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by establishing a militia, which is putting the agreeable soever the task may be, to wade through sword into the hands of the people for their own all the misrepresentations in the governor's long security ? and where can it be trusted with more message of the thirteenth instant, a regard to truth, safety than to themselves ? are these impositions, and to truths of importance to the welfare of our or are they abhorrent to common justice and rea- country, will oblige us to submit to it. son ? I have, it is true, refused to give my assent The governor is pleased to tell us, that " when to some bills proposed by you, because they were he sent down our bill for raising fifty thousand contrary to the king's instructions; and amended pounds, with the amendments, he expected we others, to make them agreeable to the charter, and should have returned it with the amendments, and consistent with the safety of the people, by lodg- informed him which of them we agreed to, this ing the disposition of the public money in the being the common and ordinary method in such hands of the legislature; and for this, which is no cases. The governor allows in this message, more than a due obedience to the lawful com- that we have by charter, “the powers and privi mands of the crown, and the free exercise of my leges of an assembly, according to the rights of the reason and judgment in matters of legislation, am freeborn subjects of England, and as is usual in I branded with infamy and reproach, and set up any of the king's plantations in America.” Now, as the object of a people's resentment.
we take it to be one of those privileges and power I am not, gentlemen, conscious to myself of of an assembly, to have their money-bills, grant having done, or intended to do, any the least in- ing supplies to the crown, accepted as they are jury to the people committed to my charge; and tendered, if at all accepted, and that without any the man that has been oppressed or injured by proposal of amendments. We think this is a prime, let him stand forth and complain. Who is it vilege claimed and used by the house of commons in your province that does not enjoy the freedom and as far as we know by all the assemblies in of his own religious worship ? whose liberty have America; so that it is far from being the common I taken away? or whose property have I invaded ? and ordinary method to receive and debate on surely if I have taken advantage of the people's amendments proposed by the governor to such distress, and of your regard for your country, to bills. It is therefore without foundation, that the force down your throats laws of imposition, ab- governor supposes we agreed to all the other horrent to justice and reason; if I have done or at- amendments, merely because we offered no rea tempted any thing to deprive the people of their sons against any of them, but that which related liberties, and reduce them to the abject state of to taxing the proprietary estate. For we ever vassalage, you will be able to point out some in- made that step of deviation from the common and stances of these things; and I call upon you to ordinary method, entirely in consideration that do it, if you can, and make good your charge. It the occasion for the supply was uncommon and is not to the people I am hateful, gentlemen, but extraordinary, hoping thereby to come to yourselves; and that for no other reason, but speedily to a happy conclusion in the business of doing the duty of my station, exercising my own the session, and without the least intention that judgment, as a branch of the legislature, with it should ever be drawn into precedent. freedom and independency, and keeping you, as The governor still insists, that taxing the pro far as it was in my power, to the duty of yours. prietary estate, though it be to free it from French
Had you really any tenderness for your bleed- encroachments, will be an incumbrance on that ing country, would you have acted the part you estate. Be it so then, since the governor will havi have done ?_would you have looked tamely on, it so, for our differences are less about words than and see the French seat themselves within your things: does this however prove the validity of borders ? would you have suffered them to increase the prohibitory clause in his commission ? or tha their numbers, and fortify themselves in a place it is equitable and just the proprietary estate alon from whence, in few days, they may march an should be exempt from a tax, which all the es army among the inhabitants ? would you have tates in Britain and her colonies now bear, o been deaf to all the affectionate warnings and calls must bear, to free that very estate from encroach of his majesty, the faithful guardian of his people's ments and incumbrance ? safety ? and would you have refused the proper, The governor is “not fortunate enough, he i necessary, and timely assistance to an army, sent pleased to say, to comprehend the force of ou to protect these colonies ? or would you now, reasonings on this head that are drawn from th when that army is defeated, waste your time in fourth section of the royal charter;" which disputing about new and extraordinary claims of though it gives power to the "proprietaries an your own raising, when every head and hand their deputies and lieutenants to make laws, doe should be employed for the public safety? not alter the relation between a principal and hi
However, gentlemen, to conclude, let me entreat deputy, or make the deputy equal to, or indepen you to lay aside all heat and animosity, to consi- dent of, the principal, &c." We will therefore der the naked and defenceless state of the inhabi- for the governor's satisfaction, endeavour to ex tants, with a temper of mind becoming the import- press our sentiments yet plainer, if possible, an ant occasion; to look upon the French, and their enforce them farther. The royal charter grant Indians, as your only enemies, and the persons "full, free, and absolute power (not only to th that intend to enslave you; and be assured, that proprietary and his heirs) but to his and their de your proprietaries, or governor, have no designs to puties and lieutenants, to enact any laws what the prejudice of the people of Pennsylvania, but soever, for raising money for the safety of th will continue to protect them in the enjoyment of country, according to their best discretion, wit all their just rights and privileges.
