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Proposals for peace. State of the ministry and parties. Dukes of Bedford

and Nivernois employed in the negotiation. Newfoundland taken and retaken. War in Germany. Hereditary prince defeated at Iohannisberg. French repulsed. Caffel invested. Remarkable cannonade at Bucker Mubl. French take Amoneberg. Caffel surrendered to the allies. War in Weftphalia concluded.

HEN France had found ex- familiar to us, and made but little

W .

at least was not the favourable time joy on the most confiderable confor drawing from her alliance all quests, were become much fighter those advantages with which the and colder than were fhewed at the flattered herself, me inclined in beginning of the war, upon very good earnest to peace. The since- trivial advantages. Besides the rity of her procedure in the former nation had occafion for peace. negotiation might be justly question. Though her trade had been greatly ed; because the had prepared an augmented, a circumstance without after-game in case of its breaking example favourable, and though off. And she so much relied on it, many of her conquests, as we have that it is very possible the negotiation feen, were very far from 'unluitself was but a feint made to cover crative, her supplies of money, and to prepare that project. But great as they were, did not keep finding that Great Britain was nei- pace with her expences. The fup. ther intimidated by the threats of ply of men too, which was necesiathat formidable alliance, nor at all ry to furnish the waste of fo exten. likely to be reduced by the exertion five a war, became sensibly diminishof its forces; she came in good ed, and the troops were not reearnest into these pacific sentiments, cruited but with some difficulty, which formerly the had only coun- and at a heavy charge. It was terfeited. The flow progress of the time to close the war, when every Bourbon troops in Portugal, the re- end, we could rationally propose to trogade motion of the French army ourselves in carrying it on, was an. in Germany, the taking of Marti- swered ; we had enough in our nico and its dependencies, and the hands to answer all our demands, imminent danger in which they be- and almost all our expectations; and held the Havannah, all conspi, as it is grown into a sort of maxim. red to humble the pride, and that nations greatly victorious, mult dalh the hopes of the Bourbon al. cede something on

a peace, the liance.

difficulty on our side was only On the side of Great Britain, like. what and how much we should rewise, the dispositions to peace became tain. Not that there was a doubt, much more cordial. No people but whatever choice of acquisition were ever less intoxicated with their could be made upon any racional successes. Victories were become principles, a great deal would din

remain to give the fullest scope to in his character, were rather of fera every sentiment of equity and mo- vice to him, as they often tended deration.

to foften resentments, and helped All these were sufficient induce

to give that great power, of which ments to peace. But other things he was possessed, an appearance operated as caufes. An alteration less formidable. in the fystem of the British ministry During a great part of the late had begun this war ; another altera- king's reign, his family had directed tion put an end to it.

all things without controul. On The whole council had been the acceffion of his present majefty, almost unanimous to oppose Mr. his situation seemed more doubtful. P. in his scheme for precipitating But in a little time he appeared outthe declaration of war against Spain. wardly as well established as ever, They thought his principles too not only in his former high employviolent, and they did not perfe&tly ments, but in that share of influence like his person. When he retired which is commonly supposed to atfrom public bufiness, it seemed as if tend it. There was, however, very they breathed more freely, and had little reality in this specious apgot rid of a burthen that oppressed pearance; for he did not possess the them. But he was not long remov- +- confidence, upon which all the ed, when it appeared that the re- effential of power depends. Neither maining part of the system, was his age, nor his fituation in the framed upon principles so very dif- former reign, had allowed him the cordant in themselves, that it was opportunity of cultivating an inby no means likely to stand. terest with the present K. Another

The D. of N- first lord of noble person had been in an emthe treasury, by his early zeal in ployment rear his perfon; and favour of the protestant fucceffion, having formed his mind with much by the liberal and politic use he had attention and success to these virtues made of a great fortune, by the ob- which adorn his station, deferved ligations which in a course of many and obtained a very uncommon share years, and in a succession of great of his confidence. employments, he was enabled to This nobleman was first groom confer on fome of the most confider- of the fole: afterwards, taking a able people in the kingdom, had more open share of the conduct of attached a great number to his for- affairs, he accepted the seals as feranes, and formed an interest in the cretary of state. On the removal parliament and the nation, which of Mr. P. who preserved a sort of it was extremely difficult to over- union in the adminiftration by their turn, or even shake.

