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them to ascertain the bounds of the king's do- | branches of the legislature; and that as the minions, they never directly or indirectly de governor had yesterday evening sent down a nied those encroachments to be within them.” message, intimating that the proprietaries are They then proceeded to examine the extracts now disposed to contribute a sum of money to from the council minutes sent by the go. wards the common security of the province, vernor, in proof that money-bills had been there was a great probability that all controamended by former governors. They de- versies on that head were at an end, and that monstrated in ten several instances, those ex. some method would be speedily taken for retracts had not been fairly represented. And lieving the province from its present diffi they concluded in these words: “were all culties." these to be deducted from the list, it would In effect, the governor having given his conappear that there are but few instances in our sent to the militia bill, and the house having journals of proper money-bills amended by the made some immediate provision, for landing governor, and the amendments agreed to by and relieving the miserable French exiles ob the house; this is no more than was acknow- truded upon them from Nova Scotia, they proledged by the preceding assembly, in their ceeded to resolve, first, unanimously, message of the 29th of September, where they “That the right of granting supplies to the say, that in a very few instances their prede- crown in this province, is alone in the reprecessors might have waved that right on par-sentatives of the freemen met in assembly, ticular occasions, but had never given it up." | being essential to an English constitution.
Scarce had the house agreed with their And the limitation of all such grants, as to the committee in laying aside, for the present, matter, manner, measure, and time, is in them the first of these answers, for the reasons as-only.” And then, signed in the second, than certain inhabitants . That in consideration of the governor's of Philadelphia, joined with others of the message of yesterday, by which it appears that county of Chester, in all twenty-nine persons, the proprietaries have sent him an order on thought themselves at liberty to assail the the receiver-general for five thousand pounds, house in person with a petition, desiring, that to be paid into the hands of such persons as the governor and the house would unite in shall be appointed by act of assembly, and apthe fear of God, &c. And as the minute plied with such sums as the assembly should taken of this strange incident (which followed grant, to such uses as may be necessary for the Philadelphia remonstrance in much such the common security of the province; and as a manner as the legion-letter followed the it would not be reasonable or just, at this time, Kentish petition before referred to) will serve to tax the proprietary estate, in order to raise at once to show the ferment which then pre- money therefrom, over and above the said vailed in the province, and yet how far the grant from the proprietaries, the house will people in general were from desiring to be immediately proceed to form a new bill for preserved against the incursions of the ene granting a sum of money to the use of the mies, at the expense of their constitutional crown, and therein omit the taxation of the liberties; it is here inserted, to wit:
said estate." “The speaker told them, that it was well Accordingly, such a bill was ordered the known this house was composed of members same day; and, in full confutation of all the chosen without any solicitation on their parts, injurious surmises that they did not so much to be the representatives of the people, and as intend to save their country, prosecuted guardians of their liberties; that the whole with so much zeal and alacrity, that it repowers the house were invested with, were ceived the governor's assent the next day but derived from the people themselves, and that one following. as the house had hitherto, so they should still Thus the two branches of the legislature continue to discharge the high trust reposed were at last united in the great duty of making in them to the best of their understanding and all contribute to the defence and preservation abilities; and then asked them, whether they of all. desired that the house should give up any But though the storm was for the present rights, which, in the opinion of the house, the over, some marks of recent turbulence still repeople were justly entitled to ? some of the pe- mained. The governor, though frequently titioners, in behalf of the whole, answered, no; called upon, could not be brought to pass the they were far from requiring any thing of that bill for regulating the Indian trade; the house, kind; all they wanted was, that some expe- therefore, thought proper to press him with dient might be fallen upon, if possible, to ac- such a message, as should, by explaining the commodate matters in such a manner, as that nature of the bill, not only indicate the nature the province might be relieved from its pre- of the abuses it was calculated to correct, but sent unhappy situation. To this the speaker also oblige him, if possible, to account for his replied, that nothing could be more agreeable delay; and the message agreed upon was as to this bouse than a harmony between
the two follows, viz.
