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and will ferve you; and your back is no fooner turned, but he tells thofe about him you are a dog and a rafcal. He goeth conftantly to prayers in the form of his place, and will talk bawdy and blafphemy at the chapel door. He is a prefbyterian in politics, and an atheist in religion; but he chufeth at prefent to whore with a papift. In his commerce with mankind his general rule is, to endeavour to impofe on their understanding, for which he hath but one receipt, a compofition of lies and oaths: and this he applieth indifferently to a freeholder of forty fhillings, and a privy counfellor; by which the eafy and the honeft are often either deceived or amused, and either way he gaineth his point. He will openly take your employment away to-day, because you are not of his party; tomorrow he will meet or fend for you, as if nothing at all had paffed, lay his hands with much friendship on your fhoulders, and, with the greatest cafe and familiarity, tell you that the faction are driving at fomething in the houfe; that you must be fure to attend, and to speak to all your friends to be there, although he knoweth at the fame time, that you and your friends are against him in the very point he mentioneth: and, however abfurd, ridiculous, and grofs this may appear, he hath often found it fuccessful; fome men having fuch an aukward bafhfulness, they know not how to refuse on a fudden, and every man having fomething to hope or fear, which often hinders them from driving things to extremes with perfons of power, whatever provocations they may have received. He hath funk his fortune by endeavouring to ruin one kingdom

[England], and hath raifed it by going far in the ruin of another Ireland.] With a good natural understanding, a great fluency in fpeaking, and no ill tafte of wit, he is generally the worst companion in the world; his thoughts being wholly taken up between vice and politics, fo that bawdy, prophanenefs, and business, fills up his whole converfation. To gratify himself in the two first, he maketh use of fuitable favourites, whofe talents reach no higher than to entertain him with all the lewdness that passeth in town. As for bufinefs he is faid to be very dexterous at that part of it which turneth upon intrigue; and he feemeth to have transferred those talents of his youth, for intriguing with women, into public affairs. For as fome vain young fellows, to make a gallantry appear of confequence, ftill chufe to venture their necks by climbing up a wall or window at midnight to a common wench, where they might as freely have gone in at the door, and at noon-day; fo his excellency, either to keep himself in practice, or advance the fame of his politics, affects the most obfcure, troublefome, and winding paths, even in the most common affairs, those which would be brought about as well in the ordinary terms, or would follow of course, whether he intervened or not.

He bears the gallantries of his lady with the indifference of a ftoic, and thinks them well recompenfed by a return of children to support his family, without the fatigues of being a father. He has three predominant paffions, which you will feldom find united in the fame man, as arifing from different difpofitions of mind, and naturally thwarting


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along as it were out of a rock i his founding a military difcipline in thefe nations, fuch as is not to be found in any example of preceding times; and whereby the noble foldiers of these nations may, without flattery, be commended for piety, moderation, and obedience. as a pattern to be imitated, but hardly to be equalled by fucceeding generations: his wifdom and piety in things divine; his prudence in management of civil affairs, and conduct in military, and admirable fucceffes in all, made him a prince indeed among the people of God; by whofe prayers being lifted up to the fupreme dignity, he became more highly feared in their hearts, because in all his actings, it was evident that the main defign was to make his own intereft one and the fame with theirs, that it might be fubfervient to the great intereft of Jefus Chrift.


And in the promoting of this, his fpirits knew no bounds; his af fection could not be confined at home, but broke forth into foreign parts, where he was univerfally ad mired by good men, as an extraordinary perfon raised up of God; and by them owned as the protector and patron of the evangelical profeffion. This being faid, and the world itself witness of it, we can only add, that God gave him blessings proportionable to all these vir tues, and made him a bleffing to us by his wifdom and valour, to fecure our peace and liberty, and to revive the ancient renown and reputation, of our native country.