the assent of the freemen, &c." But the
vernor objects, notwithstanding this full and fre The assembly's answer to the foregoing mes- power, granted by the royal charter to me as th
proprietaries' deputy, I cannot use my best di sage, August 19, 1755.
cretion in this case, nor enact the proposed lav MAY IT PLEASE THE GOVERNOR, -How dis- | because there is in my commission a prohibito
clause or saving which restrains me; and if I discretion, and restraining the powers granted to should pass it, such prohibition notwithstanding, us by charter. The case we conceive to be the same the law would not be valid. To this we answer with respect to the proprietaries' lieutenant (who ed, that no prohibition of the proprietaries can is their representative) if he is so restrained as lessen or take away from the lieutenant-governor the governor thinks himself to be. “The governany power he is vested with by the royal charter; ment, and the exercise of the government, are inand, in support of this, as an argument, at least, separable," says chief justice Pollexfen, a famous to the governor, produced to him an opinion of lawyer, “and wherever the government is grantthe proprietary and governor's former council, on ed, the exercise of that government is meant and the case of a proviso or saving in the lieutenant's included. If the king grant to any one the gocommission, that restrained, in favour of the pro vernment of Jamaica, or the like," "continues he, prietary, the power of making laws which is grant sure no one will say, that that is not a grant of ed to the lieutenant in the royal charter. This the exercise of the government there !” and we opinion (which the governor allows to be a good suppose this is as good law, with regard to the one) declares that saving to be void in itself, and grant of the government of Pennsylvania. that any laws passed by the lieutenant shall be The governor is pleased to say, that he cannot valid, the saving notwithstanding. But the go- help observing, that we formerly used the same vernor would distinguish it away, by alleging, arguments against the validity of royal instruc" that though the opinion was good in that case, tions. We have all due respect and deference for it is not applicable to all cases. If it is applicable royal instructions; the king has not any where a to the present case, it is all that is necessary for more dutiful and loyal people; but what does the our purpose, which was to show, that a proviso governor intend by the validity of instructions ? in his commission, restricting the powers granted does he mean that they are laws in the colonies ; him by charter, was void in itself; and that if he and if the royal instructions were such, does it passed a law contrary to the proviso, the law would follow that proprietary instructions have the same be valid. The “ relation between the principal validity ? we apprehend there may be some difand his deputy" still remains entire; the deputy is ference, but at present it is not necessary to disdependant on the principal, and may be removed cuss it. by him at pleasure. But as the principal cannot For our doubting in the least the governor's give powers to the deputy which he has not him- power to make the offered grants of land (free of self, so neither can he lessen the powers given to purchase money and quit-rent for fifteen years) in the deputy by the charter. If the proprietary can, the behalf of the proprietary, he is pleased to treat by prohibitory clauses in his commission, restrain us with great contempt on account of our ignothe deputy from passing any one law, which rance, observing, that “it is something very exotherwise he had power by the charter to pass, he traordinary, that the representative body of Pennmay by the same rule restrain him from passing sylvania should know so little of the affairs of the every law, and so the deputy would be no deputy province, as never to have been informed, that That the charter makes the proprietary "civilly the governor grants the proprietary lands under a answerable for what is done in the province by certain power of attorney, regularly proved and their lieutenants," we conceive to be a mistake. recorded, called a commission of property ; that The proprietary is by the charter, made answer this power was formerly vested in private persons, able for any misdemeanour that he himself shall but for some years past has been given to the gocommit, or by any wilful default or neglect per- vernors, and being the foundation of property, canmit, against the laws of trade and navigation. not be unknown to any the least acquainted with But if the deputy commits a misdemeanour, which the circumstances of the province." And now, the proprietary does not permit, through his own continues the governor, to ask a question or two wilful default or neglect, we presume he is not in my turn, how could you think that the lands answerable for such misdemeanour by the charter; | in the province were granted under the powers of and less, in reason, now, than when the charter a commission (meaning his commission as lieuwas given; as by an act of parliament of later