assigned) in the situation described dispensable duty of government to render bad by governor Wright, in the very letter which subjects useful subjects; and for that purpose the commissioners for trade and plantations immediately to establish law and subordinahave so warmly recommended, viz. “such tion among them, and thereby early confirm persons as are settled at the back of the pro- their native attachment to the laws, traffic, vinces, being at a distance from the seat of and customs of this kingdom ? government, courts, magistrates, &c., they On the whole, we presume that we have will be out of the reach and control of law and both by facts and sound argument, shown, government, and their settlement will become that the opinion of the lords commissioners a receptacle, and a kind of asylum for offen- for trade and plantations on the object in ders?"

question, is not well-founded, and that, if On the 11th paragraph we apprehend it is their lordships' opinion should be adopted, it not necessary to say much. The reservatory would be attended with the most mischievous clause proposed in our memorial is what is and dangerous consequences to the commerce, usual in royal grants; and in the present peace, and safety of his majesty's colonies in case, the lords of the committee of the privy America: council, we hope, will be of opinion, it is quite We therefore hope, the expediency and sufficient, more especially as we are able to utility of erecting the lands agreed for into a prove to their lordships, that there are no separate colony, without delay, will be consi

possessions,” within the boundaries of the dered as a measure of the soundest policy, lands under consideration, which are held highly conducive to the peace and security “under legal titles.”

of the old colonies, to the preservation of the To conclude: as it has been demonstrated, boundary-line, and to the commercial in. that neither royal nor provincial proclama- terests of the mother-country.


on upon the coast of Labrador and the adjacent A PROCLAMATION.

islands, we have thought fit, with the advice of

our said privy council, to put all that coast, from GEORGE R.

the river St. John's to Hudson's Streights, togeWHEREAS We have taken into our royal consi-ther with the islands of Anticosti and Madelaine, deration, the extensive and valuable acquisitions and all other smaller islands laying upon the said in America, secured to our crown by the late de- coast, under the care and inspection of our governfinitive treaty of peace, concluded at Paris the or of Newfoundland. tenth of February last; and being desirous, that We have also, with the advice of our privy all our loving subjects, as well of our kingdoms council, thought fit to annex the islands of si. as of our colonies in America, may avail them- John and Cape Breton, or Isle Royale, with the selves, with all convenient speed, of the great be- lesser islands adjacent thereto, to our government fits and advantages which must accrue therefrom of Nova Scotia. to their commerce, manufactures, and navigation ; We have also, with the advice of our privy we have thought fit, with the advice of our privy council aforesaid, annexed to our province of council, to issue this our royal proclamation, here- Georgia, all the lands lying between the rivers by to publish and declare to all our loving sub- Altamaha and St. Mary's. jects, that we have, with the advice of our said pri And whereas it will greatly contribute to the vy council

, granted our letters patent under our speedy settling our said new governments, that great seal of Great Britain, to erect within the our loving subjects should be informed of our pacountries and islands, ceded and confirmed to us ternal care for the security of the liberties and by the said treaty, four distinct and separate go properties of those who are, and shall become invernments, styled and called by the names of Que habitants thereof; we have thought fit to publish bec, East Florida, West Florida, and Grenada, and declare, by this our proclamat

that we and limited and bounded as follows, viz.

have, in the letters patent under our great seal of First, The government of Quebec, bounded on Great Britain, by which the governments are the Labrador coast by the river St. John, and from constituted, given express power and direction to thence by a line drawn from the head of that ri- our governors of our said colonies respectively, ver, through the lake St. John, to the south end that so soon as the state and circumstances of the of the lake Nipissim; from whence the said line, said colonies will admit thereof, they shall, with crossing the river St. Lawrence and the lake the advice and consent of the members of our Champlain in forty-five degrees of north latitude council, summon and call general assemblies passes along the high lands, which divide the ri- within the said governments respectively, in such vers that empty themselves into the said river St. manner and form as is used, and directed in those Lawrence, from those which fall into the sea; and colonies and provinces in America, which are unalso along the north coast of the Baye des Cha- der our immediate government; and we have also leurs, and the coast of the gulf of St. Lawrence given power to the said governors, with the conto cape Rosieres, and from thence crossing the sent of our said councils, and the representatives mouth of the river St. Lawrence by the west end of the people, so to be summoned as aforesaid, to of the island of Anticosti, terminates at the afore- make, constitute, and ordain laws, statutes, and said river St. John.