After all this, it is remarkable how it pleased the Lord, on this day, to take him to reft, it having formerly been a day of labour to him; for which both himself and


the day (September 3) will be moft renowned to pofterity; it having been to him a day of triumphs and thanksgiving, for the memorable victories of Dunbar and Worcester *: a day which, after so many strange revolutions of Providence, high contradictions, and wicked confpiracies of unreasonable men, he lived once again to fee; and then to die with great affurances and ferenity of mind, peaceably in his bed.

Thus, it hath proved to him to be a day of triumph, indeed; there being much of Provideuce in it, that, after fo glorious crowns of victory, placed on his head by God, on this day, having neglected an earthly crown, he should now go to receive the crown of everlafting



Being gone, to the unfpeakable grief of all good men, the privy council immediately affembled; and being fatisfied that the lord protector was dead, and upon fure and certain knowledge that his late highness did, in his life-time, according to their humble petition and advice, declare, and appoint the moft noble aud illuftrious lord, the lord Richard, eldest fon of his faid highness, to fucceed him in the government as lord protector, it was fo refolved at the council; which being made known to the officers of the army, it was pleasant to behold with how much content and fatisfaction they received the notice of it, and unanimously concurred therewith; being refolved, to their utmoft, to maintain the fucceffion

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according to law: which worthy refolution of theirs, as it fpeaks them men of honour, prudence, and fidelity, mindful of the merits of their late great leader and common father, and of the grand interest ard establishment after all our fhakings; fo it is but answerable to the worth and nobleness of his fon, who, in all refpects, appears the lively image of his father, the true inheritor of all his chriftian virtues; a person, who, by his piety, humanity, and other noble inclinations, hath obliged the hearts of all, and thereby filled this people with the hopes of much felicity, thro' God's bleffing upon his government."

Then follows an account of the privy conncil's waiting on Richard, his fhort fpeech to them, and the manner of his proclamation: all which, being in every respect the fame as at the acceflion of every king, is not worth tranfcribing, as there would be nothing new in it, more especially at this juncture, when we had a recent example.


This panegyric on Oliver and his fon is clofed with the following prayer: May all the days of his highness's life be crowned with the bleffings of the most high God, and the highest affections of his people."

Such was the language made ufe of by the friends and partizans of Oliver Cromwell, whofe real character, after fuch extravagant applaufes on one fide, and detractions a the other, has been never better or more truly prefented, than by

* On the 3d of September, 1650, Cromwell totally defeated the Scots at Dunbar, under the the command of Lefley; and on the anniverfary of this battle, în the fucceeding year, was fought the great battle of Worcester, when Charles II. was totally defeated by Cromwell, and with great difficulty etcaped from the field of battle, under the innumerable handhips which every one is acquainted with, and at last fafely arrived in Normandy,


the great earl of Clarendon, who ftiles him, a great wicked man.

in whofe hands our breath is, and whofe are all our ways, because of his judgments) fo as to acknowledge him in his goodness to thefe lands, in that he hath not added forrow to forrow, and made the period of his late highness's life, and


As this fpeech is curious in itself, that of the nation's peace, to have

been in one day.

and not to be met with in any of the common or general histories of England, we imagine the perufal of it will not be difagreeable. The ftile is perfectly puritanical; but, as Richard was never accused of hypocrify, had no fhare in the crimes of his father, and ever led an innocent life, the language appears not in fo ridiculous a light, as when proceeding from the mouth of a man, the whole tenor of whofe actions contradicted and belied his words. The terms in which he fpeaks of his father, though it is needless to mention they are in the highest degree falfe and flattering, are no other than could be expected from him on fuch an occafion, at fuch a juncture, and to such an audience. The oration was as fol lows:


Remarkable Speech of Richard Cromwell to his Parliament.