May it please the Governor, that meeting, business of the greatest conse “ As the bill for regulating the Indian quence to his majesty's service and the safety trade, by employing sober and discreet persons of these colonies will be considered and conto reside among those nations that remain cluded, and the success of the next year's opefriends to this province, for the purpose of fur- rations may in a great measure depend on the nishing them with the necessary goods in ex- timely resolutions of that council. change for their peltry, at easy and reasonable “I have lately received such intelligence as rates, on account of the public, and thereby to the state of Indian affairs, as will make it securing them to our interest, seems to us a necessary for the colonies to join in some gebill of great importance at this juncture, we neral treaty with those people, as well to the are very desirous of bringing it to a conclu- southward as the northward, which can no sion as soon as possible; and therefore once way so well be resolved on as at the congress more earnestly request the governor would now already met. be pleased to let us know his sentiments upon " And on the other hand, the late incursions it, and communicate the amendments he is of the enemy, and the necessity there is of pleased to say he thinks needful, that we may putting this province into a posture of defence, consider them. The bill has already lain be as well as carrying into execution the several fore him above two weeks; and we fear, if matters now in agitation, call for my presence, something of the kind is not immediately gone and the authority of the government. Under into, we shall lose our few remaining Indians these difficulties, I find myself at a loss which on the Susquehanna; for as none of our traders service to prefer, and desire you will give me now go among them, and they dare not come your sentiments on this momentous and pressdown to our settlements to buy what they ing occasion.” want, for fear of being mistaken for enemies, Now this congress was in fact, to be a counthere seems to be the greatest danger of their cil of war; and the instructions the general being necessarily driven into the arms of the had received, according to his own account, French, to be provided with the means of was to summon such of the governors on the subsistence."
continent, as far westward as Virginia, as To which the governor was pleased to re- could, to attend it. turn the following evasive answer:
Governor Morris, therefore, would have “ Gentlemen,
been under no great difficulty on this head, it “Since your bill for regulating the Indian the circumstances of his province had been trade has been before me, my time has been really such as he had been always fond of setso much taken up with the variety of business ting them forth. that the circumstances of this province made But his purpose was to go; and he wanted necessary to be despatched without delay, that the countenance of the assembly to concur I have not been able to give it the considera- with his inclinations, that he might not be tion a bill of that nature requires, nor to ex-charged with inconsistency, either by stimuamine the laws of the neighbouring provinces lating them with false alarms, or deserting upon that subject. But as the Indian trade is them in real dangers. now at a stand, I cannot conceive that it will
The assembly, however, chose to leave the be at all dangerous to the public to defer the difficulty upon himself, as he alone was accompleting of this act till the next sitting ; quainted with the necessity of his attending especially as it will be necessary to call in the said congress; but then they left him at and confine our friendly Indians to certain no loss concerning their opinion; for they adlimits, to prevent their being mistaken for, mitted the present circumstances did call and killed as enemies, where they must be strongly for his presence at home, and for the. subsisted. This will hinder them from hunt- whole authority of government; and they also. ing, so that they will have no skins no trade offered to be at the expense of sending comwith."
missioners to New York, to supply his place, after having so often treated the either in concluding on the matters proposed assembly as a body fitter to be prescribed to, by the crown, or concerting measures for a than consulted with, he took it into his head general treaty with the Indians. “For, said to apply to them for advice; on what account they, as this province always has been, so we it is reasonable his own message should ex- still are ready to join with the neighbouring plain.
colonies in any treaty with the Indians, that Gentlemen,
may conduce to the general advantage of the “General Shirley, pursuant to his majesty's British interest, as well as, at our own charge, orders for that purpose, has requested me to to make such as tend particularly to our own meet him at New York, in a congress he has peace and security.” there appointed, as you will observe by the A noble declaration ! what is alone suffiextract of a letter from him upon that subject, cient to silence all the invectives which have which the secretary will lay before you. At been so liberally bestowed on this province !