He came

common dread of him, the only to be considered as the head of the competition was between the D. of whigs ; and he was in reality well N. and L. B. The former could qualified in many respects for the not well endure that decay of inchief of a party, from his unbound- fluence, which, on a thousand oced liberality, from his affability, cafions, he must have fenfibly felt, magnificence, and personal disin- and which the great rank he held terestedness. Even the defects and muft have rendered only more painfaults, which might have appeared fal. L. B. on the other hand, could


not bear to see the treasury board, from thence to endeavour at the which, under whatever limitations, revival of this almost exploded diwas attended with so much power, stinction. There were great heats, in the hands of his rival. It is in which were blown into a comburdeed a department, the intire con- tion by every art, and every induct of which is absolutely essential strument of party, that had ever to the person who has any pre- proved effectual upon similar oç. tenfiors to be at the head of the cafons. British adminiftration.

Whilft the nation was chus dia These principles foon produced stracted, the conduct of sa war betheir natural effect. In a short time came difficult; its continuance unthe D. of N. thought himself safe; and its supplies uncertain. May 26. obliged to refign, and the If the adminiftraton failed, their

L. B. became first com- failure would be construed into inmissioner of the treasury. This capacity; if they facceeded, their resignation was followed by that of success would be converted into an others of greater consideration for argument for such terms of peace, their rank and influence. No one as it would be impossible for them was surprised at the ferment which to procure. Above all, the ancient ensued ; in which personal resent- and known connection between ment, party violence, and national, the chiefs of the moneyed interest or rather local prejudices, were all and the principal persons in the opunited, to throw every thing into position, must have been a subject of confusion,

great anxiety to the administration, In this condition of parties, a These causes co-operated to rennumber of those called Whigs, who der the intentions of the British mia had lost their places, being highly niftry towards peace altogether corirritated at the late changes, and dial and fincere; and they thoughc even many of those who till con- themselves abundantly justified in tinued in employments, being sup- their wishes for it at this juncture, posed attached to the interest of the both from the successes and the butD. of N. and therefore not to be thens of the nation ; from the foudepended on by the new admini- rishing state of some of their allies, Atration, it became necessary to have and the doubtful Atate of others; and recourse to those called Tories, or in general, from those arguments of country gentlemen.

humanity, which made it high time From the beginning of this reign that Europe should enjoy some in it had been profeffed, with the ge- terval of repose. neral applause of all good men, to Both courts thus concurring in abolish those odious party diftince the same point, all difficulties were tions, and to extend the royal fa- speedily smoothed. It is said, that vour and protection equally to all the firlt overtures were made under his majesty's fubje&ts. The persons the mediation of his Sardinian macalled Tories had, .besides, been jesty. As soon as terms were probefore active in support of some of poled, in order to give a pledge to those, who now clamoured at the each other of their mutual fincerity, very measures which they had it was agreed that this treaty

fhould themselves, more than once, adopt- not be negotiated, as the former ed. However, occafion was taken had been, by fubordinate persons ;


but that the two courts should reci- feded the neceflity of this armament: procally fend to London and Ver- He detached colonel Amherst with failles a person of the first conse- a body of forces, and lord Colville quence and distinction in either with a small, but sufficient {quakingdom. Accordingly the, duke dron, to recover this valuable island. of Bedford was sent to negotiate on

The land forces attacked some dethe part of England, and the duke tachments of the French, advande Nivernois on that of France; tageously posted in the neighbourthe great outlines of the treaty were hood of St. John's, and prepared very soon explained and adjusted. to attack St. John's itself, with so The detail of some articles took up much vigour and activity, that M. * more time.

