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Pennsylvania is from Britain ; and yet we are, and marriage, and in friendships equally dear? if possible, more careless than the people of Are they not likewise united in interest, an! Laish! As the Scriptures are given for our mutually useful and necessary to each other? reproof, instruction, and warning, may we When the feet are wounded, shall the head make a due use of this example, before it be say, it is not me; I will not trouble myself to too late!

contrive relief! Or if the head is in danger, And is our country, any more than our ci- shall the hands say, we are not affected, ty, altogether free from danger ? Perhaps not. therefore will lend no assistance! No. For We have, it is true, had a long peace with the so would the body be easily destroyed : but Indians: but it is a long peace indeed, as when all parts join their endeavours for its well as a long lane, that has no ending. The security, it is often preserved. And such French know the power and importance of should be the union between the country and the Six Nations, and spare no artifice, pains, the town; and such their mutual endeavours or expense to gain them to their interest. By for the safety of the whole. When New their priests they have converted many to England, a distant colony, involved itself in a their religion, and these have openly espous- grievous debt to reduce Cape Breton, we ed their cause. The rest appear irresolute freely gave four thousand pounds for their rcwhat part to take; no persuasions, though en- lief. And at another time, remembering that forced with costly presents, having yet been Great Britain, still more distant, groaned unable to engage them generally on our side, der heavy taxes in supporting the war, we though we had numerous forces on their bor- threw in our mite to their assistance, by a ders, ready to second and support them. What free gift of three thousand pounds: and shall then may be expected, now those forces are, country and town join in helping strangers by orders from the crown, to be disbanded, (as those comparatively are) and yet refuse when our boasted expedition is laid aside, to assist each other? through want (as it may appear to them) ei But whatever different opinions we have of ther of strength or courage; when they see, our security in other respects, our TRADE, all that the French and their Indians, boldly, and seem to agree, is in danger of being ruined in with impunity, ravage the frontiers of New another year. The great success of our eneYork, and scalp the inhabitants; when those mies, in two different cruizes this last summer few Indians, that engaged with us against the in our bay, must give them the greatest enFrench, are left exposed to their resentment: couragement to repeat more frequently their when they consider these things, is there no visits, the profit being almost certain, and the danger that, through disgust at our usage, risk next to nothing. Will not the first efjoined with fear of the French power, and fect of this be, an enhancing of the price of greater confidence in their promises and pro- all foreign goods to the tradesman and farmer, tection than in ours, they may be wholly gain- who use or consume them? For the rate of ed over by our enemies, and join in the war insurance will increase, in proportion to the against us? If such should be the case, which hazard of importing them; and in the same God forbid, how soon may the mischief spread proportion will the price of those goods into our frontier countries ? And what may we crease. If the price of the tradesman's work, expect to be the consequence, but desertion and the farmer's produce, would increase of plantations, ruin, bloodshed, and confusion ! equally with the price of foreign commodities,

Perhaps some in the city, towns, and plan- the damage would not be so great: but the tations near the river, may say to themselves, direct contrary must happen. For the same “ An Indian war on the frontiers will not af- hazard or rate of insurance, that raises the fect us; the enemy will never come near our price of what is imported, must be deducted habitations; let those concerned take care of out of, and lower the price of what is exported. themselves.” And others who live in the Without this addition and deduction, as long country, when they are told of the danger the as the enemy cruize at our capes, and take city is in from attempts by sea, may say, those vessels that attempt to go out, as well • What is that to us? The enemy will be sa

as those that endeavour to come in, none can tisfied with the plunder of the town, and ne- afford to trade, and business must be soon at ver think it worth his while to visit our plan- a stand. And will not the consequences be, tations: let the town take care of itself.” a discouragement of many of the vessels that These are not the mere suppositions, for I used to come from other places to purchase have heard some talk in this strange manner. our produce, and thereby a turning of the But are these the sentiments of true Pennsyl- trade to ports that can be entered with less vanians, of fellow-countrymen, or even of men, danger, and capable of furnishing them with that have common sense or goodness ? Is not the same commodities, as New York, &c. a the whole province one body, united by living lessening of business to every shopkeeper, tounder the same laws, and enjoying the same gether with multitudes of bad debts, the high privileges ? Are not the people of city and rate of goods discouraging the buyers, and the country connected as relations, both by blood low rates of their labour and produce render

ing them unable to pay for what they had | riches to tempt a considerable force to unite bought; loss of employment to the tradesman, and attack you, but are under no ties or enand bad pay for what little he does; and last- gagements, to unite for your defence. Hence, ly, loss of many inhabitants, who will retire on the first alarm, terror will spread over all; to other provinces not subject to the like in- and as no man can with certainty depend conveniences; whence a lowering of the va- that another will stand by him, beyond doubt lue of lands, lots, and houses.

