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its command ? Could the Goodwin Sands be mountains, on both sides the Ohio, and belaid dry by banks, and land equal to a large tween that river and the lakes is now well county thereby gained to England, and pre- known, both to the English and French, to be sently filled with English inhabitants, would one of the finest in North America, for the it be right to deprive such inhabitants of the extreme richness and fertility of the land; common privileges enjoyed by other English- the healthy temperature of the air, and mildmen, the right of vending their produce in the ness of the climate; the plenty of hunting, same ports, or of making their own shoes; be- fishing, and fowling; the facility of trade cause a merchant or a shoemaker, living on with the Indians; and the vast convenience the old land, might fancy it more for his ad- of inland navigation or water-carriage by the vantage to trade or make shoes for them? lakes and great rivers, many hundred of Would this be right even if the land were leagues around. gained at the expense of the state? And From these natural advantages it must unwould it not seem less right, if the charge doubtedly (pernaps in less than another cenand labour of gaining the additional territory tury) become a populous and powerful domito Britain had been borne by the settlers nion; and a great accession of power either themselves and would not the hardships to England or France. appear yet greater, if the people of the new The French are now making open encounty should be allowed no representatives croachments on these territories, in defiance in the parliament enacting such impositions ? of our known rights; and, if we longer delay Now I look on the colonies as so many coun- to settle that country, and suffer them to posties gained to Great Britain, and more advan- sess it-these inconveniences and mischiefs tageous to it, than if they had been gained will probably follow : out of the seas around its coasts, and joined to 1. Our people, being confined to the counits lands; for being in different climates, they afford greater variety or produce, and materi- species of barrier should be thought of for which noals for more marrafactures; and being separat- thing can be more effectual than a barrier colony : but el by the ocean, they increase much more its and effect, without the previous measure of entrepots in shipping and seamen: and, since they are all the country between us and the enemy included in the British empire, which has mankind inust know, that no body of men, whether as only extended itself by their means; and the from one country to another, through an in hospitable strength and wealth of the parts is the wilderness, without magazines ; nor with any safety, strength and wealth of the whole; what im- ticable roads, to which to retire in case of accidents, reports it to the general state, whether a mer- pulse, or delay. chant, a smith, or a hatter, grows rich in that we have always been able to outsettle the French
20" It is a fact, which experience evinces the truth of, Old or New England ! and if, through in- and have driven the Indians out of the country more by crease of the people, two smiths are wanted settling than fighting; and that whenever our settle
ments have been wisely and completely made, the for one employed before, why may not the French, neither by themselves nor their dogs of war, the new smith be allowed to live and thrive in Indians, have been able to remove us. li is upon this the new country, fas well as the old one in the fact I found the propriety of the measure of settling a
barrier colony in those parts of our frontiers, which are old ? In fine, why should the countenance of not the immediate residence or hunting grounds of our In. a state he partidity anorder to its people, un- dians. This is a measure that will be effectual; and less it be most in favour of those who have returns as any of our present colonies do; will give most merit? And if there be any difference, strength and unity to our dominions in North America; those who have most contributed to enlarge ment in it.
and give us possession of our country, as well as settle
But above all this, the state and circumBritain's empire and commerce, increase her stances of our settlements render such a measure not strength, her wealth, and the numbers of her only proper and eligible, but absolutely necessary.
English settlements, as they are at present circum. people, at the risk of their own lives and pri- stanced, are absolutely at a stand ; they are settled up vate fortines in new and strange countries, to the mountains; and in the mountains there is no methinksought rather to expect some prefer- enough to subsist by itself, and to defend itself, and
Vith the greatest respect and esteem, preserve a communication with the present settleI have th, honour to be, your excellency's most ments,
"If the English would advance one step further, or obedientand humble servant,
cover themselves where they are, it must be at once, B. FRANKLIN. by one large step over the mountains, with a numerous
and military colony. Where such should be settled, I
do not take upon me to say; at present I shall only Plan for settling two Western Colonies in point out the measure and the nature of it, by inseri. Norti America, with Reasons for the Plan, ing two schemes, one of Dr. Franklin's, the other of
your memorialist; and if I might indulge myself with 1754K
scheming, I should imagine that two such were suffi
cient, and only requisite and proper: one at the back The great country back of the Apalachian of Virginia, filling up the vacant space between the five
nations and southern confederacy, and connecting into This plan was given to governor Pownall, 1754, for our system, our barrier; the other somewhere in the the purpo e of being inserted in his memorial. Cohass or Connecticut river, or wherever best adapted Extractof
a Memorial drawn up by order of, and pre to cover the New England colonies. These, with the sented his royal highness the duke of Cumberland, little settlements mentioned above in the Indian 1756, L 'T. Poronall.
