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driving them from this ground. nity of a favourable capitulation. Whilst these dispositions were make- Influenced by these mo'ives, and ing, the enemy's whole force de- disheartened by the train of misforscended from the hill, fallied out of tunes which had attended the the town, and attacked the Eng- French arms here and in all other lish in their advanced posts ; but parts of the world, they resolved to they were immediately repulsed: hold out no longer; and general and the ardour of the British troops Monckton, just as he was ready to hurrying them forward, they im- embark for the reduction of St. proved a defensive advantage into Pierre,was fortunately pre- Feb. 12. an attack, passed the ravines, min- vented by the arrival of degled with the enemy, scaled the paties, who came to capitulate for hill, feised the batteries, and posted the surrender of that place, and of themselves on the fummit of Morne the whole isand. Garnier. The French regular troops
The surrender of Martinico, escaped into the town. The militia which was the seat of the superior dispersed themselves in the country. government, the principal mart of
All the situations which commande trade, and the center of all the ed the town and citadel were now fe- French force in the Caribbees, nacured ; and the enemy waited no turally draw on the surrender of all longer than until the batteries the dependent islands. Granada, a
fertile island, and poffefied of some Feb. 4. pleted to capitulate, and good harbours, was given
up withto surrender this important place, out opposition. St. Lucia, and St. the second in the island.
Vincent, the right to which had to The capital of the island, St. long been obječts of contention bePierre, ftill remained to be reduced : tween the two nations, followed its this is also a place of no contemp- example. The English were now tible strength; and it was appre. the fole and undisturbed possessors hended that the resistance here of all the Caribbees, and held that might be considerable, if the chain of innumerable islands which strength of the garrison in any de- forms an immense boiv, extending gree corresponded with that of the from the eastern point of Hispafortifications, and with the natural niola almost to the continent of advantages of the country. Our South America. And though some troops therefore were still under of these islands are barren, none of fome anxiety for the final success of them very large, and not many of their work, and feared, if not dif- them well inhabited, they boast appointment, at least delay. But more trade than falls to the lot of the reduction of Fort Royal had so many respectable kingdoms. greatly abated the 'enemy's confi- The time, in which Martinico dence, that the militia despaired was reduced, was a circumílance of of making any effeétual defence. almost as much confequence as the The planters also, solicitous for their reduction itself; for the war against fortunes, were apprehensive of Spain having been declared in the having their estates ruined by a war beginning of the year, it became too long continued, or perhaps of adviseable to strike early such an etlofing all by palling the opportu- fective blow against that nation as
might incline them to a speedy bad preparative for a greater atpeace, or might influence the for- tempt. The plan, therefore, of the tune of ihe whole war, if, contrary war of 1740 in the Spanish Indies, to our wishes, the war should conti- in which we began with Porto Bello, nue.
It was, on this plan, necel- and fo proceeded to Carthagena, sary to employ a very great force, &c. was mean, because the success and, of course, to call away a very in one of these attempts did nothing ' considerable part of that which had towards injuring success in the other; been employed at. Martinico, whilft and if we had succeeded in both atthe season permitted them to act. tempts, our advantage would have
When the British administration had but little influence on a third. determined to transfer the war into But the plan of the war, just now the Spanish West Indies, with great concluded, was great and just; bejudgment they fixed their eyes at cause we began with the Havannah, once upon the capital object; and in which the whole trade and naviresolved to commence their opera- gation of the Spanish West Indies tions where others of less ability centers, and without which it carrwould have chosen to conclude them. not be carried on. If we should In an attempt upon subordinate
in this conquest, this conplaces, the conquert would not have quest alone would almost have fibeen much more certain; when ob- nished the war; because it would tained, it would be far from deci- have utterly intercepted the enemy's five; and a failure would have been refources. If we chose to pursue fatal, as it would include a loss of our advantage, it exposed the whole reputation. The failure of an ar- Spanish America. mament in a subordinate attack is a
Commanders in the expedition against the Havannah. Fleet fails from Portf
mouth. Paffage through the old streights of Bahama. Town and harbour of the Havannah described. Troops land. Disposition of the troops. Siege of Fort
Moro. Captain Harvey cannonades the Morr. English battery fired. Distress of the English forces. Succours arrive from North America. A sally. The fort formed. Operations against the town. The Havannah
surrenders. Advantages of this acquisition.