ordinances for the public peace, welfare, and good Secondly, The government of East Florida, government of our said colonies, and of the people bounded to the westward by the gulf of Mexico and inhabitants thereof, as near as may be, agreeand the Appalachicola river; to the northward, ably to the laws of England, and under such reguby a line drawn from that part of the said river lations and restrictions as are used in other colowhere the Catahouchee and Flint rivers meet, to nies; and in the mean time, and until such assemthe source of St. Mary's river, and by the course blies can be called as aforesaid, all persons inhabitof the said river to the Atlantic Ocean; and to ing in, or resorting to our said colonies, may conthe east and south by the Atlantic Ocean, and fide in our royal protection for the enjoyment of the the gulf of Florida, including all islands within benefit of the laws of our realm of England: for six leagues of the sea-coast.

which purpose we have given power under our Thirdly, The government of West Florida, great seal to the governors of our said colonies rebounded to the southward by the gulf of Mexico, spectively, to erect and constitute, with the adincluding all islands within six leagues of the coast vice of our said councils respectively, courts of from the river Appalachicola to lake Pontchar- judicature and public justice within our said colo train; to the westward by the said lake, the lake nies, for the hearing and determining all causes, Maurepas, and the river Mississippi; to the as well criminal as civil, according to law and northward, by a line drawn due east from that equity, and as near as may be, agreeably to the part of the Mississippi which lies in thirty-one laws of England; with liberty to all persons who degrees north latitude, to the river Appalachicola, may think themselves aggrieved by the sentence or Catahouchee; and to the eastward by the said of such courts, in all civil cases, to appeal, under river.

the usual limitations and restrictions, to us, in Fourthly, The government of Grenada, com our privy council. prehending the island of that name, together with We have also thought fit, with the advice of the Grenadines, and the islands of Dominico, St. our privy council as aforesaid, to give unto the Vincent, and Tobago.

governors and councils of our said three new colo And to the end that the open and free fishery nies upon the continent, full power and authority of our subjects may be extended to, and carried to settle and agree with the inhabitants of ou


said new colonies, or to any other person who And do we further declare it to be our royal shall resort thereto, for such lands, tenements, will and pleasure, for the present, as aforesaid, to and hereditaments, as are now, or hereafter shall reserve under our sovereignty, protection, and dobe, in our power to dispose of, and them to grant minion, for the use of the said Indians, all the to any such person or persons, upon such terms, land and territories not included within the limits and under such moderate quit-rents, services, and of our said three new governments, or within the acknowledgments, as have been appointed and limits of the territory granted to the Hudson's settled in other colonies, and under such other Bay company; as also, all the land and territoconditions as shall appear to us to be necessary ries lying to the westward of the sources of the and expedient for the advantage of the grantees, rivers which fall into the sea from the west and and the improvement and settlement of our said north-west as aforesaid ; and we do hereby strictcolonies.

ly forbid, on pain of our displeasure, all our lovAnd whereas we are desirous, upon all occa- ing subjects from making any purchases or setsions, to testify our royal sense and approbation tlements whatever, or taking possession of any of the conduct and bravery of the officers and sol- of the lands above reserved, without our special diers of our armies, and to reward the same, we leave and license for that purpose first obtained. do hereby command and impower our governors And we do further strictly enjoin and require of our said three new colonies, and other our go- all persons whatever, who have either wilfully or vernors of our several provinces on the continent inadvertently seated themselves upon any lands, of North America, to grant, without fee or re- within the countries above described, or upon any ward, to such reduced officers as have served in other lands, which not having been ceded to, or North America during the late war, and are ac- purchased by us, are still reserved to the said Intually residing there, and shall personally apply dians as aforesaid, forthwith to remove themselves for the same, the following quantities of land, sub- from such settlements. ject, at the expiration of ten years, to the same And whereaso great frauds and abuses have quit-rents as other lands are subject to in the pro- been committed in the purchasing lands of the Invince within which they are granted, as also sub- dians, to the great prejudice of our interests, and ject to the same conditions of cultivation and im- to the great dissatisfaction of the said Indians; in provement, viz.

order therefore to prevent such irregularities for To every person having the rank of a field-offi- the future, and to the end that the Indians may cer, five thousand acres.

be convinced of our justice, and determined resoTo every captain, three thousand acres. lution to remove all reasonable cause of discon

To every subaltern or staff-officer, two thou- tent, we do, with the advice of our privy council, sand acres.

strictly enjoin and require, that no private person To every non-commissioned officer, two hun- do presume to make any purchase from the said dred acres.