very many will seek safety by a speedy flight. The enemy, no doubt, have been told, that Those, that are reputed rich, will flee through the people of Pennsylvania are quakers, and fear of torture, to make them produce more against all defence, from a principle of con- than they are able. The man, that has a science; this, though true of a part, and that wife and children, will find them hanging on a small part only of the inhabitants, is com- his neck, beseeching him with tears to quit monly said of the whole; and what may, the city, and save his life, to guide and promake it look probable to strangers is, that in tect them in that time of general desolation fact, nothing is done by any part of the peo- and ruin. All will run into confusion, amidst ple towards their defence. But to refuse de- cries and lamentations, and the hurry and disfending one's self, or one's country, is so unu- order of departers, carrying away their effects. sual a thing among mankind, that possibly The few that remain will

be unable to resist. they may not believe it, till by experience, Sacking the city will be the first, and burnthey find they can come higher and higher ing it, in all probability, the last act of the up our river, seize our vessels, land and plun-enemy. This, I believe, will be the case, if der our plantations and villages, and retire you have timely notice. But what must be with their booty unmolested. Will not this your condition, if suddenly surprised, without confirm the report, and give them the greatest previous alarm, perhaps in the night! Confined encouragement to strike one bold stroke for to your houses, you will have nothing to trust the city, and for the whole plunder of the to but the enemy's mercy. Your best fortune river?

will be, to fall under the power of commandIt is said by some, that the expense of a ers of king's ships, able to control the marivessel, to guard our trade, would be very ners; and not into the hands of licentious priheavy, greater than perhaps all the enemy vateers. Who can, without the utmost horcan be supposed to take from us at sea would ror, conceive the miseries of the latter! when amount to; and that it would be cheaper for your persons, fortunes, wives, and daughters, the government to open an insurance office, shall be subject to the wanton and unbridled and pay

all losses. But is this right reason- rage, rapine, and lust, of negroes, mulattoes, ing? I think not; for what the enemy takes and others, the vilest and most abandoned of is clear loss to us, and gain to him; increas- mankind.* A dreadful scene! which some ing his riches and strength, as much as it di- may represent as exaggerated. I think it my minishes ours, so making the difference dou- duty to warn you: judge for yourselves. ble; whereas the money, paid our own trades It is true, with very little notice, the rich men for building and fitting out a vessel of de- may shift for themselves. The means of fence, remains in the country, and circulates speedy flight are ready in their hands; and among us; what is paid to the officers and with some previous care to lodge money and seamen, that navigate her, is also spent ashore, effects in distant and secure places, though and soon gets into other hands; the farmer they should lose much, yet enough may be receives the money for her provisions, and on left them, and to spare. But most unhappily the whole nothing is clearly lost to the coun- circumstanced indeed are we, the middling try but her wear and tear, or so much as she people, the tradesmen, shopkeepers, and farmsells for at the end of the war less than her ers of the province and city! We cannot all first cost. This loss, and a trifling one it is, fly with our families; and if we could, how is all the inconvenience; but how many and shall we subsist? No; we and they, and what how great are the conveniences and advan- little we have gained by hard labour and intages! and should the enemy, through our dustry, must bear the brunt: the weight of supineness and neglect to provide for the de- contributions, extorted by the enemy (as it is fence both of our trade and country, be en- of taxes among ourselves) must be surely couraged to attempt this city, and after plun- borne by us. Nor can it be avoided, as we dering us of our goods, either burn it, or put it *? ransom, how great would that loss be! be * By accounts, the ragged crew of the Spanish priva. sides the confusion, terror, and distress, so tion, a little below Newcastle, was composed of such as

teer that plundered Mr. Liston's, and another plantamany hundreds of families would be involved these. The honour and humanity of their officers may in !

be judged of, by the treatment they gave poor captain

Brown, whom they took with Martin's ship in returning The thought of this latter circumstance so from their cruize. Because he bravely defended himself much affects me, that I cannot forbear expa- and vessel longer

than they expected, for which every tiating somewhat more upon it. You have, generous enemy would have esteemed him, did they. my dear countrymen, and fellow-citizens, and murder him, though on his knees begging quarter.

