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intimate manner with her enemy, Britain was exhausted of men by that it was rendered imposible to her many victories, and her resources diftinguish the one from the other. were finking under a debt of more In this point, however, prudence than one hundred millions. was to interpofe,and circumitances to Besides, a rude shock had been direct. It was not, therefore, un- lately given to the system of the til every attempt to bring Spain English ministry, which might be to a clear declaration of pacific supposed, in some degree, likely to intentions had been tried without affect public credit.
The part fuccess, in the manner we have which Mr. P. might finally take, already seen, that war was actually and the consequences which might declared against her. This decla- result from his actions, were exsation was made, on our part, in tremely undermined ; nor was it at London, the ad of January of the all clear, what degree of harmopresent year.
ny and real confidence continued Since Great Britain was a king- amongst the several parts of the dom, she never was in such a doubto fubfifting administration. All these ful and dangerous situation; for at considerations could not fail of in. this time she was engaged, directly spiring France with great confior indirectly, in a war, not only dence. with all the great continental pow- Great Britain, under these cirers, but, what is more material, cumstances, had, however, some with the most considerable part of things in her favour. The hope of the maritime Arength of Europe. plunder which always attends a SpaAccording to the ordinary compu- nish war, disposed the minds of matations, the navy of Spain confilted ny towards the present ; and was of more than an hundred men of sure to call forth a very vigorous war; and though the French navy exertion both of public and private was greatly reduced, it became of strength. This circumstance also consideration when added to the insured the supplies. Spanish. Great efforts were made With regard to the administrato render it respectable. Several tion, their delay in entering into communities in France engaged to this Spanilh war, contrary to the fit out men of war at their own ex- ideas of Mr. P. his resignation in pence; and in general that whole consequence of this delay; the ne. people felt, after having been funk cessity which so soon after appeared, under a long despondency, a mo- of engaging in hoftilities, and which, mentary glow of hope and anima- to the bulk of the people, seemed to tion from this alliance, so power- justify the sentiments of that miniful in its real strength, and in its fter, together with a recollection principles fo flattering to the na- of the fingular spirit with which the tional vanity. The glory of their French war had been carried on, royal house was, on this occasion, mutt necessarily have excited them united with the safety of their coan- to the moft ftrenuous efforts, and try, They were reinforced by the to every act of laudable emulamoft cordial amity of a power un- tion. There was
a necessity of touched in its resources of men, hewing, that the spirit of the namoney, and itores; whilft. Great tion, and the wisdom of its coun
cils, were pot confined to a single to make our forces seem, and be, man; and it was shewn effe&tual- almost irresistible. ly.
. Spain, on the other hand, had, We had, also to ballance the in the very conftitution of her great ftrength derived from the ex- power, an essential defect, which traordinary combination of our ene-exposed her on this, as upon all mies, that uniform tenor of success other occafions. Her resources, on our fide, which made our people though very great, are not within believe themselves invincible. This herself; and consequently are not was not an ungrounded presump- always at her command, being subtion, or a dream of enthusiasm : ject not only to be intercepted by their juit opinion of fuperior cou- the operations of the war, but to be rage, together with the solid expe- destroyed or lost by the casualty of rience derived from such a variety long voyages; and, in every event, of services, and so many sharp con- are liable to delay and disappoint flicts by sea and land, all combined ment.
CH A P. II.
Portugal threatened. Melancholy state of that kingdom. Arrogant propofi
tion of the French and Spanish ministers to the court of Lifoon. Answer of that court. Several memorials. Resolution of the king of Portugal. French and Franish minifters depart. War declared by those powers again Portugal.
