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derived its ducal titles. This town amounting to almost the whole ar. made no greater defence than Mi. my in Tralos Montes, and imme
randa. From thence a de- diately laid fiege to Almeida, which, May 15. tachment marched to though in no good order, was the Moncorvo, which was surrendered strongeit and best provided place in the like manner ; and every upon the frontiers of Portugal. thing was cleared before them to Befides, it was of the greatest imthe banks of the Douro. A party portance from its middle fituation, under count O Reilly made a forced as the possession of it would greatly
march of fourteen leagues, facilitate the operations upon every May 24. in two days, to the city side, and would especially tend to of Chaves, which was immediately forward an attempt upon Lisbon, evacuated. By these successes they which was the capital obje&, tobecame masters of almost the whole wards which, at this time, all the of the extensive province of Tralos endeavours of the Spaniards feem to Montes, and their progress spread have been directed. a general alarm. Oporto was al. Almeida was defended with fuf. most given up as loft ; and the ficient resolution ; but its fate was admiralty of England prepared foreseen as soon as it was attempttransports to carry off the effects ed, there being no means of affordof the British factory. However, ing relief to any of the places bethe body which had traversed this fieged. It surrendered, province without resistance, at- however, upon terms ho- Aug. 25. tempting to crofs the Douro, had nourable to the garrison. its progress checked on that fide. The Spaniards, having made The peasants, animated and guided themselves mafters of this place, by some English officers, and seiz- overspread the whole territory of ing a difficult pass, repulsed and Cattel Branco, a principal diftri&t of drove them back to Torre de Mon- the province of Beira, making their corvo. They are faid to have been way to the southward, until they apguilty of some cruelties to the Spa- proached the banks of the Tagus. nish prisoners who fell into their During the whole of their progress, bands. These cruelties were after- and indeed during the whole camwards severely retaliated upon them. paign, the allied troops of Great BriThese people, on both sides natu- tain and Portugal had nothing that rally ferocious, had not been fufi- could be called a body of an army in ciently inured to war, to moderate the field, and they could not think its fury, and reduce it under laws; of cpposing the enemy in a pitched they hated mutually, and they gave a battle. All that could be done was full scope to their hatred : they did by the defence of paffes, by skirnot see each other as soldiers, but minh, and by furprise. as enemies.
By this time the count of la Lippe The second body of the Spani- Buckeburg had arrived in Portugal. ards, which we have mentioned as Lord Tyrawly, who had been fent, the connective link between the two at the desire of the court of Lifbon, others, entered into the province of thither before the breaking out of the Beira, at the villages called Val de war, being disgusted by the behaviour Mula and Val de Coelha. They of fume persons at court, and much were joined by strong detachments disappointed in his expectations of
the exertion they had promised to and able officer, though at a distance make of their own force, and even of five days march, and in spite of of the use they had made of the fuc- all the disappointments and obcours from England, had been re- ftructions to which services of this called very early in the campaign, kind are so liable, when they canand probably not contrary to his not be executed immediately ; yet own inclination.
effected a complete surIt is impossible to express the prise on the town of Va. Aug. 27. joy which filled the whole nation at lentia de Alcantara ; took the gethe arrival of so celebrated an offi- neral, who was to have commanded cer as the count la Lippe to their in the intended invasion, one coloassistance. More unanimity was nel, two captains, and seventeen now expected, as the count had no. fubaltern officers. One of the beft thing to complain of, and came an regiments in the Spanish service was entire stranger to all the subjects of intirely destroyed. debate, which had hitherto exifted Although they were disappointed between the British general and the in their expectations of finding macourt of Lisbon.