tenant-governor) which expressly prohibits the date, every deputy appointed by the proprietary, granting of any ? really we should be very ignomust before he can act as such, receive the royal rant indeed if we thought so; but it happens, approbation. The very nature and reason of the may it please the governor, that we are perfectly things, moreover, seem to us to show, that a depu- well acquainted with all these matters, and have ty to do a thing, should have all the powers of even now lying before us an authentic copy of the principal necessary for doing that thing: and that certain power of attorney, called a commisevery lieutenant or deputy governor, is, by the na- sion of property, which we suppose most, who ture of his office, and the reason of his appoint- have read the governor's message, are persuaded ment, to supply or hold the place of a governor. gives him full powers to make the grants of land, But the royal charter being so express and plain which in his message of the twenty-eighth past, he in the point, leaves us under no necessity of in- proposed“ to make to such persons as shall now vestigating this truth by reason. Should our con- engage to go upon an expedition to remove the stituents, when they choose us to represent them French from their encroachments on the river in assembly, not only instruct us, but even take Ohio, without any purchase money, and free of bonds of us, that we should assent to no law for quit-rent for fifteen years." Our copy of this the better and more effectual recovery of the pro- commission is taken from the records, and certifiprietary quit-rents, if such a law were required ed to be a true one, under the hand and office seal of us, or thought necessary by the governor; of the master of the rolls. We have examined it would he think such prohibitions or bonds valid 1 thoroughly to find the powers by which those would he not say they were void in themselves, as grants were to be made, and unfortunately (we forbidding what he thinks a just and reasonable are sorry we are obliged to say it to the governor) thing, depriving us of the right of using our best I there is no such thing; not even a syllable of the
but on the contrary, after a power given to acres. But still the land was no otherwise de- ! the governor to grant lands claimed by virtue of scribed than as west of the Alleghany mountains ; former purchases, there is this clause, “and also, by leaving the proprietary at liberty, after the conwarrants to be issued as aforesaid, to grant to any quest should be made, to pick out, according to person or persons who shall apply for the same, the modern practice, all the best lands for himself and to their heirs and assigns for ever, any vacant and his friends, and offer the adventurers such as i lands within the said province and counties, or they would be sure not to accept of under that i any of them, upon, by, and under the same terms, rent. And this being pointed out, we are now ! methods, rents, and reservations, as have of late told," that a future proclamation is to give them been used and practised in the said land office, the choice of the best lands; but it was not ne- 1 but for no less price, condition, rent, or reserva- cessary to mention this to us in a message recom- 1 tion in any wise.
." That is, for fifteen pounds mending to us the granting an aid to those set- 1 ten shillings, per hundred acres, purchase money, tlers.” If we were to grant aids to the settlers on and four shillings and two pence sterling quit- proprietary lands, was it not proper for us, as i rent. And now will the governor give us leave guardians of the people, to know the terms on i to ask a question or two in our turn ? "how which they were to hazard their lives, and see could he think that lands might be granted away, that those terms were good in themselves, and i without any purchase money, and free of quit-rent the offer duly ascertained ? we conceive, may it for fifteen years, under the powers of a commission please the governor, that whenever we grant an! which expressly forbids his granting any" under aid for the encouragement of such settlers, it will less price, condition, rent, or reservation whatso- be proper to have the terms ascertained by the ever, than has of late been used and practised in same law, and not left to the precarious effect of the land office? how could he think of referring us a proclamation thereafter to be made by a governto such a commission for his power to make those or, in the proprietary's behalf
, without any appagrants, when he knew it was never there? how rent power for so doing. If the offer is well could he slight his reputation so much, as to ha- meant, a law to ascertain it cannot hurt the prozard such an imposition on the assembly and prietaries; the recovery of the country, and the whole province ! one so easily detected ! we make settlement of the lands, are two distinct things. no further remarks on this, lest we should again Let us first join equitably in the tax for the recoincur the censure of treating our governor in an very; and whenever the governor shall be willing “unbecoming manner.”