I within is enterprize,fach com vereignty which his country a had
manders were to be chosen, as could obtained in the East Indies, was be safely intrusted with the conduct now chosen to extend its empire of an undertaking so weighty, and and its honour in the Weft. on the success of which fo much de- They failed from Portsmouth on pended. Lord Albemarle, the friend the 5th of March, the day on and disciple of the D. of C. which the Grenades were surrendercommanded the land forces. Ad. ed. A fleet had failed from Martinico miral Pococke, who having contri: under the command of that spirited
and intelligent officer, Sir James fage ; and being provided with a Douglas, in order to reinforce them.' good chart of lord Anson's, he rir The squadrons very happily met, folved to trust to his own fagaci ty, withoạt delay or dispersion, at Cape conduct and vigilance, to carry Nichola, the north-west point of safely through those streights a feet Hispaniola, on the 27th of Mayof near two hundred fail. So bold After this junction, the armament an attempt had never been made ; amounted to nineteen ships of the but every precaution was taken to line ; eighteen small vessels of war; guard this boldness from the impuand near one hundred and fifty tation of temerity. A vessel was fent transports, which conveyed about to reconnoitre the passage, and, when ten thousand land forces. A supply returned, was ordered io take the of four thousand had been ordered lead; some frigates followed; floops from New York, and was expected and boats were itationed on the right to join them very near as early as and left on the shallows, with well they could be supposed able to adapted fignals both for the day and commence their operations.
the night. The fleet moved in seven There were cwo choices before divisions. And being favoured with the admiral for his course, to the pleasant weather, and secured by Havannah. The first and most ob- the admirable difpofitions which were vious was the common way, to made, they, without the smallest loss keep to the south of Cuba, and fall or interruption, got clear thro' this into the track of the galleons. But perilous pasiage on the 5th of June, this, though by much the safest, having entered it the 27th of May. would prove by far the most tedious The Havannah, the object of paffage ; and delays, above all their long voyage, and of fo many things, were to be avoided, as the anxious hopes and fears, was now fuccess of the whole enterprize before them. This place is not would probably depend upon its denominated the capital of Cuba; being in forwardness before the St. Jago, situated at the south-ealè hurricane season çame on. He there- part of the island, has that title: fore resolved to run along the north- but the Havannah, though the feen shore of that island, pursuing cond in rank, is the first in wealth, his career from east to weft through fize, and importance. The hara narrow paffage, not less than seven bour, upon which it ftands, is, an hundred miles in length, called the every respect, one of the belt in the ald streights of Bahama.
West Indies, and perhaps in the This passage, through almost the world. It is entered by a narrow whole of its extent,is bounded on the passage, upwards of half a mile in right and left by the most dangerous. length, which afterwards expands fands and shoals, which render the into a large bason, forming three navigation so hazardous, that it has cul de facs; and is sufficient, in extent usully been avoided by single and and depth, to contain a thousand small vessels. There was no pilot fail of the largest ships, having alin the fleet whose experience could most throughout fix fathom wate's be depended on to conduct them and being perfectly covered from safely through it. The admiral, every wind. In this bay the rich however, determined on this paf- fleets from the several parts of the
Spanish West Indies, called the our squdron. They were not very Galleons and the Flota, affemble, far from an equality; and though before they finally set out on their the issue of a battle might have voyage for Europe.
proved unfavourable to them, yet This circumstance has rendered a battle tolerably maintained would the Havannah one of the most have much disabled our armamenr, opulent, flourishing, and populous and perhaps have been a means of cities in this part of the world, preventing the success of the whole Great care was taken to fortify and enterprize. The loss of their feet in secure a place, which, by being the this way might postibly have saved center of so rich a commerce, would the city ; but, the city once taker, naturally become the faireft mark nothing could possibly save the for the attempts of an enemy. The feet. It is true, they much trusted, narrow entiance into this harbour and not wholly without reason, 10 is secured on one side by a very the strength of the place, and to strong fort, called the Moro, built those astonishing difficulties which upon a projecting point of land : attend any military operation, that on the other, it is defended by a is drawn out to length in this unfort called the Pantal, which joins healthy climate. In other respects, the town, The town itself, which they were very far from being defiis fituated to the westward of the cient in proper measures for their entrance of the harbour, and opposite defence. They made a strong boom to the Moro fort, is surrounded by a across the mouth of the harbour ; good rampart, flanked with bal- and almost the only use they made of cions, and covered with a ditch.