gazines in this place, the effect of That army, which we have men- this well-conducted enterprize was tioned as the third corps destined not loft. The taking of this gefor the invasion of Portugal, assem- neral was probably the cause which bled on the frontiers of Eftrema- prevented the Spaniards from endura, with an intention of pene- tering into the province of Alentejo. trating into the province of Alente. This seemed to have been for fome jo. Had this third body been time the destination not only of that joined to the others already in Por- particular body, but also the great tugal, it would probably have form- object of the Spanih army, which ed such an army as might, in spite had hitherto acted in Beira. The of any obstruction, have forced its former of these provinces is a plain, way to Lisbon: had it acted sepa- open, fertile country, where their rately, it might have greatly dif- cavalry, in which consisted the chief traced the defence, so as to enable of their army, and in which lay some other body to penetrate to
their moft marked fuperiority, that city. It was necessary to pre. might have acted, and acted decivent, if pofible, their entrance into fively: whereas the latter was a Portugal; since their mere entrance rough mountainous region, in which would have been almost equal, in the horse were fubfilted with diffiits consequences, to a victory on culty, and could be of little fertheir fide,
vice. To prevent, therefore, the The count la Lippe, therefore, entry of the Bourbon army from formed a design of attacking an any quarter, into Alentejo, seemed advanced body of the Spaniards, to be the great and fingle object of which lay on their frontiers, in a the campaign on our side. General town called Valentia de Alcantara, Burgoyne, by this expedition into as he heard that they had here the Spanish territories, had already amassed considerable magazines. prevented it in one part, and the The conduct of this important en- vigilance and activity of the same terprize was committed to brigadier officer had no small share in pregeneral Burgoyne. This gallant venting it also on the other.
That part of the Bourbon army, with important consequences. The which acted in the territory of Castel season was now far advanced; im. Branco, had made themselves mas- mense rains fell at this time; the ters of several important passes, roads were destroyed; the country which they obliged some bodies of became impracticable ; and the Spathe Portuguese to abandon. They niards, having seized no advanced attacked the rear of the combined posts in which they could maintain army, which was passing the river themselves during the winter, and Alveito, with the appearance of a being especially unprovided with retreat; but, in reality, with a view magazines for the support of their to draw them insensibly into the horse, every where fell back to the mountainous tracts : here they were frontiers of Spain, where their fuprepulsed with loss; but fill they plies were at hand, and where they continued masters of the country; were not liable to be harrassed by the and nothing remained but the pal- efforts of the combined army. sage of the Tagus, to enable them In this manner Portugal was to take up their quarters in Alen- saved, at least for that campaign, tejo.
by the wise conduct of count la Burgoyne, who was posted with Lippe, and the distinguished valour an intention to obstruct them in of the English commanders and fol. their passage, lay in the neighbour- diery: all that was wanting towards hood, and within view of a de- their deliverance was accomplished tached camp, composed of a con- by the success of the - English army fiderable body of the enemy's ca- in more distant quarters, and by the valry, which lay near a village peace, in which so valuable and so called Villa Velha. As he observed exposed an ally was not neglected. that the enemy kept no very sol. There never was probably so heavy dierly guard in this post, and were a storm of national calamity, ready uncovered both on their rear and to fall upon an unprovided people, their flanks, he conceived a design so happily averted, or so speedily of falling on them by surprise. He blown over. Every thing, at the confided the execution of this design beginning of this campaign, bore to colonel Lee, who turned their the most louring and ominous aspect
camp, Oct. 6.
to the affairs of Great Britain. As rear in the night, made it advanced, the sky continually a confiderable Naughter, dispersed cleared up; and the fortune of no the whole party, destroyed their nation, towards the close of it, was magazines, and returned with scarce enlivened with a more brilliant and any loss. Burgoyne, in the mean more unclouded prosperity. We time, supported him by a feint at- fhall now proceed in the relation of tack in another quarter, which pre- those successes, and of the progress vented the enemy's being relieved of the English arms in other parts from the adjacent posts.
of the world, where new scenes of This advantage, being obtained danger and honour were now openin a critical moment, was attended ed to them.
C H A P.
Expedition against Martinico, Force fent thither. Troops land a: Cas
Navire Nature of the country. Attack of the posts near Fort Royal. Fort Royal surrendered. St. Pierre and the whole ijlad capitulate. St. Lucie, ibe Grenades, and St. Vincent taken. Preparations for war again? the Spanish Weft Indies.