"My Lords and Gentlemen,

"I believe there are fcarce any of you here, who expected, fome months fince, to have feen this great affembly, at this time, in this place, in peace; confidering the great and unexpected change, which it hath pleafed the all-difpofing hand of God to make in the midft of us: 1 can affure you, that if things had been according to cur own fears, and the hopes of our enemies, it had not been thus with us: and, therefore, it will become both you and me, in the first place, fas to reverence and adore the great God, poffeffor of heaven and earth,

Peace was one of the bleffings of my father's government; a mercy after fo long a civil war, and in the midst of fo great divifion which that war bred, is not ufually afforded by God unto à people in so great a measure.

The Caufe of God and these nations, which the late protector was engaged in, met, in all the parts of it, as you well know, with many enemies and great oppofition; the archers, privily and openly, forely grieved him, and fhot at him; yet his bow abode in strength, and the arms of his hands were made ftrong. by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob.

As to himself; he died full of days, fpent in fore and great travail; yet his eyes were not waxed dím, neither was his natural ftrength abated; as it was faid of Mofes, he was ferviceable even to the last.

As to these nations, he left them in great honour abroad, and in full. peace at home: all England, Scotland, and Ireland, dwelling fafely, every man under his vine, and under his fig-tree, from Dan even to Beersheba.

He is gone to reft, and we are entered into his labours; and, if the Lord hath ftill a bleffing for thefe lands, (as I truft he hath ) as our peace hath been lengthened out to this day, fo fhall we go on to reap the fruit, and gather the harvest, of what his late

highness hath fown and laid the foundation *.

For my own part, being by the Providence of God, and the difpofition of the law, my father's fucceffor, and bearing that place in the government that I do, I thought it for the public good, to call a parliament of the three nations, now united and conjoined together in one commonwealth, under one go


It is agreeable, not only to my truit, but to my principles, to go vern thefe nations by the advice of my two houses of parliament: I find it inferted in the humble petition and advice (which is the corner tone of this building, and that which I fhall adhere to) "That parliaments are the great council of the chief magiftrate, in whofe advice both he and these nations may be both fafe and happy." I can affure you, I have that efteem of them; and, as I have made it the first act of my governmeat to call you together, fo I fhall further let you fee the value I have of you, by the

You are come up

answers I fhall return to the advice that shall be given me by you, for the good of these nations. from your feveral countries, as the heads of ycur tribes, and with hearts (I perfuade myself) to confult together for their good: I can fay, I meet you with the fame defires, having nothing in my defign, but the maintenance of the peace, laws, and liberties, both civil and chriftian, of these nations: which I fhall always make the measure and rule of my government, and be ready to spend my life for.

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We have fummoned you up at this time, to let you know the ftate of our affairs, and to have your advice in them: and I believe a parliament was never fummoned upon a more important occafion.

It is true, as I told you, we are, through the goodness of God, at this time at peace; but it is not thus with us because we have no enemies: no, there are enough both within us and without us, who would foon put an end to our

*This puts one in mind of an anecdote related by M. de Voltaire. After Richard had quitted the protectorfhip he made a voyage to France, where being one day at Montpelier, the prince of Conti, brother of the great Condé, difcourfing with him, without knowing who he was, obferved, "That Oliver Cromwell was a great man, but that his fon Richard was a poor wretch, not to know how to enjoy the fruits of his father's crimes." This Richard, however, M. Voltaire remarks, lived contented, whereas his father had never known what happiness was. The genius of Richard was wholly different from that of Oliver; he was poffeffed of all the meek virtues which make the good citizen, and had none of that brutal intrepidity, which facrifices every thing to its own interefts. He might have preferved the inheritance which his father had acquired by his labours, if he would have confented to have put to death three or four of the principal officers of the army, who oppofed his elevation; but he chofé rather to lay down the government, than to reign by affaffination; and lived retired, and almost unknown, till the age of ninety, in a country of which he had once been the fovereign; having, in his own perfon, exhibited a striking proof, that the fate of a kingdom frequently depends upon the character of one man. Tranflation of Voltaire's Works, by Dr. Smollett, and others, vol. iv. pag. 246.



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