and what, in modern proprietary documents relation to their bill for regulating the Indian and the speeches and messages of deputy-go- trade; and resolved thereon, “That it was vernors, it would be very hard to match. their opinion, the governor had evaded giving
Of the stress in this message, however, laid any answer, or offering amendments to it, that on the present state of Indian affairs, the house it might be transcribed and sent over to the took the advantage to recollect what had pass- proprietaries for their opinion or assent; that ed between them and the governor in rela- the said bill was of great importance in the tion to the Shawanese complaint; and with present critical situation of affairs; that the an equal regard to truth and candour, took delay or refusal of entering into the consideroccasion in a message to the governor, to ex- ation thereof at that time, might be attended press themselves upon it as follows, viz. with very ill consequences; and that those
“ May it please the Governor, consequences would not lie at their door.”. “We have considered the report of the And having before resolved to adjourn till committee of the governor's council, to which the first of March ensuing, they moreover took he is pleased to refer us for an answer to our upon them to provide for the subsistence of inquiry, relating to a claim of the Shawanese certain friendly Indians, settled near their fronIndians, on the lands near Conedoguinet.- tiers, in the mean while. We are far from desiring to justify those In Nor was this all: for the incidents of the dians in their late outrages and murders, com- session having shown, that it was high time mitted against the people of this province, in for the assembly to assert their own authority, violation of the most solemn treaties. We as far forth at least, as the factions and inbelieve that great care has generally been trigues of the province at that time subsisting taken to do the Indians justice by the pro- would permit, they called for the report of prietaries in the purchases made of them, and their committee appointed to sit on the sevein all our other public transactions with them; ral irregular and improper applications which and as they have not the same ideas of legal had been made to them during the session ; property, in lands that we have, and some- and having duly considered it, ordered it to be times think they have right, when in law they entered on the minutes of the house. have none, but yet are cheaply satisfied for Every body knows, that the reports of comtheir supposed as well as real rights, we mittees can consist of opinions only; and these think our proprietaries have done wisely, not gentlemen give it as theirs," that though it only to purchase their lands, but to purchase was the undoubted right of the freemen of the them more than once,' as the governor says province, not only to petition, but even to adthey have done, rather than have any differ- vise their representatives on suitable occasions, ence with them on that head, or give any yet all applications whatever to the house, handle to the enemies of the province to exas- ought to be respectful, decent, pertinent, and perate those people against us. It appears in- founded in truth.” deed, from the report, that they could have 6. That the petition of Moore and his thirtybut a slender foundation for a claim of satisfive followers, concerning unnecessary disfaction for those lands; we are, however, con- putes with the governor, when no disputes vinced, by original minutes taken by one of had been begun; and insinuating, that the the commissioners at the treaty of Carlisle, house had neglected the security of the pronow lying before us, that the Shawanese chiefs vince from conscientious scruples, was foundmentioned that claim of theirs to the lands ined on mistakes and misapprehensions of facts question at that time, and were promised that and circumstances.” [They might have said the matter should be laid before the proprieta- much more if they had thought proper.] ries. It was after the public general business “ That the petition intitled, an address of of the treaty was over, and was not inserted certain people called quakers in behalf of in the printed account of the treaty, perhaps themselves and others, (signed by Anthony because it was thought to relate more particu- Morris and twenty-two others) so far as it enlarly to the proprietary than to the province; gaged for any more than themselves, and inand one of the commissioners being himself sinuated they would be under a necessity of concerned in the proprietaries' affairs, there suffering rather than paying for other than was reason to believe he would take care to peaceable measures, had notwithstanding the get it settled; and doubtless he would have decency of its language, assumed a greater done so, had he not, as appears by the report, right than they were invested with; and, forentirely forgot the whole transaction. We asmuch as the said petitioners had not duly are sorry it was not done, though probably considered former precedents, especially the the instigations, present situation, and power grant of two thousand pounds to the crown of the French, might have been sufficient ne- in the year 1711, was an unadvised and invertheless to have engaged those Indians in discreet application to the house at that time." the war against us.”
