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they had settled their plantations and families in having long refused his assent to the bill, did, in the woods, remote from each other, in confidence excuse of his conduct, on lord Loudon's arrival at of lasting peace.

Philadelphia in March last, lay his reasons before 3. That the disputes between the late and pre- his lordship, who was pleased to communicate sent governors and the assembly of Pennsylvania, them to one of the members of the house, and pawere occasioned and are continued chiefly by new tiently to hear what that member had to say in instructions from the proprietors to those govern- answer, the governor himself being present; and ors, forbidding them to pass any laws to raise mo- that his lordship did finally declare himself fully ney for the defence of the country unless the pro- satisfied with the answers made to those reasons, prietary estate, or much the greatest part of it, and give it as his opinion to the governor that he was exempted from the tax to be raised by virtue ought immediately to pass the bill, any instructions of such laws, and other clauses inserted in them he might have to the contrary from the proprietors by which the privileges long enjoyed by the peo- notwithstanding; which the governor according ple, and which they think they have a right to, ly complied with, passed the bill on the 22d of not only as Pennsylvanians but as Englishmen, March, and the money, being 100,0001. for the were to be extorted from them, under their pre- service of the current year, has been ever since sent distresses. The quakers, who, though the actually expending in the defence of the province. first settlers, are now but a small part of the peo- So that the whole story of the bill's not passing, ple of Pennsylvania, were concerned in these dis- the clogging of the bill by the assembly, and the putes only as inhabitants of the province, and not obstinacy of the quakers preventing its passage, as quakers; and all the other inhabitants join in is absolutely a malicious and notorious falsehood, opposing those instructions, and contending for 6. The assertion of the news-writer, “that while their rights, the proprietary officers and depend the enemy is in the heart of the country, cavils ants only excepted, with a few of such as they prevent any thing being done for its relief” is so can influence.

far from being true, that, ist. The enemy is not 4. That though some quakers have scruples nor ever was in the heart of the country, having against bearing arms, they have, when most nu- only molested the frontier settlements by their merous in the assembly, granted large sums for parties. 2dly. More is done for the relief and dethe king's use, (as they express it) which have fence of the country, without any assistance from been applied to the defence of the province; for the crown, than is done perhaps by any other coinstance, in 1755 and 1756, they granted the sum lony in America; there having been, soon after of fifty-five thousand pounds to be raised by a tax the war broke out, the following forts erected at on estates real and personal; and 30,000 pounds the province expense, in a line to cover the fronto be raised by excise on spirituous liquors; be tier, viz. Henshaw's fort on Delaware, fort Hasides near ten thousand pounds in flour, &c. to milton, fort Norris, fort Allen, fort Franklin, fort general Braddock, and for cutting his roads, and Lebanon, fort William Henry, fort Augusta, fort ten thousand pounds to general Shirley in provi- Halifax, fort Granville, fort Shirley, fort Littlesions for the New England and New York forces, ton, and Shippensburg fort, besides several smaller then on the frontiers of New York; at the same stockades and places of defence, garrisoned by time that the contingent expenses of government, troops in the pay of the province; under whose to be otherwise provided for, were greatly and ne- protection the inhabitants, who at first abandoned cessarily enhanced. That, however, to remove their frontier settlements, returned generally to all pretence for reflection on their sect, as obstruct their habitations, and many yet continue, though ing military measures in time of war, a number not without some danger, to cultivate their lands; of them voluntarily quitted their seats in assembly by these Pennsylvania troops, under col. Armin 1756; others requested their friends not to strong, the greatest blow was given to the enemy choose them in the ensuing election, nor did any last year on the Ohio, that they have received of that profession stand as candidates or request a during the war in burning and destroying the Invote for themselves at that election, many quakers dian town of Kittanning, and killing their great refusing even to vote at all, and others voting for captain Jacobs, with many other Indians, and resuch men as would and did make a considerable covering a number of captives of their own and majority in the house who were not quakers; and the neighbouring provinces; besides the garriyet four of the quakers, who were nevertheless sons in the forts, eleven hundred soldiers are chosen, refused to serve, and writs were issued for maintained on the frontier in pay, being armed new elections, when four others not quakers were and accoutred, by the province, as ranging comchosen in their places; so that of 36 members, the panies. And at Philadelphia fifteen iron cannon, number of which the house consists, there are not eighteen pounders, were last year purchased in at the most above 12 of that denomination, and England and added to the fifty they had before, those such as are well known to be for supporting either mounted on their batteries, or ready to be the government in defence of the country, but are mounted, besides a train of artillery, being new too few, if they were against such a measure, to brass field-pieces, twelve and six pounders, with prevent it.