stand at present; for though we are nume- vain: for they have already been, by great rous, we are quite defenceless, having neither numbers of the people, petitioned in vain. forts, arms, union, nor discipline. And though Our late governor did for years solicit, reit were true, that our trade might be protected quest, and even threaten them in vain. The at no great expense, and our country and our council have since twice remonstrated to them city easily defended, if proper measures were in vain. Their religious prepossessions are but taken; yet, who shall take these mea- unchangeable, their obstinacy invincible. Is sures ? Who shall pay that expense ? On there then the least hope remaining, that from whom may we fix our eyes with the least ex- that quarter any thing should arise for our pectation, that they will do any thing for our security! security? Should we address that wealthy And is our prospect better, if we turn our and powerful body of people, who have ever eyes to the strength of the opposite party, since the war governed our elections, and those great and rich men, merchants, and filled almost every seat in our assembly; others, who are ever railing at quakers for should we entreat them to consider, if not as doing what their principles seem to require, friends, at least as legislators, that protection and what in charity we ought to believe they is as truly due from the government to the think their duty, but take no one step thempeople, as obedience from the people to the selves for the public safety. They have so government; and that if, on account of their much wealth and influence, if they would use religious scruples, they themselves could do it, that they might easily, by their endeavours no act for our defence, yet they might retire, and example, raise a military spirit among relinquish their power for a season, quit the us, make us fond, studious of, and expert in, helm to freer hands during the present tem- martial discipline, and effect every thing that pest, to hands, chosen by their own interest is necessary, under God, for our protection. too, whose prudence and moderation, with re- But envy seems to have taken possession of gard to them, they might safely confide in; their hearts, and to have eaten out and desecure, from their own native strength, of re- stroyed every generous, noble, public spiritsuming again their present station, whenever ed sentiment. Rage, at the disappointment it shall please them: should we remind them, of their little schemes for power, gnaws their that the public money, raised from all, belongs souls, and fills them with such cordial hatred to all ; that since they have, for their own to their opponents, that every proposal, by the ease, and to secure themselves in the quiet execution of which those may receive benefit enjoyment of their religious principles (and as well as themselves, is rejected with indigmay they long enjoy them) expended such nation. “ What,” say they, “ shall we lay large sums to oppose petitions, and engage out our money to protect the trade of quakers? favourable representations of their conduct, if Shall we fight to defend quakers ? No; let they themselves could by no means be free to the trade perish, and the city burn; let what appropriate any part of the public money for will happen, we shall never lift a finger to preour defence; yet it would be no more than vent it." Yet the quakers have conscience to justice, to spare us a reasonable sum for that plead for their resolution not to fight, which purpose, which they might easily give to the these gentlemen have not. Conscience with king's use as heretofore, leaving all the ap- you, gentlemen, is on the other side of the propriation to others, who would faithfully ap- question: conscience enjoins it as a duty on ply it as we desired: should we tell them, on you (and indeed I think it such on every that though the treasury be at present empty, man) to defend your country, your friends, it may soon be filled by the outstanding pub your aged parents, your wives, and helpless lic debts collected, or at least credit might be children: and yet you resolve not to perform had for such a sum, on a single vote of the as- this duty, but act contrary to your own consembly: that though they themselves may be sciences, because the quakers act according resigned and easy under this naked, defence to theirs. Till of late, I could scarce believe less state of the country, it is far otherwise the story of him, who refused to pump in a with a very great part of the people; with us, sinking ship, because one on board, whom he who can have no confidence that God will hated, would be saved by it as well as himprotect those, that neglect the use of rational self. But such, it seems, is the unhappiness means for their security ; nor have any rea- of human nature, that our passions, when vioson to hope, that our losses, if we should suf- lent, often are too hard for the united force of fer any, may be made by collections in our reason, duty, and religion. favour at home. Should we conjure them by Thus unfortunately are we circumstanced all the ties of neighbourhood, friendship, jus- at this time, my dear countrymen and fellowtice, and humanity, to consider these things; citizens; we, I mean, the middling people; and what distraction, misery, and confusion, the farmers, shopkeepers, and tradesmen of what desolation and distress, may possibly be this city and country. Through the dissenthe effect of their unseasonable predominan- tions of our leaders, through mistaken princicy and perseverance; yet all would be in ples of religion, joined with a love of worldly VOL. II. ... 2D