That the representation from the mayor of They also took into consideration the go- Philadelphia, and one hundred and thirtyvernor's answers to their several messages in three others, said to be of the principal inha
bitants, but in reality a great part of them in their way to Philadelphia) to the Maryland not freeholders, many of them strangers and line, was then almost complete ; that they obscure persons, and some of them under age, were placed at the most important passes, at as it charged the house with not having a convenient distances, and were all garrisoned proper concern for the lives of the inhabitants, with detachments in the pay of the province, and dictated, in a haughty peremptory man- and he believed, in case the officers and men ner, to the representative body of the whole posted in them did their duty, they would people, what laws to make, and threatened to prove a sufficient protection against such parforce a compliance, &c. if its commands were ties as had hitherto appeared on their borders; not obeyed, was a paper extremely presuming, that he had directed the minutes of the seveindecent, insolent, and improper; and that the ral conferences held with the Indians, and said mayor, by becoming a promoter and ring- other papers relating to Indian affairs (by leader of such an insult on that part of the go- which it appeared that the bulk of the Indians vernment, and by his authority, arts, and in- living on the Susquehanna, were not only in fluence, drawing in so many indiscreet or un- the French interest, but deaf to all the inwary persons to be partakers with him there stances of the Six Nations thereon) to be laid in, had exceedingly misbehaved himself, and before them; that the heads of those nations failed greatly in the duty of his station." Ex had been convened by the timely care of gepressions equally applicable to the governor neral Shirley, and were then met in council himself as chief rnagistrate, if the mayor in to treat on those and other matters; that he all this, only acted as a tool of his.
was informed, they were so much displeased And upon the whole, “ that the said paper with the conduct of the Delawares and Shawaought to be rejected."
nese, that they seemed inclinable to take up Thus ended this memorable session, on the the hatchet against them; and that he hoped 3d of December; and that day two months, the warmth with which general Shirley had instead of that day three months, which was the recommended this matter to them, would intime prefixed by their own adjournment, the duce them to act vigorously on this occasion.” governor, having, in that interval, left his pro-: Connexion is not to be expected in this genvince, in order to attend the military congress tleman's proceedings; his congress we have at New York, notwithstanding the preventives already seen converted into a council of war; thrown as above by the assembly in his way, instead of a general treaty with the Indians, thought fit to convene them again; and by he brings back a plan of military operations ; the medium of a written message in the usual and while the levies were actually making of form, told them, “ that he had called them to the sixty thousand pounds, just given, for the gether, to consider of the plan of operations defence of the province, he calls upon them for concerted in the late council of war held at a supply, towards an offensive war. that place for the security of his majesty's do By the plan settled among the governors at minions on the continent'; that he had direct their lare council, which is now in print, the ed the said plan to be laid before them, under colonies were to raise ten thousand two huna recommendation of secresy, that no part of dred and fifty men, to be employed in two it might be suffered to transpire; that the bodies against the French settlements on the many encroachments of the French, &c. suf- lake Ontario, and Crown-point; and of these, ficiently showed what they had farther to ex- fifteen hundred were to be supplied by Pennpect, if they did not by an united, vigorous, sylvania. and steady exertion of their strength, dislodge The governor, however, did not think it and confine them within their own just expedient to push this demand in the cavalier bounds; that he was persuaded this would be manner he had hitherto practised ; probably found the best way of providing for their own convinced that it was what the province neisecurity; and that therefore, he must recom-ther would or could comply with; and that mend it to them to grant him such supplies consequently he should only draw down so as might enable him to furnish what was ex. much the more odium on himself. pected from that province towards the general Besides, the assembly was scarce met, beservice; that they must be sensible their suc- fore a circumstance occurred, which, though cess would very much depend on their being of an almost private nature, served to evince early in motion ; and that he made no doubt, the truth of what has been just insinuated. they would use the greatest diligence and des The several recruiting parties distributed patch in whatever measures their zeal for the through the province by the order of general public cause might induce them to take upon Shirley, had renewed the old practice of enthe present occasion; that every thing possi- listing purchased servants; the persons thus ble had been done for the security of the pro- deprived of their property brought their comvince; that a chain of forts and block-houses, plaints before the assembly; the assembly not extending from the river Delaware along the only received the petitioners favourably, but Kittatinny hills (where he had formerly said also espoused their cause in the strongest the 1500 French and Indians had taken post terns to the governor; and as their address
on this occasion, contains such a state both of | strongest manner recommends it to him to the province and its conduct, as will serve to avoid doing it. make the reader equally acquainted with both, Even the governor himself in his answer the most material paragraphs are here ad- acknowledged the fact; admitted it to be a joined.
