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troft tender friendship and affinity, king (of France) can no longer dewhich ought to have made the fer taking the same resolution. Itrongest and most falatary impres- Independent of the motives which sion on the mind of the most faith- are common to the two monarchs, ful king.
each hath separate grievances to alBut these powerful and just con- ledge againit Portugal, which of fiderations were so far from deter- themselves would be suficient to mining that prince to unite with justify the extremity to which their his majesty and his Catholic majesty, majeities see themselves with regret that he absolutely rejected their of- obliged to proceed. fers, and chose to sacrifice their al- Every one knows the utmost and liance, his own glory, and the good violent attack made by the English, of his people, to his unlimited and in 1759, on some of the (French) blind devotion to the will of Eng- king's ships under the cannon of land.
the Portuguese forts at Lagos. His Such conduct leaving no doubt majesty demanded of the most faithconcerning the king of Portugal's ful king to procure him restitution true intentions, the king and the Ca. of those ships : but that prince's tholic king could consider him, from minifters, in contempt of what was that time, only as a direct and per- due to the rules of justice, the laws jonal enemy, who under the artful of the sea, the sovereignty and terpretext of a neutrality which would ritory of their master (all which not be observed, would deliver up were indecently violated by the his ports to the disposal of the Eng- most scandalous infraction of the lish, to serve for sheltering places rights of sovereigns and of nations) for their
ships, and to enable them in answer to the repeated requisi- to burt France and Spain with more tions of the king's ambassador on security, and with more effect. this head, made only vague speeches
Nevertheless, his majesty and his with an air of indifference that borCatholic majesty thought it their dered on derision. duty to keep measures with the At the same cime, the court of most faithful king; and if the Spa- Lisbon, pretending to be ignorant nish troops have entered Portugal, that sovereigns, who hold their rank this invafion, which was become of their birth only and the dignity indispenfibly necessary, was not ac- of their crown, can never permit, companied with any declaration of under any pretext, any potentate war; and the troops have behaved to attempt to infringe prerogatives with all the circumspection that and rights belonging to the anticould be required even in a friendly quity and majesty of their throne, and neutral state.
hath pretended to establish, without All this moderation has been distinction, an alternative of precethrown away : the king of Portu- dence between all the ambassadors gal hath just now declared war in and foreign minifters about the king form against France and Spain. of Portugal. The king, being inThis unexpected step forced the Ca- formed by his ambassador, of the tholic king to make the like decla- notification that had been made to ration against Portugal; and the him of this extraordinary and un
exampled regulation, signified in public of the United Provinces he writing to the most faithful king, had even advised her to embrace, his just dissatisfaction; and his ma- and joined the enemies of France jesty declared, that he never would and Spain. The same confidence, suffer any attempt to be made to and the same security, on the pars diminish the right essentially inhe- of the two crowns, in the present rent in the representative character, state of things, would undoubtedly with which he is pleased to honour have been followed by the like dehis ambassadors and minifters. fection in the court of Lisbon.
However justly the king was au- United to the Catholic king by thorised to express, at that time, indiffoluble sentiments of tender his displeasure on account of these friendship and comwon interetts, grievances, and several other sub
the king hopes that their united jects of complaint which he had re. efforts will be favoured by the God ceived from the court of Portugal, of hosts, and will in the end comhis majesty contented himself with pel the king of Portugal to conduct recalling his ambassador, and con- himself on principles more continued to keep up a correspondence formable to sound policy, the good with the most faithful king, which of his people, and the ties of blood he very fincerely desired to render which unite him to his majesty and more intimate and more lasting. his Catholic majesty.
That prince, therefore, can only The king commands and enjoins blame himself for the calamities of all his subje&ts, vasals, and servants, a war, which he ought, on every to fall upon the subjects of the king account, to have avoided, and of Portugal; and expresly prohibits which he hath been the first to de. them from having any communica. clare.
tion, commerce, or intelliger ce with His offers to observe an exact them, on pain of death ; and acneutrality might have been listened cordingly his majefty hath from this to by the king, and the Catholic date revoked, and hereby revokes, king, if past experience had not all licences, passports, safe-guards. taught them to guard against the and safe-conducts con:rary to these illution and danger of such propo- presents, that may have been granted fals.