power, on the one hand; through pride, envy, I third and fourth descent, that zea] for the and implacable resentment on the other; our public good, that military prowess, and that lives, our families, and little fortunes, dear to undaunted spirit, which has in every age disus as any great man's can be to him, are to tinguished their nation. What numbers have remain continually exposed to destruction, we likewise of those brave people, whose from an enterprising, cruel, now well-inform- fathers in the last age made so glorious a ed, and by success encouraged, enemy. It stand for our religion and liberties, when inseems as if Heaven, justly displeased at our vaded by a powerful French army, joined by growing wickedness, and determined to pu- Irish Catholics, under a bigoted popish king? nish* this once-favoured land, had suffered Let the memorable siege of Londonderry, and our chiefs to engage in these foolish and mis- the signal actions of the Iniskillinners, by chievous contentions, for little posts and pal- which the heart of that prince's schemes was try distinctions, that our hands might be broken, be perpetual testimonies of the courage bound up, our understandings darkened and and conduct of those noble warriors! Nor are misled, and every means of our security ne- there wanting amongst us, thousands of that glected. It seems as if our greatest men, our wurlike nation, whose sons have ever since cives nobilissimit of both parties, had sworn the time of Cæsar maintained the character the ruin of the country, and invited the French, he gave their fathers, of joining the most obour most inveterate enemy, to destroy it. stinate courage to all the other military virWhere then shall we seek for succour and tues: I mean the brave and steady Germans. protection? The government we are imme- Numbers of whom have actually born arms in diately under denies it to us; and if the ene- the service of their respective princes; and my comes, we are far from Zidon, and there if they fought well for their tyrants and opis no deliverer near. Our case is danger- pressors, would they refuse to unite with us ously bad; but perhaps there is yet a remedy, in defence of their newly acquired and most if we have but the prudence and the spirit to precious liberty and property? Were this apply it.

union formed, were we once united, thoroughIf this new flourishing city, and greatly im- ly armed and disciplined, was every thing in proving colony is destroyed and ruined, it our power done for our security, as far as huwill not be for want of numbers of inhabitants man means and foresight could provide, we able to bear arms in its defence. It is com- might then, with more propriety, humbly ask puted, that we have at least (exclusive of the the assistance of Heaven, and a blessing on our quakers) sixty thousand fighting men, ac- lawful endeavours. The very fame of our quainted with fire arms, many of them hunters strength and readiness would be a means of and marksmen, hardy and bold. All we want discouraging our enemies; for it is a wise is order, discipline, and a few cannon. At and true saying, that one sword often keeps present we are like the separate filaments of another in the scabbard. The way to secure Hax before the thread is formed, without peace is to be prepared for war. They, that strength, because without connexion ; but are on their guard, and appear ready to reUNION would make us strong, and even form- ceive their adversaries, are in much less danidable, though the great should neither help ger of being attacked, than the supine, senor join us; though they should even oppose cure, and negligent. We have yet a winter our uniting, from some mean views of their before us, which may afford a good and alown, yet, if we resolve upon it, and it pleases most sufficient opportunity for this, if we God to inspire us with the necessary prudence seize and improve it with a becoming vigour. and vigour, it may be effected. Great numbers And if the hints contained in this paper are of our people are of British race, and though so happy as to meet with a suitable disposition the fierce fighting animals of those happy of mind in his countrynien, and fellow-citizens, islands are said to abate their native fire and the writer of it will in a few days lay before intrepidity, when removed to a foreign clime, them a form of ASSOCIATION for the purposes yet with the people it is not so ; our neigh- herein njentioned, together with a practicabours of New England afford the world a con- ble scheme for raising the money necessary vincing proof, that Britons, though a hun for the defence of our trade, city, and coun. dred years transplanted, and to the remotest try, without laying a burden on any man. part of the earth, may yet retain, even to the May the God of wisdom, strength, and ple, the inhabitants of Jerusalem, who though breakers spire us with prudence in this time of dan

* When God determined to punish his chosen peo. power, the Lord of the armies of Israel, inone, which required keeping holy the Sabbath-day:" he ger, take away from us all the seeds of conBuffered even the strict observation of that command to tention and division, and unite the hearts be their ruin: for Pompey, observing that they then and counsels of all of us, of whatever sect or obstinately refused to fight, made a general assault on nation, in one bond of peace, brotherly love, that day, took the town, and butchered them with as little mercy as he found resistance...JOSEPHUS. and generous public spirit; may he give us GALLORUM GENTEM, infestissimiam nomini Romano, and remove from among us every thing that

+ Conjuravere cives nobilissimi patriam incendere; strength and resolution to amend our lives,

ad bellum arcessunt.-CAT. IN. SALOgT.


