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EPITAPH for Mrs. Meyrick, the Wife of Dr. Richard Meyric;
who died in Child-birth, November, 1741.
Adieu, bleft Made; alas, too early fled !
An Account of Books for 1762.
Emilius and Sophia : oř, a new Syf- that this book should be censured as
tem of Education. Translated from well at Geneva as in Paris. Howthe French of J. J. Rousseau, ever, with those faults in the design, Citizen of Geneva.
with the whimsies into which his
paradoxical genius continually hurHE fault most generally ob- ries him, there are a thousand noble
served in discourses upon edu- hints relative to his subject, groundcation, is a tendency to common ed on a profound knowledge of the place. Nothing, in fact, can be human mind, and the order of its more trite; than the greatest part of operations. There are many others, the observations, which have been which, though they have little reTetailed upon that subject from Quin- lation to the subject, are admirable tilian down to monsieur Rollin. on their own account; and eveng This is however the fault, into in his wildett fallies, we now and which the ingenious author of Emi- then discover strokes of the most lius is, of all others, in the least solid sense, and instructions of the danger of falling. To know what most useful nature.
Indeed he very the received notions are upon any seldom thinks himself bound to adfubject, is to know with certainty here to any fetiled order or defign, what those of Rousseau are not. In but is borne away by every object his treatise on the inequality amongst started by his vivid imagination; and mankind, he has shewn his man in hurries continually from system to a natural state ; in his Emilius he system, in the career of an animatundertakes to educate him. In the ed, glowing, exuberant ftile, which prosecution of this design he begins paints every thing with great miearly, and carefully attends his pu- nuteness, yet with infinite fpirit. pil from his cradle to his marriage- There is, it must be acknowledge bed. He forms him to morals, to ed, one considerable defect in his fcience, to knowledge of men, and judgment, which infects both his to natural labour, and at length matter and his ftile. He never knows gives him a wife, whom he has where to stop. He feldom can discopreviously educated for him accord- ver that precise point in which exing to ideas a little different from cellence confifts, where to exceed is that model which he had formed in almost as bad as to fall thort, and his Eloise.
which every step you go beyond, In this System of Education there you grow worse and worse. He is are some very confiderable parts therefore frequently tiresome and that are impraclicable, others that disgusting by pathing his notions to aře chimerical; and noc a few excess ; and by repeating the same highly blameable, and dangerous thing in a thousand different ways. both to pieiy and morals. It is easy Poverty can hardly be more vicious to difcern how it has happened, than fuch an abundance. To give the
reader some idea of this most extra- they can, for that severe con fineordinary performance, we shall fe- ment you impose on them. Two lect three passages; the first relative scholars, broke loose from a school to the first instructions in childhood; in town, will do more mischief in a the second after a greater progress country village than all the boys in has been made; and the last con- the parish. Shut up one of these taining something concerning the young gentlemen with the son of a education of women.
peasant of the same age; and the “ Almost every method has been firit will have broke or turned all tried but one, and that the only one the moveables in the room topsy which can fucceed, natural liberty turvy, before the latter should have duly regulated. No one ought to stirred from his feat. What can be undertake the education of a child the season of this, if the one be not who cannot conduct him at pleasure, in a hurry to abuse his momentary merely by the maxims of poffibility liberty, while the other, accustomed and impofiibility. The sphere of to freedom, is not in any haste to both being equally unknown to in- make use of it. And yet the chilfancy, it may be extended or dren of peasants, being frequently contracted as we please. A child humoured and thwarted, are very may be equally excited or far from being in that order in which ftrained, by the fingle plea of ne
I could wish to see yours. ceflity, without murmuring; he may Let us lay it down as an inconbe rendered pliant and docile by the teftible maxim, that the first emocions force of circumstance only, with- of nature are always right : there is out ever giving occafion to fow the no original perversity in the human feeds of vice in his heart : for the heart. I will venture to say, there paflions will never be irritated so is not a single vice to be found there, long as they must be exerted with that one could not say how and out effect. Give your pupil no kind which way it entered. of verbal instructions; he should passion natural to man is the love of receive none but from experience: himself, or self-love taken in an inflict on him no kind of punish- extensive sense. This passion, conment, for he knows not what it is fidered in itself, as a relative to us, to be in fault : require him never to is good and useful, and, as it has afk pardon, for he cannot offend no necessary relation to any one else, you. As he is insensible of all moral it is in that respect naturally indifferobligations, he cannot do any thing ent: it becomes good or evil, theremorally evil, or that is deserving of fore, from our application of it, and punishment or reprimand.
the several relations we give it. Till I forefce the reader will be al- the guide of self-love, then, which ready frightened, if he judges of is reason, appears, a child should do fuch'a child by his own ; in this, nothing, merely because he is seen however, he is mistaken. The con- or heard, nothing from causes mereftant' restraint in which you keep ly relative to others, but only those your pupils, irritates their vivacity; things which nature requires and the more they are restrained under instigates ; and then he will never your eye, the more turbulent they do wrong. are when they escape from it; they I don't mean that he will never do muft indemnify themselves, when any mischief, that he will never hurt
himself, or perhaps break in pieces May I venture here to lay down a valuable utenfil that may happen the greatest, most important and to be unluckily placed within his most useful rule of education ? It is reach. He may do a great deal of this, not to gain time, but to lose harm without doing ill; because the it. The generality of readers will evil of the action depends on his in- be so good as to excuse my paratention to do an injury, and he will doxes ; there is an absolute necessity be always free from such intention. for them, when we make reflecti. Should he not, and should he once ons : and, say what you will, I had acquire an evil intention, he is alrea- rather be remarkable for hunting afdy spoiled; he is vicious almost be- ter a paradox, than for being misled yond remedy.