to pass such a law, we are not averse to giving the “The proposal, however, the governor is pleas- proposal of granting lands a full and mature coned to say, was made with a good intention; and sideration; and affording such equivalent encouhad we raised money for an expedition to the ragement to settlers, in provisions, &c. as we menwestward, and for encouraging settlers, he should tioned in our former message. But if he can pass then have made an offer of the lands' by procla- such a law to grant the proprietary's lands, conmation, letting the adventurers know, that they trary to the prohibition in his commission, may were to have the choice of the lands, in preference he not full as well pass the bill for taxing the proto all others, with every thing else that could re- prietary's estate ? duce the offer to a certainty, which there was no We cannot leave this point, without a word or necessity of doing in a message to us, barely men two in justification of ourselves, against the heationing the thing, and recommending to us to vy charge of depreciating, from a bad temper of grant an aid to those that should become settlers.” mind, this generous offer, that would have had It is remarkable how slowly and gradually this such good effects in promoting the public service generous offer is squeezed out. We never heard and safety. We would not be misunderstood; a word of it during all the time of general Brad we look upon it that lands may be made a valuadock's expedition, for which recruits were raised ble encouragement, but we do not see any geneboth in this and the neighbouring colonies, though rosity in offering them to the recoverers at double the governor brought over with him, and had in his the market price. The encouragement to advenpocket all the while, that "certain power of at- turers is not diminished, but rather increased, by torney, called a commission of property," to which our telling them where they may, for their service we are referred for his powers of making the of- in the same expedition, have lands equally good fer. But as soon as the house had voted to raise and more convenient, on better terms. For the fifty thousand pounds by a tax on all the estates Virginia vacant lands are many of them nearer to in the province, real and personal, down comes a navigable water than the good western lands of message, containing a proposal to grant lands to this province, and equally well accommodated by the soldiers who should engage in the expedition; the wagon road made by the late army. It is a proposal made with a good intention, as the go- true, the proprietaries' price is fifteen pounds ten vernor says; that is, with an intention to get the shillings per hundred acres, with a quit-rent of foui proprietary estate exempted from the tax, by seem- shillings and two pence sterling: Numbers who im ing to offer an equivalent in another manner ; prudently made improvements before they obtain but worded in the most cautious terms, as became ed a title, were obliged to give that price; and the an offer made without authority; and so as in- great assistance our loan office afforded by furnish deed to offer nothing that could affect the proprie- ing money to poor people on low interest, and tak tary; for the quit-rent to be reserved, not being ing it again in small payments, thereby enabling ascertained, but left in the proprietary's breast, he them to purchase lands, an advantage they could might, when the patents were to issue, demand a not have elsewhere, might encouragę many t quit-rent greater than the worth of the land. stay in the country, and take up lands on thos This being observed, and talked of, we had ano- terms. But that is now over: for the act is nea ther message, intimating that the quit-rent to be expiring, and it seems we are to have no more o reserved should be only the common quit-rent of the kind"; and when that encouragement had it fouà shillings and two pense sterling, per hundred 1:ull force, was it ever known that any peopl
" that our
came from Virginia to purchase here, on account for he was a governor, and governors were exempt of the superior goodness or convenience of our by the nature of their office. We replied, that lands ? on the contrary, have not many thousands he did not govern us, but the province supported of families gone from hence thither, and within his lieutenant to do that duty for him. On this the these few years settled fifteen or twenty new governor now makes the following observation: counties in that colony ? have not thousands "It may be very true, as you say, that the proprielikewise left us to settle in Carolina ? had not the taries do not govern you; but that is not owing exorbitant price at which the proprietaries held to any want of a legal authority in them, but their lands, and their neglect of Indian purchas- from another cause, that I need not mention ing in order to keep up that price, driven these here.” We were reproached in the beginning people from among us, this province would at this of this message, as playing with words; and the day have been in a much more flourishing con-governor, it seems, has now caught the infection. dition. Our number of inhabitants and our trade | The reason we gave why the proprietary could would, in all probability, have been double; we not be said to govern us, was a plain one; but should have been more able to defend the proprie- the governor insinuates some other cause without tary's estate, and pay his tax for him, and possi- explaining it, that there may be room for the reably more willing; but they are gone, and gone for der's imagination to make it any thing or every ever, and numbers are going after them! and if thing that is bad. We dislike these dark inuenthe new politics prevail, and our distinguishing does, and shall speak our minds openly. It may privileges are one by one to be taken from us, be thought rude and unpolite, perhaps, but it is at we may, without the gift of prophecy, venture to least fair and honest, and may prevent misunderforetell, that the province will soon empty itself standings. If, therefore, the present proprietaries much faster than it ever filled.