is displeasing to him ; afford us his most | though the natural and unavoidable effect of gracious protection, confound the designs of their change of situation, exclaimed against our enemies, aud give peace in all our bor- their leaders as the authors of their trouble: ders, is the sincere prayer of

and were not only for returning into Egypt, but stoning their deliverers.* Those inclined to idolatry were displeased that their golden

calf was destroyed. Many of the chiefs A comparison of the conduct of the Ancient thought the new constitution might be in

Jews, and of the Anti-federalists in the jurious to their particular interests, that the United States of America.

profitable places would be engrossed by the A ZEALOUS advocate for the proposed fede- families and friends of Moses and Aaron, and ral constitution in a public assembly said, that others, equally well born, excluded. t-In Jo" the repugnance of a great part of mankind sephus, and the Talmud, we learn some partito good government was such, that he believ- culars

, not so fully narrated in the Scripture. ed, that if an angel from heaven was to bring We are there told, “ that Corah was ambidown a constitution, formed there for our use, tious of the priesthood, and offended that it it would nevertheless meet with violent op was conferred on Aaron; and this, as he said, position.” He was reproved for the supposed by the authority of Moses only, without the extravagance of the sentiment, and he did not consent of the people. He accused Moses of justify it. Probably it might not have imme- having, by various artifices, fraudulently obdiately occurred to him, that the experiment tained the government, and deprived the peohad been tried, and that the event was record- ple of their liberties, and of conspiring with ed in the most faithful of all histories, the Aaron to perpetuate the tyranny in their faHoly Bible; otherwise he might, as it seems mily. Thus, though Korah's real motive was to me, have supported his opinion by that un- the supplanting of Aaron, he persuaded the exceptionable authority.

people, that he meant only the public good; The Supreme Being had been pleased to and they, moved by his insinuations, began to nourish up a single family, by continued acts cry out, “Let us maintain the common liof his attentive providence, till it became a berty of our respective tribes, we have freed great people: and having rescued them from ourselves from all the slavery imposed upon bondage by many miracles, performed by his us by the Egyptians, and shall we suffer ourservant Moses, he personally delivered to selves to be made slaves by Moses? If we that chosen servant, in presence of the whole must have a master, it were better to return nation, a constitution and code of laws for to Pharaoh, who at least fed us with bread their observance, accompanied and sanctioned and onions, than to serve this new tyrant, with promises of great rewards, and threats who, by his operations, has brought us into of severe punishments, as the consequence of danger of famine." Then they called in questheir obedience or disobedience.

tion the reality of his conference with God, This constitution, though the Deity himself and objected to the privacy of the meetings, was to be at its head (and it is therefore call- and the preventing any of the people from beed by political writers a theocracy) could not ing present at the coloquies, or even approachbe carried into execution but by the means ing the place, as grounds of great suspicion. of his ministers; Aaron and his sons were They accused Moses also of peculation, as therefore commissioned to be, with Moses, ernbezzling part of the golden spoons and the the first established ministry of the new go- silver chargers, that the princes had offered vernment.

at the dedication of the altar,f and the offer One would have thought, that the appoint- ings of gold by the common people, as well ment of men, who had distinguished them- as most of the poll tax;ll and Aaron they acselves in procuring the liberty of their nation, cused of pocketing much of the gold of which and had hazarded their lives in openly oppos- he pretended to have made a molten calf

. ing the will of a powerful monarch, who Besides peculation, they charged Moses with would have retained that nation in slavery, ambition; to gratify which passion, he had, might have been an appointment acceptable they said, deceived the people, by promising to a grateful people; and that a constitution, to bring them to a land flowing with milk and framed for them by the Deity himself, might honey; instead of doing which, he had brought on that account have been secure of an uni- them from such a land; and that he thought versal welcome reception. Yet there were, in every one of the thirteen tribes, some dis

* Numbers, chap. xiv.

| Numbers, chap. xvi. ver. 3. “ And they gathered contented, restless spirits, who were continu- themselves together against Moses and against Aaron, ally exciting them to reject the proposed new and said unto them, ye take too much upon you, seeing government, and this from various motives. all the congregations are holy, every one of them,

wherefore then lift ye up yourselves above the congreMany still retained an affection for Egypt, galion." the land of their nativity, and these, when

Numbers, chap. vii.

Exodus, chap. IXXV. ver. 22. ever they felt any inconvenience or hardship, Numbers, chap. iii; and Exodus, chap. XIX.

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