all their appurtenances in extreme good order, 5. That the bill to raise money, said in the and a magazine stored with ammunition, a quanabove article of news, to be so clogged as to pre-tity of large bomb-shells, and above two thousand vent the governor from giving his assent,” was new small arms lately procured, exclusive of those drawn in the same form, and with the same free- in the hands of the people. They have likewise dom from all clogs, as that for granting sixty this summer fitted out a twenty gun province ship thousand pounds which had been passed by the of war, to scour the coast of privateers, and progovernor in 1755, and received the royal approba- tect the trade of that and the neighbouring protion; that the real clogs or obstructions to its pass- vinces, which is more than any other colony to ing were not in the bill, but in the above-mention the southward of New England has done. Penned proprietary instructions ; that the governor | sylvania also by its situation covers the greatest

part of New Jersey, all the government of the the place of their destination undiscovered, upon Delaware counties, and great part of Maryland, which depended the whole of their success. By from the incursions of the Indians, without re- great good luck, they nevertheless unexpectedly ceiving any contribution from those colonies, or arrived at Kittanning, and succeeded as above. the mother-country towards the expense. Encouraged by this fortunate event of their first

The above are facts, consistent with the know- attempt, the commissioners earnestly pressed that ledge of the subscriber, who but lately left Phila- this blow might be followed by another of the same delphia, is now in London, is not nor never was a kind, so that the enemy might be kept in contiquaker, nor writes this at the request of any qua- nual apprehensions of danger. But those encouker; but purely to do justice to a province and ragements to the commissioners, to persist in their people of late frequently abused in nameless pa- plan of operations, were inducements with the pers and pamphlets published in England. And new governor, as they had been with his predehe hereby calls upon the writer of that article of cessor, to evade a compliance. news to produce the letters out of which he says, The darling project of a militia law was of he has drawn those calumnies and falsehoods, or more consequence than the preservation of the to take the shame to himself.

blood and treasure of people with whom he had WILLIAM FRANKLIN. no natural connexion. And the result is, that Pennsylvania Coffee-House,

notwithstanding the commissioners have over London, Sept. 16, 1757.

and over strenuously endeavoured to have parties To what is said in the foregoing letter, con- of rangers sent again into the enemy's country, cerning col. Armstrong's expedition to Kittan they have never since been able to prevail with ning, it may not be amiss to add, for the informa- the governor to send them. On the contrary, tion of the reader, that it was with no small diffi- I though they could furnish ten parties for one of culty the commissioners, who were joined with the forts, taught regular military discipline (which

the Indians, the forces have been confined within the governor in the disposition of the money is in fact undisciplining them for Indian war) granted for the war, obtained the employing a and allowed to do scarce any thing but garrison part of the provincial forces as rangers. They duty. In the mean time the Indians have been repeatedly remonstrated to the governor, that suffered to come down between the forts, murder the only effectual manner of carrying on a war and scalp the inhabitants, and burn and destroy with Indians was to fight them in their own way, their

settlements, with impunity. That a militia, i. e. to send parties frequently into the Indian had the governor such a one as he wishes, could country, to surprise them in their hunting and

not prevent these outrages, is obvious to every fishing, destroy their corn fields, burn their habitations, and, by thus continually harassing them, of this have been made in Virginia, and other go

man of common understanding. Frequent trials oblige them either to sue for peace, or retire far- vernments where militias have been long in use. ther into the country. The experience of many The consequence of which was, that after the goyears Indian war in New England was in favour vernors had, upon the news of any incursions of of this measure. The governor himself could

not the enemy, taken the inhabitants from their sevebut acknowledge its expediency. There were ral businesses and occupations (oftentimes farmers motives, however, which, with him, outweighed all in the midst of harvest) furnished provisions and other considerations; and induced him though pub- other necessaries, and marched them, at a great licly, to approve, yet secretly to decline carrying it into execution. A militia law was the grand object the enemy were fled, and perhaps doing mischief