countries, complete my idea of this branch."-See lio. "Inofer parts of our frontier, that are not the im. vernor Pownall's Administration of the Colosies. mediate
esidence and country of India 3, some other Vol. II. p. 228--231, 5th edition.
try between the sea and the mountains, can- | country, among many numerous and distant not much more increase in number; people nations, greatly to the benefit of Britain. increasing in proportion to their room and 5. The settlement of all the intermediate means of subsistence. (See the Observations lands, between the present frontiers of our coon the Increase of Mankind, &c. Vol. II.) lonies on one side, and the lakes and Mississip
2. The French will increase much more, pi on the other, would be facilitated and speedby that acquired room and plenty of subsist- ily executed, to the great increase of Englishence, and become a great people behind us. men, English trade, and English power.
3. Many of our debtors, and loose English The grants to most of the colonies are of people, our German servants, and slaves, will long narrow slips of land, extending west from probably desert to them, and increase their the Atlantic to the South Sea. They are much numbers and strength, to the lessening and too long for their breadth; the extremes at weakening of ours.
too great a distance; and therefore unfit to 4. They will cut us off from all commerce be continued under their present dimensions. and alliance with the western Indians, to the
Several of the old colonies may convegreat prejudice of Britain, by preventing the niently be limited westward by the Alleghany sale and consumption of its manufactures. or Apalachian mountains; and new colonies
5. They will both in time of peace and formed west of those mountains. war (as they have always done against New A single old colony does not seem strong England) set the Indians on to harass our enough to extend itself otherwise than inch frontiers, kill and scalp our people, and drive by inch: it cannot venture a settlement far in the advanced settlers; and so, in prevent- distant from the main body, being unable to ing our obtaining more subsistence by culti-support it: but if the colonies were united vating of new lands, they discourage our mar- under one governor-general and grand council, riages, and to keep our people from increas- agreeable to the Albany, plan, they might ing; thus (if the expression may be allowed) easily, by their joint force, establish one or killing thousands of our children before they more new colonies, whenever they should are born
judge it necessary or advantageous to the inIf two strong colonies of English were set- terest of the whole lled between the Ohio and lake Erie, in the But if such union should not take place, it places hereafter to be mentioned, these ad- is proposed that two charters be granted, each vantages might be expected :
for some gonsiderable part of the lands west of 1. They would be a great security to the Pennsylvania and the Virginian mountains, frontiers of our other colonies; by preventing to a number of the nobility and gentry of the incursions of the French and French In- Britain ; with such Americans as shall join dians of Canada, on the back parts of Penn- them in contributing to the settlement of those sylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and the Caroli- lands, either by paying a proportion of the nas; and the frontiers of such new colonies expense of making such settlements, or by would be much more easily defended, than actually going thither in person, and settling those of the colonies last mentioned now can themselves and families. be, as will appear hereafter.
That by such charters it be granted, that 2. The dreaded junction of the French set-every actual settler be entitled to a tract of tlements in Canada with those of Louisiana acres for himself, and aces for every poll would be prevented.
in the family he carries with him; and that 3. In case of a war, it would be easy, from every contributor of guineas be entitled those new colonies, to annoy Louisiana, by to a quantity of acres, equal to t.je share of a going down the Ohio and Mississippi; and single settler, for every such sum of the southern part of Canada, by sailing over guineas contributed and paid to the colony the lakes; and thereby confine the French treasurer; a contributor for shares to within narrow limits.