do not govern us it is because they never assumIn fine, this offer was in fact a mere illusion in- ed the government in their own persons, but, as tended first to impose on the assembly, and then we said before, employ a deputy; and if the deputy on the people; it was likewise to figure with at does not govern us, it is not because we are unhome in the eyes of the ministry. We discovered governable or rebellious, as he would insinuate, the deception, and the governor is offended that nor for want of sufficient power in his hands by we did not keep the secret. He is “ astonished the constitution; but because he has not that spithat we should depreciate an offer which would rit of government, that skill, and those abilities, have had very good effects, and induced many to that should qualify him for his station. have gone on the expedition and become settlers, The governor is pleased to tell us, that would not otherwise have thought of doing distinction between the proprietary as owner of either.” May it please the governor, as bad an land, and the proprietary as chief governor, has opinion as he is pleased to entertain of us, we no existence in law or reason.” We shall enhave some conscience; and would not choose, by deavour to show him, that it exists in both with our silence, to have any share in the disappoint- regard to the king, and therefore presume it may ment and other ill consequences which might en- with regard to the proprietary. The governor sue to those who should have gone on that vague, tells us likewise, as a matter of law, " that the empty, unwarranted offer, and not otherwise have king can have no private estate, but from the digthought of it. And we, in our turn, may be as- nity of his office holds his lands in right of the tonished that the governor should expect it of us. crown.” We are not any of us lawyers by pro
We are in the next place told by the governor, fession, and would not venture to dispute the go" that we take a very nice distinction between the vernor's opinion, if we did not imagine we had proprietary as owner of land, and the proprietary good authority for it; we find in Viner's abridgas chief governor, and say, we do not tax him as ment, an allowed book, title descent of lands, governor, but as a land-holder and fellow-subject.” these observations, which we hope may be satisOur words are, “ We do not propose to tax him factory to the governor in both points. "It is there as governor, &c.”—but the governor by carefully said, "that the king has two capacities, for he omitting the word propose, in his quotation, gives has two bodies, of which the one is a body natuhimself an opportunity of expatiating on the ab- ral, consisting of natural members, as every other surdity and insolence of our inverting the order man is; the other is a body politic, and his memof things, and assuming a power to tax the pro-bers thereof are his subjects. He may take in prietaries, “under whom, (he is pleased to say his body natural, lands or tenements, as heir to we derive the power of acting as an assembly" any of his ancestors; and also in this capacity Had the word propose been honestly left in its may purchase to him and his heirs, and his heirs place, there would have been no room for all this shall retain it, notwithstanding that he is removdeclamation; and the demand," How came you ed from the royal estate. And he may also take by a right to tax them ?” might have well been or purchase lands or tenements in fee in his body spared; since, though we as an assembly have politic, that is to say, to him and to his heirs no right to tax the proprietary estate, yet the pro- kings of England, or to him and his successors prietary and assembly together have surely such kings of England, and so his double capacity rea right; and as he is present “ by his own parti- mains, as it does in other persons who have a cular representative the governor, we may have a double capacity, as bishop or dean,” &c. We right to propose such a thing to him, if we think presume that our proprietaries hold the manors it reasonable. Especially since we do not, as the they have laid out to themselves, and the other governor imagines we do, derive our power of act- lands they may have purchased in their province, ing as an assembly from the proprietary, but from in their private capacities, as Thomas Penn, or the same royal charter, that impowers him to act Richard Penn, and not in their capacity of chief as governor.
governor. The governor is pleased to allow, We had been told in a former message, that that one reason why the king's fee-farm rents the proprietary ought to be exempt from taxes, I are taxed in England, may be, that the land-tax VOL. II....T
should not fall heavier upon other lands in the same | sideration for business done. And now if we di district.” It seems to us a good reason, and to not regularly give those additional presents hold as well in our case. For should the propri- which were only the marks of our good will, and etaries go on increasing their already enormous tokens of the satisfaction we had in a governor's estate, sue and recover all their mortgages, add administration; every thing else that a governoi field to field, and make purchase after purchase, enjoys is forgot, and we are charged both at home till the number of freeholders in the province is and abroad with the heinous crime of presuming reduced to a handful; can it be thought reasona- to withhold the support of government. Thus we ble that every estate as it comes into their hands see how soon custom may become a law, how shall be exempt from taxes, and the burden of thirsty a thing power is, and how hard to be satissupporting the government, and defending the fied. Claims, as the governor says, will never province, thrown all upon the remainder ? and be wanting,” and if the people will give whenyet this must be the case if our distinction has, as ever they are required" to give, they may soon be the governor says, no existence in law or reason. stripped of every thing they have a right to en.