expense, to the place attacked, it was found that he had in view, in which he aimed to have the sole in another part of the frontier, at fifty or a hunnomination of all the officers. These were of dred miles distance. The people therefore say course to be proprietary minions and dependants, with truth, that it would be far less expensive who, by means of their power, were to awe and and inconvenient to them, to raise and pay a numinfluence the elections, and make a change in the ber of rangers to be continually employed in that assembly: for draughts of such as were most like service. And it is certain, that were but a few ly to give opposition might easily be made and sent to garrison the frontier, Should therefore the rangers properly employed, they would be more commissioners' scheme of carrying the war into militia or regular

forces on the continent of Ame

effectual'in subduing such an enemy, than all the the enemy's country, be attended with success, rica. The sending of these against scouting parand a stop be thereby put to their future incur- ties of Indians, being, as the proverb has it, setting sions, the governor's main pretext for a militia

a cow to catch a hare. (which was the enabling him to defend the frontier) would of consequence have no longer any appearance of weight. The commissioners, not- Account of sundry sums of money paid by withstanding, obstinately persevered in urging that parties should be sent out in the manner they re

the province of Pennsylvania for his macommended. The governor was at length oblig

jesty's service since the commencement of ed to consent and give orders to colonel Armstrong hostilities by the French in North Amerifor that purpose. Under-hand measures seem ca, exclusive of the general contingent however to have been taken to render this project

expenses of the government, which have fruitless. Such delays were given from time to from that time increased very considerably. time to the march of the forces, after the intention of the undertaking was publicly known (which EXTRACTED FROM THE JOURNALS OF THE ASby the bye was to have been kept a secret) that the enemy might easily have received intelligence

Pennsylva. Cur. of our designs; and moreover, such a considera- 1754, For provisions supplied ble number of men were added to the party as and the king's forces unrendered it highly improbable they should ch 1755. der the com of



Pennsylva. Cur.

Pennsylva. Cor. general Braddock;

Brought over £ 26,387 2 11 for opening and clear

with the king's Indiing a road towards

an allies; support of the Ohio; and for es

French neutrals sent tablishing a post be

from Nova Scotia; tween Winchester in

billeting and supplyVirginia and Phila

ing with necessaries delphia, for the use of

the king's regular the army, at the re

forces; and other
quest of the said ge-

purposes for his ma-
£ 8,195 14 8

jesty's service, as re-
For provisions

commended by his
the New England,

ministers. [By two and New York forces,

acts of assembly, under general John

60,0001. and 30,0001.) 90,000 0 0 10,000 0 0 1757. For ditto by another For clothing sent the

act of assembly 100,000 0 0 forces under general

1758. For ditto by ditto. (Note Shirley

514 10 1

2700 men were raisFor presents to the Six

ed and employed this nations and other In

year in his majesty's dians in alliance with

service, by the prothe crown of Great

vince of PennsylvaBritain, and the ex

nia, in pursuance of pense attending two

Mr. secretary Pitt's treaties held with


100,000 0 0 them for securing

For support of a ship of
them to the British

war for protection of
2,023 5 0

trade, (by a duty on
For maintenance of

tonnage, &c.) for a Ohio and other

six months' cruise 6,425 15 0 Western Indians,

For interest paid by the who had taken re

province for money fuge in Pennsylvania;

borrowed for his maFrench deserters; sol

jesty's service on the diers' wives belonging

credit of the assemto Braddock's army;

bly; the charges atarms and ammunition

tending the printing delivered to such of

and signing the pathe frontier inhabit

per-money, and colants as were not able

lecting, and paying to purchase any for

the several taxes their defence; relief

granted his majesty and support of sundry

to the provincial treaof said inhabitants

surer and trustees of who were driven from

the loan office, with their plantations by

their and the provin: the enemy; and for

cial commissioners' expresses and other

allowances for their
purposes for his ma-

trouble, may at least
jesty's service
5,653 13 2
be estimated at

5,000 0 0 [The above sums were

For sundry Indian expaid out of the trea

penses, omitted in sury and loan office, .

the above

38 13 0 and by money borrowed on the credit

£ 327,851 10 11 of the house of assem

From which deduct one bly before the govern;

third to reduce the or could be prevailed

sum to sterling value; on to pass any bills

an English shilling for granting an aid

passing for 1s. 6d. in to his majesty.)