their shipping, in the defence of the The Spaniards, who had been place, was to fink three of them for some time preparing for war, behind this boom. had formed a considerable navy in When all things were in readithe West Indies : this fleet, which ness for landing, the admiral, with was near twenty fail, mostly of the a great part of the fleet, bore away line, lay at this time in the balon to the westward, in order to draw of the Havannah ; but they had the enemy's attention from the true not, when our armament appeared' object, and made a feint, as if he before the port, received, it seems, intended to land upon that side; any authentic account from their while commodore Keppel and capcourt concerning the commence- tain Hürvey commanding a detachment of hoftilities between the two ment of the squadron, approached nations.
the more to the eastward of the Whether the Spaniards were ren- harbour, and effected a dered inactive by the want of in- landing there in the u:Atructions, whether all their thips molt order, without any opposition, were not in fighting condition, or having previously filenced a small whatever else was the cause, this fort, which might have given some fleet lay quiet in the harbour. If disturbance. fome of the above reasons did not The principal body of the army oppose, it may be very rationally was destined to act upon this fide. supposed, that their beit
would It was divided into two corps ; one have becn to come out and fight of which was advanced à confi
derable way in the country, towards culties, no hardships, flackened for the south-east of the harbour, in a moment the operations againit order to cover the fiege, and to fe- this important, strong, and well decure our parties employed in wa- fended place. Batteries were, in tering and procuring provisions. spite of all difficulties, raised against This
corps was commanded by ge. the Moro, and along the bill upon neral Elliot. The other was im. which this fort stands, in order to mediately occupied in the attack on drive the enemy's fhips deeper into Fort Moro, to the reduction of the harbour, and thus to prevent which the efforts of the English them from molesting our approaches. were principally directed, as the The enemy's fire, and tkat of Moro commanded the town, and the besiegers, was for a long time the entrance of the harbour. This pretty near on an equality, and it attack was conducted by general was kept up with great vivacity on Keppel. To make a diversion in both sides. The Spaniards in the favour of this grand operation, a fort communicated with the town, detachment, under colonel How, from which they were recruited and was encamped to the westward of supplied : they did not rely solely the town. This body cut off the on their works; they made communication between the town a sally with sufficient reloand the country, and kept the lution, and a considerable force, but enemy's attention divided. Such with listle success. They were was the disposition, and it was im- obliged to retire, with a loss of two poffible to find a better, of the land or three hundred men left dead on forces during the whole fiege.
the spot. The hardships which the English Whilst these works were thus viarmy fullai:ed, in carrying on the gorously puthed on fhore, the navy, frege of the Moro, are almost in- not contented with the great aliitexpressible: the earth was every ance which they had before lent 10 where so thin, that it was with great every part of the land service, redifficulty they could cover them- Solved to try something further, and selves in their approaches. There which was more directly within their was no spring or river near them; own province, towards the reduction it was necesary to bring water of the Moro. Accordingly, the day from a great distance; and so pre- the batteries on fhore were opened, carious and scanty was this supply, three of their greateit thips, che Dra. that they were obliged to have re- gon, the Cambridge, and the Marl, course io water from the ships. borough, under the conduct of capi. Roads for communication were to Harvey, laid their broadsides againit be cut through thick woods; the the fort, and began a terarrillery was to be dragged for a vast sible fire, which was re
July 1. way over a rough rocky shore. Se- turned with great contancy. This veral dropped down dead with heat, firing, one of the warmeit ever thirit, and fatigue. But such was seen, continued for seven hours the resolution of our people, such without intermiflion. But in this the happy and perfect unanimity cannonade the Moro, which was which fubalted between the land situated upon a very high and sleep and the fea services, that no diffi- rock, and great advantages over