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campaign commenced very nearly Gottingen. But if he watched the in the same place, and they con- prince, the prince also watched him. tended for pretty much the same When, therefore, he had orders to objects, which they had struggled quit this post, that he might cofor in the two preceding years. operate in the grand design, he left
So superior was the genius of a small party of his corps in his prince Ferdinand, that under many station, by which he deceived the disadvantages he was the first to prince of Saxony; and marching commence offensive operations. The in the night with the utmolespeed, ftroke he ftruck on this occasion he crossed the Weser, turned the would fuffice alone to rank him with right of the French army, and, the first commanders of his age. without being discovered, placed His abilities throughout the war himself upon
General have never fone out with more Sporken at the same time placed lustre than in this campaign, which himself so as to attack the same concluded it.
wing in Aank. Prince Ferdinand The French army was most ad- crossed the Dymel, in order to fall vantageously posted, both for com- upon their center. The attack on mand of the country, and for the enemy's left was commanded strength, near a place called Grae- by lord Granby. benstein, in the frontiers of Heffe ; These preparations were made their center occupied an advanta- with so much judgment, celerity, geous eminence; their left wing and good order, that the French had was almost inaccessible by several not perceived the approach of the deep ravines, and their right was allies, when they found covered by the village of Graeben. themselves attacked with
June 24. stein, by several rivulets, and a infinite impetuosity in front, flank, strong detached body under one of and rear. The battle was scarcely their best officers, monsieur de Ca. begun, when they thought of nostries.
thing but flight. The corps under In this situation they imagined monsieur de Castries had time to they had nothing to fear from the retreat in tolerable order, and withattempts of prince Ferdinand, whose out any great loss. But it did not army, besides the inferiority of its fare so well with their center, and numbers, was separated in such a their left, which were opposed by manner, and in such diftant places, the calm resolution of prince Ferthat they judged it impoffible it dinand, and the generous courage could unite in any attack upon their of Granby. camp. But whilst they enjoyed As the French placed all their themselves in full security, the hopes rather in retreat than comstorm was preparing to fall upon bat, an entire rout must have enthem from all quarters.
sued, if monsieur Stainville, who A considerable corps of the al- commanded on the left, had not lied army, under general Luckner, thrown himself with the flower of was posted to the eastward of the the French infantry into a wood, Weser, near Eimbecke, on the which enabled him, at the expence Leine. He lay there to observe of the best part of it, to cover the prince Xavier of Saxony, who was retreat of the army. Here this encamped between the Werra and brave and accomplished officer made a resolute stand, and for a long were unable to provide against untime sustained the whole weight of expected accidents) to push forward the allies. His corps was a de- a body of the English under lord voted facrifice. All but two bat- Granby and lord Frederick Caventalions were cut to pieces or made distı
. The French could scarcely prisoners. The other bodies, co- imagine, that, whilst they were in vered by this resolute maneuvre, poffefsion of so strong a place as made a shift to shelter themselves Caffel, and commanded an army so under the cannon of Caffel, or pre- superior in numbers to the allies, cipitately escaped to the other side that, whilft prince Ferdinand braved of the Fulda.
them in front, they should find one Thus did the French army, by of his detachments upwards of thirty the virtue of monsieur de Stainville, miles behind them. In this emerescape a total defeat; but the con- gency, monsieur de Rochambeau fequences of the action were not perceiving their motions, haftily recovered during the whole cam. collected some brigades of infantry paign. They lost much credit both and cavalry at Homin point of resolution and general- bourg, to prevent, if pof
July 6. ship. Their infantry, in this en- fible, the communication of the gagement, confilted of one hundred grand army with Francfort from battalions, when that of the allies being cut off. But they were was composed but of fixty. The charged with so much vigour by common men made prisoners by the the two English commanders, that, allies, on this occasion, were two though they defended themselves thousand seven hundred and fifty, with fpirit for some time, they and no less than one hundred and were in the issue dispersed with confixty-two officers were taken. The fiderable loss. They were obliged English loft but a few men killed, to evacuate that tract of country. and no officer of rank but lieute- Fritzlar, Feltzberg, and Lohr, and nant-colonel Townshend S, who fell almost all the important posts in the with great glory to himself, and to fouth part of Hesse were occupied the regret of the whole army. by the allies. The communication
Every thing in the conduct of with Francfort, from whence the prince Ferdinand appears the effect French drew their whole fubsistence, of a well-digested plan; and one was absolutely intercepted. great action completed always helps To the north of Hesse also the to disclose a series of bold, masterly, allies were not less active, nor less and connected defigns.