UCH was our fituation, both taken in fixing upon Portugal. No
at home and abroad, at the mention was made, indeed, of the breaking out of this new war. Spanish pretensions to that crown; Something extraordinary was to be but a resolution was taken not only expected from the confederacy of to oblige her to renounce all friend, the house of Bourbon. It was not, fhip, but to violate her neutrality however, altogether certain where with Great Britain. the storm, that was gathering, would No attempt was ever designed fall. There were apprehensions for with less appearance of justice; no the peace of Italy; Holland had proposition was ever made with fome cause of dread; and menaces more arrogance and despotism to an were used in that quarter. But Por- independent fovereign; and no tugal seemed to be most endanger- scheme seemed, according to every ed, on account of her close and na. human appearance, fo certain of suctural connection with Great Britain, cess. her internal weakness, the ancient The kingdom of Portugal on claims of the catholic king, and the the recovery of her liberty, which opportunity of invasion; the king- happened in the year 1640, found dom being on all fides, except to herself fripped of the greatest part the sea, in a manner inclosed by of those acquisitions, in both Indies. Spain.
which had been the principal sources Public conjecture was not mif- of her power, and the great monų. ments of the capacity of her former - reduced to the utmoft distress and kings and commanders. During the misery. interval of her subjection, new com- As if this earthquake, which mercial powers had risen, some on overturned their capital, had also the ruins of her fortune, and others thaken and distracted the frame of upon different but not less subftan- their government, and the temper tial foundations. Though the Brazils of their minds, the most dreadful were recovered, and Goa and some distempers broke out in the state. other places in India remained ftill A series of horrid crimes, and of to Portugal, her maritime power, and cruel punishments, succeeded to this tbe fare of trade, on which it de- calamity. The moft noble and pended, were not recoverable. Con- wealthy family of Portugal, having trary to the fate of other nations, engaged itself in a sacrilegions at who have taken off a foreign de- tempt on the life of their sovereign, minion, she did not owe her liberty was cut off at once, with little dil to great abiliites. Whilst the United tinction of sex or age, by a bloody Provinces were firft freed, and af- and dreadful exertion of justice. terwards aggrandized, by the capa. Many others, who were accused op city of the princes of Orange, and suspected, suffered death, or exile; whild Pruffia, from an inconfiderable or imprisonment. Amongst these, and dependent principality, grew and from the fame causes, one of into a formidable monarchy by the the most considerable religious orgenius of her sovereigns, Portugal ders for wealth, influence, and pocontinued to languish in a state of licy, was stripped of its poffeffions, mediocrity. Without any symp- and intirely driven out of the toms of danger to her existence, country. she suffered a gradual decay of her All these circumstances left this. power and conlideration. The cha- unhappy kingdom in the utmost racter of her government was nar
weakness and confufion. All those, row and bigoted, and the whole fys- and they were not a few, who were tem of her commerce preposterous. attached by connexion of blood or If, on the one hand, a long peace interest to the nobles that had sufadded to the resources of her re- fered, or by religious prejudice to venue, it, on the other, absolutely the Jesuits who had been expelled, annihilated her military; and no could never be cordially relied upon country in the world had an army by the crown, and were probably as fo incomplete in numbers, so ill little inclined to any extraordinary furnished with arms, fo deficient in efforts in favour of a government, discipline, and so wholly unprovided which their resentments must have of able and experienced officers. represented to them as no better In this condition the suffered a
than a bloody tyranny, fatal blow from the earthquake in The Bourbon confederacy had 1756.
The wealthy and flourish- fome ground to suppose that Poring city of Lisbon was laid level tugal, in this situation, would not with the ground ; near thirty thou have courage to withstand their sand of the inhabitants were buried menaces,
and much less ability in the ruins ; and those who re- for
any long time to resist their majned, with the court itsell, were efforts.
The Spanish army over
spread the frontiers of Portugal; posed from the attempts of the the commerce of corn between the English. two kingdoms was prohibited, and The two ministers added to this every thing threatened a sudden in- extraordinary memorial, that they 6th Mar.
vasion. In the midst of were ordered by their courts to de
thefe hoftile preparations, mand a categorical answer in four the French and Spanish minifters days; and that any delay, beyond presented a joint memorial to the that time, should be considered as a court of Lisbon, which was followed negative. by several others. The purport of
The situation of Portugal was at these memorials was to perfuade his this time certainly worthy of commost faithful majesty to enter into paffion. If, contrary to her known the alliance, and co-operate in the interests, contrary to her ancient conmeasures of the two crowns, against nections, and to the faith of treaties, Great Britain.