The governor denies that the fees and perqui- joy. sites he enjoys are paid for support of govern The governor is pleased to acquaint us, that all ment; they are, he says, “only moderate fees the fees and perquisites of this government do not consented to be fixed by law, as considerations amount, communibus annis, to more than a thoufor the business done; and the public house li- sand pounds, meaning, as we suppose, sterling censes, which are the chief of them, were origi- money. This the governor enjoys fully and freely, ginally granted by charter." This latter asser- and we never interfere in his disposition of it, any quite unintelligible to us. We can find more than in the proprietaries' disposit
of the no such grant in the royal charter, nor can we quit-rents. We think this a handsome support conceive how the proprietary can grant a fee to for a governor; and though he calls it only mohimself by his own charter. The governor is a derate fees for business done; yet if he can earn stranger here, and may be unacquainted with the one thousand pounds sterling a year in such fees, rise and establishment of what is called the sup- the business must certainly be a good one. port of government among us. He will therefore On our saying that some proprietaries and go permit us to relate it to him, as we have received vernors of petty colonies assume 'more prerogait from our ancestors, and find traces of it on our tives and immunities than ever were claimed by records. When the first settlers purchased lands their royal master, the governor grows warm in from the proprietary, he demanded, besides the behalf of the proprietaries, and demands, with all consideration money, that a quit-rent should be the air of a person conscious of being in the reserved and paid to him and his heirs yearly for right, what instances can you give of that assuming ever. They objected against this as a disagree behaviour in your proprietaries; we answer, the able and unreasonable incumbrance; but were present instance; for the king does not claim an told, that the proprietary being also governor, exemption from taxes for his private estate, as our though he took the purchase money for the land proprietaries do. Have they ever claimed any as proprietary, he reserved the quit-rents to be right or prerogatives not granted them by the roypaid for his support as governor; for that govern- al charter, or reserved by that of their father ? ment must be supported, and these quit-rents would yes, the right of being exempt from taxes for be the most equal and easy tax, and prevent the their estate in Pennsylvania, when all their felnecessity of other taxes for that purpose here, as low-subjects (for the proprietaries are subjects, they did in the king's government of Virginia. though the governor seems to disdain the term) These reasons induced them to acquiesce in it. both in England and America, not excepting even But the proprietary's affairs calling him to reside the lords and commons of parliament, are now in England, and the quit-rents, then but few, be- obliged to undergo a tax for the recovery of
part, ing all wanted to support him there, a lieutenant- and defence of the rest of that very estate. This governor became necessary, and also a support for right is not granted them by the royal charter, nor that lieutenant, as the proprietary, through the ne- could it be reserved by their father's charter. "Can cessity of his affairs, was unable to support him, you lay to their charge one instance of injustice The public-house licenses and other licenses and or severity? This is an act of injustice and sevefees were pitched upon for this second support, rity, to insist that the people shall not be allowed and by perpetual laws were given to the governor to raise money for their own defence, unless they for the time being. But governors, a sort of of- will agree to defend the proprietary estates gratis. ficers not easily satisfied with salary, complaining If this be complied with, and the war continues, that these were insufficient to maintain suitably what shall hinder them another year, when the the dignity of their station, occasional presents fifty thousand pounds is expended, to require, were added from time to time; and those at length that before we are allowed to raise another sum came to be expected as of right, which, if conced- for the same purpose, we shall agree not only to ed to, and established by the people, would have defend their lands, but to plough them: for this made a third support. Our situation at this time their lieutenant may allege the “ usage and cus is, that the present proprietaries claim, and enjoy tom” in Germany, and put us in mind, that we the quit-rents (which were the first support) as are chiefly Germans. Who can assure us, that part of their private estate, and draw them to Eng. their appropriated lands, so long kept untenanted land where they reside, remote from their govern- and idle, are not reserved in expectation of some ment, supplying their place here by a lieutenant. such fortunate opportunity ? can other instances,
The lieutenant takes and enjoys the license mo- in answer to the governor's questions be necessa ney, and other perquisites, which were the second ry ? if he thinks it discreet to insist on more, they support, and though he has from thirty shillings to may soon be at his service. three pounds for writing his name only (the secre We are then desired to turn our eyes on oui tary being paid six shillings besides for the license own conduct, and charged in high terms with and seal) says, they are only moderate fees in con- / "taking upon ourselves great and mighty powers