successful : they obliged prince As soon as the enemy was dif- Xavier, with his Saxon detachlodged from their strong post, use ments, to abandon his advanced was made of this advantage (whilft poft on the Leine, and unite himthe French, under the hurry and self to the grand army. They got confusion of their late misfortune, between him and Gottingen, by
This col. Townshend was second fon to the hon. Thomas Townshend, Esq; He had distinguished himself on several occasions. At Gaudaloupe he was pushed overboard in the landing of the troops, but his black faved his life by jumping after him. In the last campaign in Germany, he was shot through the arm, and in this engagement he lost his life, seeking the post of honour that his duty did not require.
which the French garrison there was his flank gained, he began to give left without fupport. This garri- way. In this inftant Waldhaulen, fon, seeing its communication in- who had hitherto only watched the terrupted, blew up a part of the issue of the engagement, threw in fortifications, and attempted a re- his horfe upon their rear, and comtreat; but finding no avenue open, pleated the defeat. they were obliged to return in con- General Stainville, who occufufion. Despairing of their ability pied a strong intrenched camp in to hold this important place, they the neighbourhood, seeing the party thought themselves happy, when at of the prince of Saxony in danger length, with much management of being totally cut to pieces, quit
and difficulty, they were Aug. 16.
ted his intrenchments with his able to evacuate it with- whole army, of ten thousand men, ont oppofition.
and haftened to their relief. Prince Prince Xavier, after having, as Frederick of Brunswick, attentive we said before, quitted his advanced to this movement, with great quickfituation at Morungen in the terri. ness seized this critical opportunity, tories of Hanover, united himself entered their camp the moment they to the right of the principal army, had left it, and entirely destroyed which was posted to the eastward all their works. In this action of the Fulda, not far from the eleven hundred of the enemy were place where that river forms an made prisoners. angle in its junction with the Wer- The French finding their commuIn this angle stands the town nication destroyed, their army
surof Munden, a fortified place, in rounded and harrassed on every side, which the French had a garrison. and without intermission, were Full of confidence from this situa- neither able to advance with a protion, they were under no appre- spect of success, or to retreat with henfions : but the generals 2a- any hope of safety. In this distress
strow, Gilfac, aud Wald- they had nothing left but to call July 23. hausen, paffed the Fulda their army from the Lower Rhine in their fight, and under a heavy to their assistance. No time was to fire of their cannon. The corps be loft. Express after express was of the two former officers pofseffed sent to haften them. In consethemselves of a wood on the ene- quence of these dispatches, the my's right flank. General Wald- prince of Condé advanced by forced haufen, in the mean time, had seized marches; the hereditary prince stuck the village of Bonnevert, which close to him, and kept himself in reaenabled him to keep the garrison of diness to fall upon his corps, when a Munden in check, and gave him favourable opportunity should offer. also an opportunity, whenever the In the mean time prince Ferdioccafion required it, of falling on nand pressed upon Soubise's army. the enemy's rear.
Advantageously as they were fiThe bold passage of the Fulda, tuated, he offered them battle for and the judgment of the subfe- a whole day. Rather than risque quent difpofitions, insured the vic
an engagement they decamped in tory. Prince Xavier, for a good the night, and quitted, without an while, defended himself with an action, those advantageous grounds obkinate resolution ; but finding called the heights of Mulsingen, where they could not be attempted warded by the operations of the without the greatest difficulty and campaign, and that a successful achazard; and the quitting of which tion often haftens the decision of a gave prince Ferdinand the most im- contested article. Perhaps too he portant advantages over them. was willing to shew in England,
Never were military operations that the neceflity of making peace pushed with more vivacity, whilft ought not to be attributed to the the negotiation for peace was in circumstances of that part of the great forwardness. The two great war which had been committed to contending courts had opened con- his care. People imagined they ferences, whilft their armies were could discern something like coldcutting one another in pieces: but nefs towards this great commander prince Ferdinand, on that account, in the new British ministry; and rather strained than slackened his that he, on his side, seemed rather efforts. He knew that the negotia- to favour that party in England tion for peace is always much for- which was for prolonging the war.