she should engage in this offensive It was not easy to find very con- alliance, she must expect to see her vincing arguments to induce Por- territories and her colonies exposed tugal to adopt fo extraordinary a to the formidable navies of Eng. change of system. The united land. This however dangerous concrowns, in a memorial which was descension was not to secure her, by figned by the ambassadors of both, her own act, she would have put insisted largely on the tyranny herself, bound hand and foot, into which Great Britain exerted upon the power of the Bourbon alliance; all powers, especially the maritime, and having received foreign garand upon Portugal among the rest; risons into all her places of strength, on the particular insult which had would have reduced herself to the been offered to her jurisdiction, by condition of a province of Spain. Boscawen's attack on de la Clue's On the other hand, if she adhered squadron in a Portuguese harbour; to her faith, and attempted to mainon that affinity, by which the two tain her independency, an army of monarchs of Spain and Portugal are fixty thousand men was ready to enas closely connected by their ties of ter her territories, which contained blood, as all powers are by a com- no place of real strength, and which mon interest, io oppose the ambi- had not twenty thousand troops, ticus defigns of the English. and those il armed, and worse dis
Whatever these arguments were ciplined; to defend it. deficient in reason, was made up by In this emergency, the firmness a Itrong infinuation of force. The of the king of Portugal was emimemorial concluded with decla- nents, and such as must deliver his sation, that as soon as his rnost name to pofterity to the most diffaithful majesty had taken his relo- tinguished advantage. He resolved lution, which they doubted not steadily to adhere to his ancient and would prove favourable, their
natural alliance, and to brave all was ready to enter Portugal, and to dangers and difficulties, that he garrison the principal ports of that might preserve his fidelity inviokingdom, in order to prevent the lable; following that generous dangers to which they might be ex- maxiın of king John of France, that if good faith were to be ba- navigation, without the ports and nished from all other parts of the the affistance of Portugal; that these world, it ought to be found in the islanders could not insult all maribreast of sovereigns.
time Europe, if all the riches of His answer to this infulting propo- Portugal did not pass into their fition was humble and moderate, but hands; that therefore Portugal fure firm: he observed that the ties, which nishes them with the means to make equally united him to Great Britain war; and their alliance with the and the two crowns, rendered him court of Great Britain is offensive. as proper a mediator to them all, Certainly, the fituation of a as they made it improper for him country was never before given as to declare himself an enemy to any a reason, however it might have of them; that his alliance with served as a secret motive, for deEngland was ancient, and therefore claring war against it. Nor was it could give no offence at this con- before heard, that the common adjuncture ; that it was purely defen- vantages of trade, derived from a five, and therefore innocent in all neutral nation, could be deemed an its circumstances; that the late fuf- act of hoftility. These were rather ferings of Portugal disabled her (in infults than arguments. And the case the were willing) from taking whole proceedings of the united part in an offensive war, into the crowns was in the same strain : they calamities of which, neither the undertook to judge for Portugal of love his faithful majesty bore to the pretended yoke which was imbis fubje&s as a father, nor the posed upon her by England, and duty by which he was bound to which the could not herself discothem as a king, could suffer him to ver; to resent injuries for her, for plunge them. Finally, he reminded which she had received and accepted the Catholic king of his pacific dif- satisfaction; and, as if this had not positions, by which, on former oc. been indignity fufficient, they incafions, he had yielded so much, to fultingly inform the king of Portupreserve peace between the two gal, that he ought to be glad of the kingdoms.
neceffity which they laid upon him to This reasonable and moderate make use of his reason, in order to answer drew on replies, which more take the road of his glory, and the and more disclosed the true charac- common interest. This necessity was ter and spirit of the Bourbon con- the immediate march of their army federacy. They denied that the to take poffeffion of his dominions. alliance with England was purely So extraordinary a treatment defensive, or intirely innocent; and neither intimidated the king from for this unheard-of reason, that the the firmness of his resolution, nor defenfive alliance is converted into provoked him to change from the an offenfive one, from the fituation of moderation of his language. He the Portuguese dominions, and from maintained, that the treaties of the nature of the English power : the league and commerce, which sub. English squadron, said they, can- fifted between Portugal and Great not keep the sea in all seasons, nor Britain, are such as the law of God, cruize on the principal coafts for of nature, and of nations, have al cutting off the French and Spanilh ways deemed innocent. He intreal