have an additional share gratis ; that settlers 4. We should secure the friendship and may likewise be contributors, and liave right trade of the Miamis or Twigtwees (a numer- of land in both capacities. ous people consisting of many tribes, inhabit That as many and as great privileges and ing the country between the west end of lake powers of government be granted to the conErie, and the south end of lake Huron, and tributors and settlers, as his majesty in his the Ohio) who are at present dissatisfied with wisdom shall think most fit for their benefit the French, and fond of the English, and and encouragement, consistent with the gewould gladly encourage and protect an in- neral good of the British empire; for extraorfant English settlement in or near their coun- dinary privileges and liberties, with lands on try, as some of their chiefs have declared to easy terms, are strong inducements to people the writer of this memoir. Further, by means to hazard their persors and fortunes ir, settling of the lakes, the Ohio, and the Mississippi, new countries: and such powers of governour trade might be extended through a vast (ment as (though suitable to the circumstances,
and fit to be trusted with an infant colony) | rica, and has the particular advantage of seamight be judged unfit, when it becomes po- coa) in plenty (even above ground in two pulous and powerful; these might be granted places) for fuel, when the woods shall be defor a term only; as the choice of their own stroyed. This colony would have the trade governor for ninety-nine years; the support of of the Miamis or Twigtwees; and should, at government in the colonies of Connecticut and first, have a small fort near Hockockin, at the
Rhode Island (which now enjoy that and head of the river; and another near the mouth ! other like privileges) being much less ex- of Wabash. Sanduski, a French fort near the
pensive, than in the colonies under the im- lake Erie, should also be taken; and all the mediate government of the crown, and the little French forts south and west of the lakes, constitution more inviting.
quite to the Mississippi, be removed, or taken That the first contributors to the amount and garrisoned by the English.— The colonists of guineas be impowered to choose a for this settlement might assemble near the treasurer to receive the contribution. heads of the rivers in Virginia, and march
That no contributions be paid till the sum over land to the navigable branches of the of thousand guineas be subscribed. Kanhawa, where they might embark with all
That the money thus raised be applied to their baggage and provisions, and fall into the the purchase of the lands from the Six Na- Ohio, not far above the mouth of Sciota. Or tions and other Indians, and of provisions, they might rendezvous at Will's Creek, and stores, arms, ammunition, carriages, &c. for go down the Monongahela to the Ohio. the settlers; who, after having entered their The fort and armed vessels at the strait of names with the treasurer, or person by him ap- Niagara would be a vast security to the fronpointed to receive and enter them, are, upon tiers of these new colonies against any attempts public notice given for that purpose, to ren of the French from Canada. The fort at the dezvous at a place to be appointed, and march mouth of the Wabash would guard that river, in a body to the place destined for their settle- the Ohio, and Outawa river, in case any atment, under the charge of the government to tempt from the French of Mississippi. (Every be established over them. Such rendezvous fort should have a small settlement round it; and march however not to be directed, till the as the fort would protect the settlers, and the number of names of settlers entered, capable settlers defend the fort and supply it with of bearing arms, amount at least to provisions.) thousand
The difficulty of settling the first English It is apprehended, that a great sum of mo- colonies in America, at so great a distance ney might be raised in America on such a from England, must have been vastly greater scheme as this; for there are many who than the settling these proposed new colonies: would be glad of any opportunity, by advanc- for it would be the interest and advantage of ing a small sum at present, to secure land for all the present colonies to support these new their children, which might in a few years be- ones; as they would cover their frontiers, come very valuable; and a great number it is and prevent the growth of the French power thought of actual settlers might likewise be behind or near their present settlements; and engaged (some from each of our present colo- the new country is nearly at equal distance nies) sufficient to carry it into full execution from all the old colonies, and could easily be by their strength and numbers; provided only, assisted from all of them. that the crown would be at the expense of re And as there are already in all the old comoving the little forts the French have erected lonies many thousands of families that are in their encroachments on his majesty's terri- ready to swarm, wanting more land; the tories, and supporting a strong one near the richness and natural advantage of the Ohio falls of Niagara, with a few small armed country would draw most of them thither, vessels, or half-galleys to cruize on the lakes. were there but a tolerable prospect of a safe
For the security of this colony in its infancy, settlement. So that the new colonies would a small fort might be erected and for some soon be full of people; and from the advantime maintained at Buffalo-creek on the Ohio, tage of their situation, become much more above the settlement; and another at the terrible to the French settlements, than those mouth of the Tioga, on the south side of lake are now to us. The gaining of the back InErie, where a port should be formed, and a dian trade from the French, by the navigation town erected, for the trade of the lakes.- ofthe lakes, &c. would of itself greatly weaken The colonists for this settlement might march our enemies :—it being now their principal by land through Pennsylvania
support, it seems highly probable, that in time The river Sciota, which runs into the Ohio they must be subjected to the British crown, about two hundred miles below Logs Town, or driven out of the country. is supposed the fittest seat for the other colony; Such settlements may better be made now, there being for forty miles on each side of it, and than fifty years hence, because it is easier to quite up to its heads, a body of all rich land; settle ourselves, and thereby prevent the the finest spot of its bigness in all North Ame- French settling there, as they seem now to
intend, than to remove them when strongly; best information, there are, I apprehend, in the settled.