Owards the close of the last employed, and a great deal of
year it was determined to re- money spent, it would have been sume the scheme of operations in an unpardonable error, from a the West Indies; where nothing had confideration of almost any faving, been attempted fince the year 1759. to have left any thing imperfect; Distressed as the French trade to especially at a time, when the effect their illands had been, it still con- of every operation became, almoit tinued a resource to that nation. hourly, more and more critical and On the other hand, nothing could decitive. possibly furnish us with places of Every thing which had been an more importance either to retain, or object of war in North America, to exchange upon a peace, than our was by this time completely acsuccess in this part of the world. quired. It was therefore easy to Another confideration had proba- draw a very contiderable part of bly no small share in directing our the army from thence. Eleven batarms towards that quarter. From talions were drawn from New York; the time that the dispositions of a draught was also made from the Spain had become equivocal, it was garrison of Belleille. The'e were necessary to take such steps as reinforced by some troops which would put us in a respectable situa- had been scattered among the Leetion, in case a war with that king- ward islands ; so that the whole dom thould become unavoidable. Jand armament did not full very It was therefore very proper to sort of twelve thousand men. Ges have a strong armament in the neral Monckton, who had acquired Weft Indies, that fide on which fo much reputation in North AmeSpain is most vulnerable, and rica, and had received a very griein which every wound affects vous wound at the taking of Quea part of the quickest fenfibility. bec, commanded the land forces in Accordingly the force which was this expedition. The marine was sent into the Welt Indies on this under rear-admiral Rodney. occasion, was very great ; and, if The failure in 1:59 did not diswe take the naval and military to- courage our administration from gether, it was such an armament as making Martinico the object of had never been before seen in that another attempt. The Englith fleet, part of the world.
It was certainly after having rendezvouzed at Barvery right to leave as little to hao badoes, came before this island on zard as possible; and when, in the the oth of January, 1;62. The most frugal method of proceeding, troops landed at a creek called Cas a great many men must have been Navire, wiihout the loss of a Vol. Y.
man ; the feet having been disposed attacked to favour this operation, fo properly, and having directed a body of regular troops and matheir fire with such effect, that the rines were ordered to advance on enemy was obliged in a short time the right along the sea fide, towards to abandon the batteries they had the town, in order to take the reerected to defend this inlet.
doubts which lay in the lower When the landing was effected, grounds. A thousand sailors, in flatthe difficulties were far from being bottomed boats, rowed close to the at an end. It is true, that neither shore to assist them. On the left, the number nor the quality of the towards the country, a corps of light enemy's regular troops in the island infantry, properly supported, was to was very formidabie. But the mi- get round the enemy's left; whilft litia was numerous, well armed, the attack in the center was made by and not unqualified for service in the British grenadiers and the body the only kind of war, which could of the army, under the fire of batbe carried on in their country. teries, which had been erected on Besides, the whole country was the opposite fide with great labour a natural fortification, from the and perseverance ; the cannon havenumber of ravines with rivulets be- ing been dragged upwards of three tween them, which lay from distance miles by the seamen. to distance. Wherever those grounds These dispositions for the attack of were practicable, the French had this difficult poft having been made posted guards and erected batteries. with so much judgment on the part It is easy from hence to discern of the commander, it was executed what obstructions the progress of an with equal spirit and resolution by army was liable to, particularly with the soldiery." The attack succeeded regard to its artillery. These ob- in every quarter. With irresistible structions w ere no where greater impetuofity the enemy's works were than in the neighbourhood of the successively carried. They were place, against which the first regular driven from poft to poft ; until our attack was proposed.
troops, after a ferp Itruggle, reThis town and citadel is overlook- mained matters of the whole Morne : ed and commanded by two very con- fome of the enemy fled precipitatesiderable eminences, called, Morne ly into the town, to the very enTortenson and Morne Garnier. Whilft trance of which they were pursued. the enemy kept possession of these Others saved themselves on the eminences, it was impossible to ac- Morne Garnier,which was as strong, tack the town ; if they lost them, and much higher, than Morne it would prove impossible to defend Tortenson,and overlooked and comit.
Suitable to the importance of manded it. Thus far had they prothose situations were the measures ceeded with success ; but nothing taken to render them impracticable. decisive could be done, without the They were protected, like the other pofleflion of the other eminence, high grounds on this island, with
our troops being much molested by very deep ravines ; and this great the enemy from that superior fituanatural ftrength was improved by tion. every contrivance of
The It was three days before proper Morne Tortenson was first to be difpofitions could be made for