Indians, of any lands reserved to the said Indians To every private man fifty acres.

within those parts of our colonies where we have We do likewise authorize and require the go- thought proper to allow settlement; þut that if at vernors and commanders-in-chief of all our said any time any of the said Indians should be incolonies upon the continent of North America to clined to dispose of the said lands, the same shall grant the like quantities of land, and upon the be purchased only for us, in our name, at some same conditions, to such reduced officers of our public meeting or assembly of the said Indians, to navy of like rank, as served on board our ships be held for that purpose by the governor or comof war in North America at the times of the re- mander-in-chief of our colony respectively within duction of Louisbourg and Quebec in the late which they shall lie: and in case they shall lie war, and who shall personally apply to our re- within the limits of any proprietaries, conformable spective governors for such grants.

to such directions and instructions as we or they And whereas it is just and reasonable, and es- shall think proper to give for that purpose : and sential to our interest, and security of our colo- we do, by the advice of our privy council, declare nies, that the several nations or tribes of Indians, and enjoin, that the trade with the said Indians with whom we are connected, and who live un- shall be free and open to all our subjects what-? der our protection, should not be molested or dis- ever, provided that every person who may incline turbed in the possession of such parts of our do- to trade with the said Indians, do take out a li. minions and territories as, not having been ceded cense for carrying on such trade, from the governto, or purchased by us, are reserved to them, or or or commander-in-chief of any of our colonies any of them, as their hunting grounds; we do respectively, where such person shall reside, and therefore, with the advice of our privy council

, de. | also the security to observe such regulations as clare it to be our royal will and pleasure, that no we shall at any time think fit, by ourselves or governor, or commander-in-chief, in any of our commissaries, to be appointed for this purpose, to colonies of Quebec, East Florida, or West Flo-direct and appoint for the benefit of the said rida, do presume, upon any pretence whatever, to trade : and we do hereby authorize, enjoin, and grant warrants of survey, or pass any patents for require the governors and commanders-in-chief of lands beyond the bounds of their respective go- all our colonies respectively, as well those under vernments, as described in their commissions ; as our immediate government, as those under the also that 'no governor or commander-in-chief government and direction of proprietaries, to grant of our other colonies or plantations in America, such licenses without fee or reward, taking espedo presume for the present, and until our further cial care to insert therein a condition that such pleasure be known, to grant warrant of survey, license shall be void, and the security forfeited, or pass patents for any lands beyond the heads in case the person to whom the same is granted, or sources of any of the rivers which fall into the shall refuse or neglect to observe such regulations Atlantic Ocean from the west or north-west ; or as we shall think proper to prescribe as aforeupon any lands whatever which not having been said. ceded to or purchased by us, as aforesaid, are re And we do further expressly enjoin and require served to the said Indians, or any of them. all officers whatever, as well military as those em

ployed in the management and direction of Indian | to send them under a proper guard to the colony affairs within the territories reserved, as aforesaid, where their crime was committed of which they for the use of the said Indians, to seize and ap- shall stand accused, in order to take their trial prehend all persons whatever, who standing charg- for the same. ed with treasons, misprisions of treasons, murders, Given at our court at St. James's, the 7th day or other felonies or misdemeanours, shall fly from of October, 1763, in the third year of our justice and take refuge in the said territory, and reign

-God save the king.


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Canada Massachusetts Connecticut Rhode Island New Hampshire


Wholly exempt from quit-rents and all pay. ments to the crown.

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This colony was restored to the crown in the year 1693-4, and yet from that time very little quit-rents have been received

Wholly exempt from quit-rents and all payments to the crown.

This colony was reassumed by the crown in the year 1626; and yet for a great number of years, the quit-rents were not paid at all:never with any regularity till within a very few years;

and now from what is paid there is a deduction of at least 20 per cent.

This colony was settled in the year 1735, and yet no quit-rents have been received.

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10 years.

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All the expenses of the civil govern

E. & W. Florida None

10,4601 78 3d;

The quit-rents to comwhich is all the

in twenty, years

from the time of the surmoney the whole ♡ But it is country (of very of each lot or plantaproposed to pay which this is tion, and to be paid into

the hands of such person for the colony only, a

small on the Ohio

as his majesty shall ap-
part) cost
vernment for the point to receive the same,

nett and clear of all de-
cession from the

ductions whatsoever, for Six Nations.

collection or otherwise.

ment of this colony, to be borne and paid by the proprietors.