Remarks, some opinions not well founded, and If these settlements are postponed, then some mistakes of so important a nature, as to more forts and stronger, and more numerous render a few observations on them necessary and expensive garrisons must be established, for the better information of the public. to secure the country, prevent their settling, The author of the Letter, who must be every and secure our present frontiers; the charge way best able to support his own sentiments, of which may probably exceed the charge will, I hope, excuse me, if I seem officiously of the proposed settlements, and the advan- to interfere; when he considers, that the spirit tage nothing near so great.
of patriotism, like other qualities good and bad, The fort at Oswego should likewise be is catching; and that his long silence since strengthened, and some armed half-gallies, or the Remarks appeared, has made us despair other small vessels, kept there to cruise on of seeing the subject farther discussed by his lake Ontario, as proposed by Mr. Pownall in masterly hand. The ingenious and candid rehis paper laid before the commissioners at the marker, too, who must have been misled himAlbany treaty.
self before he employed his skill and address If a fort was also built at Tirondequat on to mislead others, will certainly, since he delake Ontario, and a settlement made there clares he aims at no seduction, be disposed to near the lake side, where the lands are said excuse even the weakest effort to prevent it. to be good, (much better than at Oswego ;) And surely, if the general opinions that the people of such settlements would help to possess the minds of the people may possibly defend both forts on any emergency. be of consequence in public affairs, it must be
fit to set those opinions right. If there is
danger, as the remarker supposes, that "exTHE CANADA PAMPHLET.
travagant expectations" may embarrass“ The Interest of Great Britain considered, virtuous and able ministry," and "render the with regard to her Colonies, and the Ac- negotiation for peace a work of infinite diffiquisitions of Canada and Guadoloupe.* culty;" there is no less danger that expecta
I HAVE perused with no small pleasure the tations too low, through want of proper in“ Letter addressed to Two Great men,” and formation, may have a contrary effect, may the Remarks on that letter. It is not merely make even a virtuous and able ministry less from the beauty, the force, and perspicuity of anxious, and less attentive to the obtaining expression, or the general elegance of manner points, in which the honour and interest of conspicuous in both pamphlets, that my plea- the nation are essentially concerned; and the sure chiefly arises; it is rather from this, that people less hearty in supporting such a minisI have lived to see subjects of the greatest im- try and its measures. portance to this nation publicly discussed with The people of this nation are indeed reout party views, or party heat, with decency spectable, not for their numbers only, but for and politeness, and with no other warmth, than their understanding and their public spirit: what a zeal for the honour and happiness of they manifest the first, by their universal apour king and country may inspire; and this by probation of the late prudent and vigorous writers, whose understanding (however they measures, and the confidence they so justly may differ from each other) appears not un repose in a wise and good prince, and an hoequal to their candour and the uprightness of nest and able administration; the latter they their intentions.
have demonstrated by the immense supplies But, as great abilities have not always the granted in parliament unanimously, and paid
through the whole kingdom with cheerfulness. * In the year 1760, upon the prospect of a peace with And since to this spirit and these supplies our Great Men (Mr. Pitt and the Duke of Newcastle) on the
6 victories and successes” have in great meaterms necessary to be insisted upon in the negotiation. sure been owing; is it quite right, is it genein the West Indies. In the same year there appeared rous to say, with the remarker, that the peo Remarks on the letter addressed to two great men, con ple “ had no share in acquiring them ?" The taining opposite opinions on this and other subjects. mere mob he cannot mean, even where he At this moment a philosopher stepped into the controversy, and wrote a pamphlet entitled, “ The Interest of speaks of the madness of the people; for the Great Britain considered, with Regard to her Colonies," madness of the mob must be too feeble and &c. The arguments he used, appear to bave carried weight with thein, for Canada was kept by the peace. impotent, armed as the government of this
The above piece first appeared in the shape of a country at present is, to "overrule,” even in pamphlet, printed for Becket, 1761. In the original, the author had added his observations
the slightest instances, the virtue “and moconcerning the Increase of Mankind. Peopling of Coun deration” of a firm and steady ministry. tries, &c. (printed in another part of this edition) in: While the war continues, its final event is troduced by the following note. the writer's opinion concerning population, manufac- quite uncertain. The victorious of this year tures, &c. he has thought it not amiss to add an extract may be the vanquished of the next. It may from a piece written some years since in America, therefore be too early to say, what advantages where the facts must be well known, on which the rea. sonings are founded. It is entitled, Observations, &c.” we ought absolutely to insist on, and make