great hardship, and an unequal burden upon “We presume that no one colony on the the inhabitants of the province; but, instead continent has afforded more free recruits to of issuing his proclamation, strictly charging the king's forces than Pennsylvania; men and commanding all officers civil and military have been raised here in great numbers for to be aiding and assisting to the inhabitants, Shirley's and Pepperell's regiments, for Hal- in securing or recovering their servants, when ket's and Dunbar's, for the New York and any attempt should be made to force them Carolina independent companies, for Nova away, as required by the assembly; told them Scotia, and even for the West India islands. the courts were open, and that the injured By this, and the necessity we are under of might there sue out his remedy by due course keeping up a large body of men to defend our of law. own extensive frontiers, we are drained of He also signified, that general Shirley had our hired labourers; and as this province has now altered his opinion, and issued orders but few slaves, we are now obliged to depend different from those he had before given to principally upon our servants to assist us in colonel Dunbar. And in effect, a letter from tilling our lands. If these are taken from us, the said general, in answer to one of the gowe are at a loss to conceive how the provi- vernor's, was soon after communicated to the sions that may be expected out of this province assembly, in which he pleads the necessities another year, for the support of the king's ar- of the service for a continuance of the pracmies, are to be raised.
tice; and in justification of it, cites the au“We conceive that this province could not thority of his own government, “ where it possibly have furnished the great numbers of was common, he said, to impress both indentmen and quantity of provisions it has done ed servants and others for garrisoning the for the king's service, had it not been for our frontier towns, where they often remained seconstant practice of importing, and purchas- veral years.” ing servants to assist us in our labour. Many And his thus renouncing his former convicof these, when they become free, settle among tion, is so much the more remarkable, because us, raise families, add to the number of our the province had recently made his troops a people, and cultivate more land ; and many voluntary present of warm waistcoats, stockothers who do not so settle, are ready and fit ings, and mittens; and in his letter of acto take arms when the crown calls for sol- knowledgment (dated but five days before that diers. But if the possession of a bought ser to the governor) to the assembly, addressed to · vant, after purchase made, is thus rendered one of the members, he expresses himself as precarious, and he may at any time be taken follows: away from his master at the pleasure of a re “I am now, sir, to acquaint you, that I have cruiting officer, perhaps when most wanted, ordered a distribution of clothing, and to de in the midst of harvest or of seed time, or in sire the favour of you to make my acknow- · any other hurry of business, when another ledgments to the assembly for this second in. cannot be provided to supply his place, the stance of their public spirit and zeal for his purchase, and of course the importation of majesty's service, and the general good of servants will be discouraged, and the people these colonies, given by them in the expedidriven to the necessity of providing themselves tion against Crown-point. with negro slaves, as the property in them “I cannot but hope that so laudable an exand their service seems at present more se- ample will inspire the other colonies with the
Thus the growth of the country by in- like spirit, so necessary at this critical concrease of white inhabitants will be prevented, juncture for putting a stop to the invasions and the province weakened rather than strength- devastations of the French and their Indians ened (as every slave may be reckoned a do- within our borders, and placing the Britishmestic enemy) one great and constant source northern colonies in a state of security against of recruits be in a great measure cut off, and the attempts which, from the armament sent Pennsylvania soon be unable to afford more thelast year from France, and their known demen for the king's service, than the slave colo signs, we have the utmost reason to expect nies now do."
they will push this year; and that it will conThey also accompanied their address with tinue to animate the government of Pennsylan extract of a letter from general Shirley to vania in the common cause, as it hath hitherto colonel Dunbar, in which he declares himself done, so highly to their advantage. convinced, that the enlisting of apprentices “ Be pleased likewise, to assure them, sir, and indented servants would greatly disserve that I shall not be wanting in making a just his majesty's interest, as well as be in most representation to his majesty of these marks cases grievous to the subject, and in the of their zeal for the service of their king and