Pennsylvania 109,283 16 11 For raising, paying, and maintaining forces;

Sterling, £ 218,567 14 0 building forts; maintaining and treating

As the reader may possibly be curious to know, Carried over £ 26,387 2 11 whether any similar disputes arose between the

proprietaries and the several assernblies of the


territory, or three separate counties, it may be to inquire into their own powers, upon a design proper to inform him, that the forbearances of to set new measures on foot, and have sent home these gentlemen in that district, were altoge- an address by one of their members, Thomas ther as remarkable as their assumptions in the Coutts' brother, who is to negotiate the matter province; and to refer him to the following er- with the lords of trade and the ministry, to obtain tract of a genuine letter of Mr. secretary Lo-powers to some person or other, who the queen gan's to one Henry Goldney, an intimate may think fit (though Coutts designs it for himfriend of the first proprietary William Penn self) to discharge all the necessary duties of gofor a solution of all doubts concerning the dif-vernment over them. This I doubt will give the ference.

proprietary great trouble, for when the council of

trade is fully apprized, as by this means they will Henry Goldney.

be, that those counties are entirely disjoined from

the province, it is probable they may more strictly “ PHILADELPHIA, 3d month the 12th, 1709.

inquire into the proprietor's right of government “EsteeMED FRIEND, I was favoured last fall and legislation with the people there : and it is with thine and other friends answer to mine of 3d much to be feared that they may advise the queen month last ; the contents of which were extreme- to dispose of the government of those parts some ly satisfactory, and on my part I shall not be other way, which would be exceedingly destrucwanting to discharge my duty to the utmost of tive to the interest of the province in general. ** my power ; but in my opinion, since the proprie “ Upon the whole, what I have to propose is tor has several times mentioned that he had pro- this, whether it would not be most advisable for posals made to him for the purchase of a large the proprietor to consider in time what measures tract of land on Susquehannah, for which he had are most fit for him to take for his own and the an offer of 50001. sterling, it would be most advis-country's interest, before the blow falls so heavy able for him to accept of any such terms, that so that it may prove difficult, if at all practicable, for he may speedily have the management of his him to ward it off ; whether, therefore, it may not country to himself, by paying the debt there be most prudent to part with the government of which he has contracted upon it; to which I both province and lower counties together, upon wish thee and his other good friends would ear- the best terms that can be obtained, before it nestly press him, for in himself I know he is in proves too late for him to procure any. If he should such cases somewhat too doubtful and backward. hold the government of the province, nay even of

“I now design, through the greatest confidence the whole, during his life, he will never gain any in thy friendship both to him and me, to be very thing by it; and, after his decease, it will be lost, free with thee in an affair that nearly concerns or at least be put out of the hands of friends, and him and this country in general, in which I shall perhaps without any previous terms at all, when request thee to exercise thy best thoughts, and, now he may be capable himself to negotiate a suraccording to the result of these heartily to employ render, both to his own particular interest, and the necessary endeavours: the case is briefly as greatly to the advantage of the profession; but follows:

whenever this is done, he should remember our “ This government has consisted of two parts; present lieutenant-governor, who will be a sufferer the province of Pennsylvania, and the three lower (I fear at best) by undertaking the charge; and counties on Delaware. To the first the proprie- if any thing fall of course in the way, I wish he tor has a most clear and undoubted right, both for would not quite forget an old trusty servant of his, soil and government, by the king's letters patent who has been drudging for him these ten years or royal charter ; for the latter he has much less (but that is not the business.) This I thought to show; for the soil he has deeds of feofment necessary to advise thee of, considering thee as from the duke of York, but for the government one of his best and heartiest friends, and desire not so much as is necessary. After his first ar- thee to communicate the matter to such others as rival, however, in these parts, he prevailed with may be most serviceable, but by no means expose the people both of the province and those counties this letter, for I would have that kept very private. to join in one government under him, according I have wrote to the same purpose to the proprietato the powers of the king's charter, which never- ry himself very fully, but finding, by long experitheless extended to the province only, and so they ence, how little it avails to write to himself alone continued, not without many fractions, till after of matters relating to his own interest, I now the time of his last departure, when some disaf- choose this method, and give this early notice befected persons took advantage of a clause, which fore the addresses from hence shall come to hand, he had unhappily inserted in a charter he gave