d' Hausonville, who had remained During this mixed interval of there as governor, thought proper war and treaty, the French obtained to deliver up that place, and füra temporary advantage; but which render himself and gar. Sept. 18. neither suspended nor influenced rison prisoners of war, the negotiation. It was the last of- before lord Colville could arrive fensive effort, which they made; from the place where the troops had and though this enterprize was at- been landed to co-operate with them. tended with a temporary success in M. de Ternay escaped with the the execution, it was in the design fleet, partly by having gained a not fuperior to any of those that had considerable distance, before they failed. Monsieur de Ternay, with were discovered, by means of a thick a squadron of four men of war and fog; and partly because lord Cola bomb-ketch, and M. d'Hauson- ville, after their having been disco. ville, with a proportionable num- vered, did not apprehend that they ber of land forces, arrived the 24th really were the enemy's ships. of June at the bay of Bulls in New- It

was in Germany that the foundland, and finding the island greatest efforts were made. Even little prepared to refilt them, took after the negotiations had been conwithout difficulty, the forts of St. fiderably advanced, the military John, Trinity and Carbonear, de operations were in that country no Itroyed the two last, and likewise way Nackened. The body under the stages and implements of the the marshals d'Estrees and Soubise, fishery to a considerable value. The being streightened, in the manner immense extent of our military ope- we have seen, by the incomparable 'rations, rendered it little wonderful judgment of prince Ferdinand's or blameable, that this particular measures, had been obliged to call part was found weak.

that under the prince of Condé The French presumed by far too from the Lower Rhine to their almuch on the supineness of the nation, fistance. In order to complete their when they hoped such an advantage junction with this corps, the grand could have any great effect on the army uncovered Caffel, quitted the negotiation. In fact, as soon as the banks of the Fulda, and fell back news arrived in England, a force was to a considerable distance. The befitted out to retake those places. reditary prince of Brunswick, who But such was the vigilance and rea- had attended this corps all along, diness of general Amherst, our com- thought at length a fair opportunity mander in America, that it fuper


Sept. 26.


had occurred of Itriking a decisive immediate and vigorous prepara

blow against it. With this tions to befiege it. Aug. 30. aid he attacked, with his When the prince had adjusted his usual vivacity, that part of the French army to cover the fiege; the French army, which was posted at a place took advantage of his movement called the heights of Johannisberg, for that purpose, to repass the Lahne near the banks of the Wetter. At first near Giessen, and advanced towards his success was answerable to his Marpurg. But as they advanced, own expectations, and the courage the prince drew his army from the of his troops. He drove the enemy fiege, and made such dispositions as intirely from the high grounds into enabled him to fall at once upon the plain; but whilft he pursued his their flank and rear,drove advantage, the body he attacked them from all their posts, was reinforced by the main army. and obliged them once more to fly The action, which began fo fa- with precipitation behind the Lahne. vourably for the allies, ended in a After this successful affair, the defeat. They loft above three thou. body of the army resumed their sand men in killed, wounded, and preparations for the fiege of Caffel, prisoners. The hereditary prince, which was now become the grand who had, through the whole action, object of the campaign ; and the made the most powerful efforts, and great purpose of the endeavours of exposed him?elf to the greatest dan- both armies was, of the one gers, received a wound from a open the communication, wich Cali musket-ball in his hip-bone, from fel, of the other to cut it off. which his life was a long time A number of skirmishes happened doubtful, and his recovery linger- in these movements. The most reing and tedious. Whilft his life markable among themwas continued in danger, the concern the affair of Bucker Muhi. Sept: 30. was unusual, and common to both not so much for the consequences, armies; both taking an interest in which were not extraordinary, but the preservation of a prince, as for the uncommon steadiness of the much endeared by his humanity, two parties engaged. It was a poit as admired by his valour and mili- of some moment, the forcing of' tary genius.

which would facilitate to the French A victory of the greatest im- the reduction of Amonebourg, a portance could not have more fully small fortress, but of importance, displayed the superiority of prince as it commanded à pass which led Ferdinand's capacity in the con- into the country which they product of a war, than his measures posed to enter: This post was after this defeat. The French were nothing more than a bridge over not suffered to derive the smallest the Ohme, defended by a slighe readvantage from this victory ; nor · doubt on one side, and by a mill 0.1 did the allies lose a foot of ground. the other. The allies had no cjVET, The communication with Cassel was except the redoubt ; nor the Fren.b, still at the mercy of the allies. The except the mill. The enzagement French, in their retreat, had thrown began at first between two ima!! a garrison of ten thousand men into bodies, and an artillery proporzio". that place ; and the prince made ably small; but as the action warn. Vol. V.



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