by prejudice. The most critical An action may be evil in the eyes interval of human life is that beof avarice, that is not so in those of tween the hour of our birth and reason. In leaving children at full twelve years of age. This is the liberty to play about as they please, time wherein vice and error take it is proper to remove every thing root, without our being poffessed of out of their way that may render any inftrument to destroy them : their agility or wantonness offen- and when the implement is found, five; thus nothing that is brittle they are so deeply grounded, that and coftly should be left within their they are no longer to be eradicated. reach. Let the furniture of their If children took a leap from their apartment be coarse and folid ; let mother's breast, and at once arrived them have no looking-glass, no at the age of reason, the methods of china, nor other objects of luxury. educatior. now usually taken with As to my Emilius, whom I educate them would be very proper ; but, in the country, his chamber shall according to the progress of nature, have nothing in it, whereby it may they require those which are very be distinguished from that of the different. We should not tamper meanest peasant. To what purpose with the mind, till it has acquired should it be carefully ornamented, all its faculties: for it is imposlible when he is to stay in it so thort a it should perceive the light we hold time? But I forget ; he will himself out to it while it is blind; or that decorate it after his own fancy; we it should pursue, over an immense shall see presently in what manner. plain of ideas, that route which
If, notwithstanding your precau- reason hath fo slightly traced, as tion, your child should commit some to be perceptible only to the sharpdisorder, or break fome piece of eft fight. furniture, don't go to punish or rate The first part of education, therehim for your own negligence ; don't fore, ought to be purely negative. let him bear from you a single word It consist neither in teaching vir. of reproach ; let him not ever per- tue nor truth ; but in guarding the ceive you are displeased, but actexact- heart from vice and the mind froin. ly in the same manner as if it had been
If you could be content to broke by accident: in a word, you do nothing yourself, and could pre.. inay think you
have effected a great vent any thing being done by opoint, if you can prevail on yourself thers ; if you could bring up your to say nothing about the matter. pupil healthy and robuft to the age
[welve years without his being able introdtion is necessary for them, to distinguish his right hand from take care not to give it them tohis left; the eyes of his understand- day, if it may be deferred without ing would be open to reason at your danger till to-morrow. firit leffon: void both of habit and Another confideration which conprejudice, his passions would not firms the utility of this method, is operate against your endeavours; the peculiar genius of the child, and he would become under proper which ought to be known before it instructions the wifeft of men. It is can be judged what moral regimen thus, by attempting nothing in the is best adapted to it. Every mind beginning, you might produce a hath its peculiar turn, according to prodigy of education.
which it ought to be educated ; and Take the road direally opposite it is of very material consequence to to that which is in use, and you will our endeavours, that it be educated almost always do right. As we according to that turn, and not to think it not enough children should any other. The prudent governor be chiidren, but it is expected they will watch a long time the workings should be masters of arts; fo fathers of nature, will observe his popi! and preceptors think they can never well before he speaks the first word have too many checks, corrections, to him: leave then his natural chareprimands, menaces, promises, in- racter at liberty to unfold itself; structions, fair speeches, and fine ar. lay it under no restraint whatever, guments, You will act wiser than that it may be the better laid open all this, by being reasonable yourself, to view. Do you think the time and never arguing with your child, lost in which a child is thus left ac particularly in striving to reconcile liberty ? Qaite the contrary: it will him to what he dislikes: for to use be thus best employed : for, is it not him to reason only upon disagree- thus you yourself learn to husband able subjects, is the way to disgust time still more precious? If you fet him, and bring argument early into about any thing before you know discredit with a mind incapable of in what manner to act, you proceed understanding it. Exercise his cor- at random: liable to mistake, you poreal organs, senses, and faculties, as are frequently obliged to undo what much as you please, but keep his is done; and find yourselves farintellectual ones inactive as long as ther from the end designed, than if poffible. Be cautious of all the len- you had been less precipitate to betiments he acquires previous to the gin the work. Act not the miser, judgment, which should enable him who loses much because he is unto scrutinize them. Prevent or re- willing to lose a little ; but facrifirain all foreign impressions; and, fice in infancy that time which you in order to hinder the rise of evil, will regain with usury in a more adÞe not in too great a hurry to inftil vanced age. A prudent physician good : for it is only such when the does not go blundering to prescribe, irind is enlightened by reason. Look at first fight of the fick; he enquires upon every delay as an advantage; first into the temperament and cir. it is gaining a great deal to advance cumstances of the patient, and then without losing any thing; let the adapts his prescription to them : he infancy of children therefore have begins late to adminifter his retime to ripen. In short, whatever