the which, with the addresses already gone from the people, and broke off entirely from those lower lower counties, will certainly do our business whecounties; since which time we have had two as- ther the proprietor will agree to it or not, and semblies, that of the province acting by a safe and therefore best take time while it offers. I'shall indisputed power, but that of the other counties commit this to thy prudence and discretion, and without sufficient (I doubt) to justify them. Last conclude, thy real loving friend, fall the assembly of those counties took occasion





vourite laws, powers, or points, that they Containing, I. Reasons and Motives on which the think could not at other times be obtained,

PLAN OF UNION FOR THE COLONIEs was form- and so creating disputes and quarrels; one ed; II. Reasons against partial Unions ; III. assembly waiting to see what another will do, And the Plan of Union drawn by Benjamin being afraid of doing more than its share, or Franklin, and unanimously agreed to by the desirous of doing less, or refusing to do any Commissioners from New Hampshire, Massachusett's Bay, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Ma-thing, because its country is not at present so ryland, and Pennsylvania,* met in Congress much exposed as others, or because another at Albany, in July 1754, to consider of the best will reap more immediate advantage; from Means of defending the King's Dominions in one or other of which causes, the assemblies America, foc., a War being then apprehended ; of six (out of seven) colonies applied to, had with the Reasons or Motives for each Article of granted no assistance to Virginia, when lately the Plan.

invaded by the French, though purposely conBenjamin Franklin, was one of the four vened, and the importance of the occasion ear

nestly urged upon them ; considering morecommissioners from Pennsylvania.

over, that one principal encouragement to the I. Reasons and Motives on which the Plan French, in invading and insulting the British of Union was formed.

American dominions, was their knowledge of

our disunited state, and of our weakness arisThe commissioners from a number of the ing from such want of union; and that from northern colonies being met at Albany, and hence different colonies were, at different considering the difficulties that have always times, extremely harassed, and put to great attended the most necessary general measures expense both of blood and treasure, who for the common defence, or for the annoyance would have remained in peace, if the enemy of the enemy, when they were to be carried had had cause to fear the drawing on themthrough the several particular assemblies of selves the resentment and power of the whole; all the colonies; some assemblies being be- the said commissioners, considering also the fore at variance with their governors or coun- present encroachments of the French, and the cils, and the several branches of the govern- mischievous consequences that may be exment not on terms of doing business with each pected from them, if not opposed with our other; others taking the opportunity, when force, came to an unaniinous resolution,their concurrence is wanted, to push for fa- That an union of the colonies is absolutely

necessary for their preservation. * This plan was intended for all the colonies. Some

The manner of forming and establishing of the commissioners not attending, their consent to it was not universally expressed. Governor Pownall this union was the next point. When it was says, "He had an opportunity of conversing with, and considered, that the colonies were seldom all knowing the sentiments of the commissioners appoiest: in equal danger at the same time, or equally to which they were called by the crown ; of learning near the danger, or equally sensible of it'; from their experience and judgment, the actual state of that some of them had particular interests to the American business and interest; and of hearing amongst them, the grounds and reasons of that Ameri- manage, with which an union might interand transmitted the plan of to England;" and he adds of each other; it was thought impracticable can union, which ihey then had under deliberation, fere; and that they were extremely jealons in another place, " that the sentiments of our colonies were collected in an authentic manner on this subject to obtain a joint agreement of all the colonies in the plan proposed by Dr. Franklin, and

unanimously to an union, in which the expense and burden agreed to in congress." See governor Pownall's Ad. ministration of the British Colonies. Vol. i. p. 13. of defending any of them should be divided + " Mr. (since governor) Hutchinson was one of the in all the colonies could be obtained for that

among them all; and if ever acts of assembly Pownall, Esq. brother to John Pownall, Esq. one of the purpose, yet as any colony, on the least dissecretaries to the board of trade, and afterwards governs satisfaction, might repeal its own act and the British Empire in North America, p. 25.

thereby withdraw itself from the union, it


Edit. 4. 1774, and vol. ii. 86.

commissioners for Massachusetts Bay.

“ Thomas

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