Epidemics and Pandemics: Their Impacts on Human History
ABC-CLIO, 2005 - 513 páginas
Hays (history, Loyola U. Chicago) describes, in a style accessible to high school students and up, the history of 50 epidemics in world history, from an unspecified disease that swept through Athens in 430-427 BC to a number of epidemics still plaguing the world today. Each chapter is organized into sections describing "when and where," historical significance, background, how it was understood at the time, responses, and unresolved historical issues. Each chapter also includes references and suggested additional readings. Also includes information on Aedes Aegypti, American Indians, antibiotics, Asia, asymptomatic carriers, bleeding, blood, burial considerations, children, China, contagion, diet, dysentery, economic circumstances, environmental considerations, fleas, flies, germ theory, will of gods, Waldemar Haffkine, humors, immunity, infants, inoculations, Islam, Edward Jenner, Robert Koch, laws, miasmas, microorganisms, migration, military affairs, morality, morbidity, mortality, mosquitoes, New York, pilgrimages, political impact, population levels, poverty, public health policies, quarantines, race, rehydration, religion, rodents, sanitation, slavery, social conditions, syphilis, trade considerations, transportation, rural areas, urban areas, vaccinations, venereal diseases, Vibrio cholerae, virgin soil infection, water contamination, women, World Health Organization, World War I, Yersinia pestis, etc.
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29 FOURTH CHOLERA PANDEMIC 18631875
30 CARRIÓNS DISEASE IN PERU 18701871
31 SMALLPOX IN EUROPE 18701875
32 MEASLES IN FIJI 1875
33 FIFTH CHOLERA PANDEMIC 18811896
34 INFLUENZA PANDEMIC 18891890
35 CHOLERA EPIDEMIC IN HAMBURG 1892
36 THIRD PLAGUE PANDEMIC 1894?
9 EPIDEMICS IN SIXTEENTHCENTURY AMERICA
10 EPIDEMICS AND THE THIRTY YEARS WAR 16181648
11 PLAGUE IN ITALIAN CITIES 1630s
12 EPIDEMICS IN CHINA 16401644
13 PLAGUE IN LONDON 1665
14 SMALLPOX IN ICELAND 17071709
15 PLAGUE IN MARSEILLES 17201722
16 SMALLPOX IN BOSTON 1721
17 SMALLPOX IN EIGHTEENTHCENTURY EUROPE
18 PLAGUE IN MOSCOW 1771
19 INFLUENZA PANDEMIC 17811782
20 YELLOW FEVER IN HISPANIOLA 17931804
21 YELLOW FEVER IN PHILADELPHIA 1793
22 FIRST CHOLERA PANDEMIC 18171824
23 CONSUMPTION IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
24 SECOND CHOLERA PANDEMIC 18271835
25 THIRD CHOLERA PANDEMIC 18391856
26 FEVERS AND THE GREAT FAMINE IN IRELAND 18461850
27 TYPHOID FEVER IN CITIES 18501920
28 YELLOW FEVER IN NEW ORLEANS 1853
37 SIXTH CHOLERA PANDEMIC 18991923
38 SLEEPING SICKNESS IN EAST CENTRAL AFRICA 19001905
39 TYPHOID MARYS EPIDEMICS
40 CHOLERA EPIDEMIC IN NAPLES 19101911
41 POLIOMYELITIS IN THE UNITED STATES 1916
42 INFLUENZA PANDEMIC 19181919
43 LUNG CANCER IN THE UNITED STATES MIDTWENTIETH CENTURY
44 POLIOMYELITIS IN THE UNITED STATES 19451955
45 SEVENTH CHOLERA PANDEMIC 1961PRESENT
46 AIDS IN THE UNITED STATES 1980s
47 CONTEMPORARY AIDS PANDEMIC
48 THE MAD COW CRISIS AND TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHIES 1985PRESENT
49 CONTEMPORARY MALARIA
50 CONTEMPORARY TUBERCULOSIS
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Africa AIDS American appeared Asia BACKGROUND began Black Death British bubonic plague Cambridge cancer cause cholera epidemic cholera pandemic city’s contagion contagious contemporary death toll demic died difﬁcult disease’s dramatic early effects epidemic epidemic disease especially Europe European example fear ﬁrst ﬂeas ﬂight French germ Hamburg historians History human important India infected inﬂuenza pandemic inoculation isolation Italian late London malaria measles Medicine medieval microorganism million modern mortality rates Moscow moved Naples nineteenth century occurred ofﬁcial outbreak percent perhaps physicians places plague epidemics poliomyelitis political population public health quarantine rats reached reﬂected remained responses rodents role Roman Russian second pandemic second plague pandemic serious sick signiﬁcance sleeping sickness smallpox social speciﬁc spread suffered SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL READING symptoms third pandemic tion trafﬁc tuberculosis typhoid fever typhus United University Press UNRESOLVED HISTORICAL ISSUES vaccine victims virus Western widespread World Health Organization yellow fever Yersinia pestis
Página 6 - Nor was this the only form of lawless extravagance which owed its origin to the plague. Men now coolly ventured on what they had formerly done in a corner, and not just as they pleased, seeing the rapid transitions produced by persons in prosperity suddenly dying and those who before had nothing succeeding to their property. So they resolved to spend quickly and enjoy themselves, regarding their lives and riches as alike things of a day.
Página 4 - ... its ravages ; so that when they succumbed, as in most cases, on the seventh or eighth day to the internal inflammation, they had still some strength in them. But if they passed this stage, and the disease descended further into the bowels, inducing a violent ulceration there accompanied by severe diarrhoea, this brought on a weakness which was generally fatal.
Página 6 - Fear of gods or law of man there was none to restrain them. As for the first, they judged it to be just the same whether they worshipped them or not, as they saw all alike perishing...
Página 5 - ... this brought on a weakness which was generally fatal. For the disorder first settled in the head, ran its course from thence through the whole of the body, and even where it did not prove mortal, it still left its mark on the extremities; for it settled in the privy parts, the fingers and the toes, and many escaped with the loss of these, some too with that of their eyes. Others again were seized with an entire loss of memory on their first recovery, and did not know either themselves or their...
Página 4 - In most cases also an ineffectual retching followed, producing violent spasms, which in some cases ceased soon after, in others much later. Externally the body was not very hot to the touch, nor pale in its appearance, but reddish, livid, and breaking out into small pustules and ulcers. But internally it burned so that the patient could not bear to have on him clothing or linen even of the very lightest description, or indeed to be otherwise than stark naked.