France, the Earl of Bath addressed a Letter to Two
" In confirmation of
the sine quibus non of a peace. If the nie- value of Canada to the French; the right we cessity of our affairs should oblige us to accept have to ask, and the power we may have to of terms less advantageous than our present insist on an indemnification for our expenses; successes seem to promise us; an intelligent the difficulty the French themselves will be people, as ours is, 'must see that necessity, and under of restraining their restless subjects in will acquiesce. But as a peace, when it is America from encroaching on our limits and made, may be made hastily; and as the un- disturbing our trade; and the difficulty on our happy continuance of the war affords us time parts of preventing encroachments, that may to consider, among several advantages gained possibly exist many years without coming to or to be gained, which of them may be most our knowledge. for our interest to retain, if some and not all But the remarker “does not see why the may possibly be retained ; I do not blame the arguments, employed concerning a security public disquisition of these points, as prema- for a peaceable behaviour in Canada, would ture or useless. Light often arises from a not be equally cogent for calling for the same collision of opinions, as fire from flint and steel; security in Europe.” On a little farther reand if we can obtain the benefit of the light, flection, he must I think be sensible, that the without danger from the heat sometimes pro- circumstances of the two cases are widely duced by controversy, why should we discou- different.--Here we are separated by the best
and clearest of boundaries, the ocean, and we Supposing then, that heaven may still con- have people in or near every part of our territinue to bless his majesty's arms, and that the tory. Any attempt to encroach upon us, by event of this just war may put it in our building a fort even in the obscurest corner power to retain some of our conquests at the of these islands, must therefore be known and making of a peace; let us consider, prevented immediately. The aggressors also 1. The security of a dominion, a justifiable to would be accountable for their aggression.
must be known, and the nation they belong and prudent ground upon which to demand In America it is quite otherwise. A vast cessions from an enemy.
wilderness, thinly or scarce at all peopled, Whether we are to confine ourselves to those conceals with ease the march of troops and possessions only that were “ the objects for workmen. Important passes may be seized which we began the war.' This the remark- within our limits, and forts built in a month, er seems to think right, when the question at a small expense, that may cost us an age, relates to “ Canada, properly so called; it and a million, to remove. Dear experience having never been mentioned as one of those has taught this. But what is still worse, the objects, in any of our memorials or declara- wide extended forests between our settletions, or in any national or public act whatso- ments and theirs, are inhabited by barbarous ever.” But the gentleman himself will pro- tribes of savages, that delight in war, and take bably agree, that if the cession of Canada pride in murder ; subjects properly neither of would be a real advantage to us; we may de- the French nor English, but strongly attached mind it under his second head, as an " indem- to the former by the art and indefatigable nification for the charges incurred” in reco- industry of priests, similarity of superstitions, vering our just rights; otherwise, according and frequent family alliances. These are to his own principles, the demand of Guada- easily, and have been continually, instigated loupe can have no foundation. That “our to fall upon and massacre our planters, even claims before the war were large enough for in times of full peace between the two crowns; possession and for security too,” though it to the certain dimination of our people and the seems a clear point with the ingenious remark-contraction of our settlements. And though er, is, I own, not so with me. I am rather of it is known they are supplied by the French, the contrary opinion, and shall presently give and carry their prisoners to them, we can, by my reasons.
complaining, obtain no redress; as the governBut first let me observe, that we did not ors of Canada have a ready excuse, that the make those claims because they were large Indians are an independent people, over whom enough for security, but because we could they have no power, and for whose actions rightfully claim no more. Advantages gained they are therefore not accountable. Surely in the course of this war may increase the circumstances so widely different may reasonextent of our rights. Our claims before the ably authorize different demands of security war contained some security; but that is no in America, from such as are usual or necesreason why we should neglect acquiring more, sary in Europe. when the demand of more is become reason The remarker however thinks, that our able. It may be reasonable in the case of real dependence for keeping “ France or any America, to ask for the security recommend other nation true to her engagements, must ed by the author of the Letter, though it not be in demanding securities which do nawould be preposterous to do it in many cases. tion whilst independent can give; but on our His proposed demand is founded on the little own strength and our own viligance. No