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Note on the Report.

Fifthly, His well founded prospects of greatThe preceding proposition, report, and an- er future ability, by the improvement of his swer are very intimately connected with the estate in value, and by aids from others. history of the revolution of America. The Sixthly, His known prudence in managing answer to the report, as coming from the pen

his general affairs, and the advantage they of Dr. Franklin, is entitled to great attention. will probably receive from the loan which he He bestowed great pains to render it clear, desires. close, and conclusive in its reasonings; it is

Seventhly, His known probity and honest indeed a triumphant argument. The variety, character, manifested by his voluntary disextent, and exactness of the information charge of debts, which he could not have been which' it contains ; and the foresight which legally compelled to pay. The circumstances discerned at so early a period the settlement, which give credit to an individual ought to cultivation, and riches of that country; and have, and will have, their weight upon the even the building and sailing of ships on the lenders of money to public bodies or nations. Ohio, and thence to the ocean, render these If then we consider and compare Britain and tracts highly interesting. When the answer | America, in these several particulars, upon was called up in the privy council on the 1st the question, “To which is it safest to lend of July, 1772, it was heard with attention money?" We shall find, mixed with surprise; it seemed to reveal a

1. Respecting former loans, that America, new world; and such was the impression which borrowed ten millions during the last which it made, that the prayer of the peti- war, for the maintenance of her army of tioners was approved.

25,000 men and other charges, had faithfully But the first effect of its approval was very discharged and paid that debt, and all her single. The report of the board of trade was other debts, in 1772. Whereas Britain, during drawn up by the president lord Hillsborough, those ten years of peace and profitable comwho immediately upon the decision of the merce, had made little or no reduction of her privy council, resigned his place. This mi- debt; but on the contrary, from time to time, nister had formed å plan of limitation for the diminished the hopes of her creditors, by a colonies, resembling that of the French when wanton diversion and misapplication of the they possessed Canada, which was to circum- sinking fund destined for discharging it. scribe all settlements by a line to coincide

2. Respecting, industry; every man in with some northern position and the Mississip- America is employed; the greater part in pi. The answer of Dr. Franklin must have cultivating their own lands, the rest in handirendered his lordship’s want of knowledge of crafts, navigation, and commerce. An idle the geographical, physical, and historical cir- man there is a rarity, idleness and inutility cumstances of the American interior, very are disgraceful. In England the number of striking; and his conduct on former occasions that character is immense, fashion has spread compared with the present, so irreconcilable it far and wide; hence the embarrassments of with an honest or a sound judgment, that his private fortunes, and the daily bankruptcies pride appears to have rendered it necessary arising from an universal fondness for appearthat he should retire.

ance and expensive pleasures; and hence, in Dr. Franklin's answer had been put to press, some degree, the mismanagement of public with a view to immediate publication, but business; for habits of business, and ability in on hearing that lord Hillsborough had resign- it, are acquired only by practice; and where ed, the publication was stopt, when only five universal dissipation, and the perpetual purcopies had been issued. The copy here pub- suit of amusement are the mode, the youth, lished from is that which Dr. Franklin him- educated in it, can rarely afterwards acquire self retained.

that patient attention and close application to

affairs, which are so necessary to a statesman Comparison of Great Britain and America charged with the care of national welfare. as to Credit,* in 1777.

Hence their frequent errors in policy, and In borrowing money a man's credit depends backwardness in going to them, the constant

hence the weariness at public councils, and on some or all of the following particulars. First, His known conduct respecting former require thought and consideration, and the

unwillingness to engage in any measures that loans, and his punctuality in discharging them. readiness for postponing every new proposi

Secondly, His industry.
Thirdly, His frugality.

tion; which postponing is therefore the only Fourthly, The amount and the certainty of expertness produced necessarily by so much

part of business they come to be expert in, an his income, and the freedom of his estate daily practice. Whereas in America, men from the incumbrances of prior debts.

bred to close employment in their private af* This paper was written, translated, printed, and fairs, attend with ease to those of the public, circulated, while Dr. Franklin was at the court of when engaged in them, and nothing fails France, for the purpose of inducing foreigners to lend money to America in preference to Great Britain. through negligence. VOL. II. ... 2 H


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