CH A P. VI.
War in Portugal. Plan of the campaign. Miranda, Braganza, and Chaves
taken. Almeida besieged and taken. Count of La Lippe arrives in Portugal. Surprise of Valentia d'Alcantara, by general Burgoyne. Affair of Villa Velha. Spaniards retire.
ny, tho'its object was not more of the line, and a very few frigates, interesting than that in Portugal, composed all the naval force of seem to rank far before the actions of Portugal that was fit for service; of the latter in dignity and importance. that Portugal which had formerly They naturally occupy the first been one of the first maritime place, and justify a more minute powers in Europe. The fortificadetail in an history of military ope- tions in that kingdom had been rations. It is in Germany that the also long neglected, and scarce any great efforts of all the great powers of them were in a condition to suin Europe were made from the be. Atain a regular fiege. ginning. Here the most consider- Portugal, however, poffeffed some able armies were maintained ; here advantages ; but they were only the great battles were fought; and such as the derived from her weakon this theatre the great comman
ness. The extreme barrenness and ders gave a full scope to their ge- poverty of the country, made it very nius. Germany seems, as it were,
difficult for an
army, either of she natural soil of hoftility ; but friends or enemies, to fubfilt in it. Portugal, which had long languished The badness of the roads, and the in a tranquil obfcurity, could scarce frequency and steepness of the mounfurnish out a faint image of war.
the greatest Of the fate of the military in part of that kingdom, made it no that country we have spoken in a less difficult to advance with rapid preceding chapter. The marine was marches, and to improve the ada much more respectable vantages of the campaign with pro.
per expedition. The nature of the When the Bourbon courts made country also rendered it more at war against Portugal, the declared for that species of defence, which object was to prevent Great Britain the best force it had was best quali- from the military and commercial use fied to make; that is, in the way of of the ports of that kingdom. As it an irregular war, by its armed pea. was impossible to attain this object by fantry; for the defiles in many naval operations, they attempted it places are of such a nature, as to by military ones, and aimed their be capable of being maintained by principal endeavours at the two a small and undisciplined body, great ports, to which the English against very numerous and very re- principally resort, Oporto and Lilgular forces. And the Portuguese, bon. The poffeffion of these two from the highest to the lowest, were objects would probably have finished animated with such a fincere and the war in their favour ; the posinveterate hatred to the Spanish session of either of them would have name, and were filled with so much given them the most decisive advanterror at the prospect of falling tages in it. With this view three a second time under the govern- inroads were to be made, one to the ment of that nation, that great north, another was proposed more hopes were entertained of their ex- to the south, whilst the third was erting themselves to the utmost on made in the middle provinces, in this occasion, and of their rousing order to sustain these two bodies, that natural courage in which the and preserve the communication bePortuguese are not deficient. tween them. The reader must con
These advantages, however, did lider this, as what appears from by no means ballance the dangers to their deligns, and from the steps which that kingdom was exposed, they took to execute them, to have from the joint hoftility of France been their general plan; not that and Spain. All the hope of Portu- it was ever perfectly executed in all gal was centered in England, for its parts, or at the same time. whose fake, and in whose quarrel The first body wbich commenced she had been drawn into this un- hoftilities was commanded by the equal conteft
. The greater the marquis de Sarria. This army enweakness of Portugal was, the more tered into the north-east angle of conspicuous were the magnanimity Portugal, and marched towards and resources of Great Britain, who Miranda. This town, though in inade, in the close of so expensive no good state of defence, might and ruinous' a war, such astonish- have delayed them in their proing efforts, and who was in a con- gress ; but a powder magazine havdition by her strength to prop up, ing blown up by accident, the forat least for a time, so
tifications were ruined, and the fyftem. "She sent to Portugal, offi - Spaniards, before they had raised cers, troops, artillery, arms, mili- their first battery, marched
May 9. tary stores, provisions, and money, into
by the every thing which could enable the breaches in the wall, Portuguese to exert their natural Animated by this easy and fortu. ftrength, and every thing which nate fuccess, they proceeded to Bracould supply that strength where it ganza, a considerable city, from I was deficient.
whence the royal family of Portugal