by him or his lieutenant gererals, In the beginning of the present and other officers ; declaring them century, the court of Liibon was null and void, and of no effect ; very forward to acknowledge king and forbidding all persons to pay Philip V. of glorious memory, and any regard thereto. “And whereas, contracted formal engagements with in contempt of the XVth article of France and Spain. Pe II. who the treaty of peace between France at that time filled the throne of Por- and Portugal, figned at Utrecht, tugal, seemed to enter cordially into April 11, 1783 (and by which it is the alliance of the two crowns : exprefly ftipulated, “That in care but after dissembling his secret in- of a rupiure between the two tentions, for three years, he broke crowns, the space of fix months all his promises, and the neutrality after the faid rupture shall be grant. which he had afterwards sollicited, ed their subjects respectively, to sell and which, in a letter to the re- or remove their effects, and withdraw
their persons if they think fit”) the our faithful subjects were threatened, king of Portugal hath just now or- and seeing how fincere and express dered that all the French who are their desires were on this head, we, in his kingdom should leave it in putting our trust in the Almighty the space of fifteen days, and that and his divine justice, have ascend their effects should be confiscated ed the sovereign imperial throne of and sequestered; his majesty, by all the Russias, and have received a way of just reprisals, commands, solemo oath of fidelity from all our that all the Portuguese in his domi faithful subjects.' nions fhall, in like manner, leave This publication being made, the them within the space of fifteen days empress caused the following note from the date hereof, and that all to be delivered to the foreign minitheir effects shall be confiscated. fters, for their information. Versailles, June 20, 1762.
• Her majefty, the empress, hav.
ing this day ascended the imperial Papers relative to the late revolu- throne of all the Ruilias, at the tion in Rufia.
unanimous defire and prefing inManifesto of the present empress of stances of all her faithful subjects
Rusia, on her accesson to the and true patriots of this empire, throne as independent sovereign.
hath commanded notice thereof to
be given to all the foreign ministers * CATHERINE II. by the grace
of God, empress and autocra- residing at her court, with an aftrix of all the Rullias, &c. &c. furance of her imperial majesty's All the true fons of Russia have invariable resolution to live in good clearly seen the great danger to friendship with the fovereigns their
masters. which the whole Russian empire hath in fact been exposed. First
, have notice of the day when they
The foreign minifters fhall foon the foundations of our orthodox Greek religion have been shaker, may have the honour to pay their and its traditions exposed to total court and present their compliments ruin; so that there was absolutely of congratulation to her imperial ground to fear, that the faith, which wajesty' hath been established in Russia from
Petersburg, June 28, O. S. 1762. the earliest times, would be entirely Some days afterwards the empress changed, and a foreign religion introduced. In the second place, the
issued the following manifesto, give glory which Russia has acquired at
ing an account of her motives for the expence of so much blood, and
taking the reins of government into
ber bands. which was carried to the greatest height by her victorious arms, has We Catherine II. by the grace of been trampled under foot by the God, empress and sovereign of peace lately concluded with its
all the Russias, greatest enemy,
And lastly, the domestic regulations, which are the Making known these presents to all
our loving subjects, ecclefiaftical, basis of the country's welfare, have
military, and civil. been totally overturned.
For these causes, overcome by OUR acceffion to the imperial the imminent dangers with which chrone of all the Ru lias is a manifeft proof of this truth, that bitter griefs to his moft auguft aunc when fincere hearts endeavour for 'and sovereign, (the truth of which good, the hand of God directs all our court knows) however he them. We never had either design might behave himself outwardly; or desire to arrive at empire, thro? being kept under her eye by her the means by which it hath pleased tenderness, he looked upon this afthe Almighty, according to the in- fection towards him as an insupportfcrutable views of Providence, to able yoke. He could not, however, place us upon the throne of Ruffia, disguise himself so well, but it was our dear country.
perceived by all our faithful subOn the death of our most august jects, that he was poffeffed of the and dear aunt, the empress Eliza- most audacious ingratitude, which beth Petrowna, of glorious memory, he sometimes shewed by personal all true patriots (now our most faith- contempt, sometimes by an avowed ful subjects) groaning for the loss hatred to the nation. At length, of so tender a mother, placed their throwing aside his cloak of hypoonly confolation in obeying her ne- crisy, he thought it more fit to let phew, whom she had named for her loose the bridle of his passions, than fucceffor, that they might shew conduct himself as the heir of fo thereby, in fome degree, their ac- great an empire. In a word, the knowledgments to their deceased" least traces of honour were not to fovereign. And, although they be perceived in him. What were foon found out the weakness of his the consequences of all this? mind, unfit to rule fo vaft an em- He was scarcely aflured that the pire, they imagined he would death of his aunt and benefactress, have known his own insufficiency. approached, but he banished her Whereupon they fought our mater- memory entirely from his mind; nal assistance in the affairs of go- nay, even before she had sent forth
her last groan. He only caft an eye of But when absolute power falls to contempt on the corpse exposed on the lot of a monarch, who has not the bier ; and, as the ceremony as fufficient virtue and humanity to that time required obliged him to place just bounds to it, it degene- approach it, he did it with his eyes jates into a fruitful source of the manifestly replete with joy; even most pernicious evils. This is the intimating his ingratitude by his sum, in short, of what our native words. I might add, that the obcountry has suffered. She ftruggled sequies would have been nothing to be delivered from a sovereign, equal to the dignity of fo great and who, being blindly given up to magnanimous a sovereign, if our the most dangerous paffions, thought tender respect to her, cemented by of nothing but indulging them, the ties of blood, and the extreme without employing himfelf in the affection between us, had not made welfare of the empire committed to the care of it a duty to uş. his care.
He imagined that it was not to During the time of his being the Supreme Being, but only to grand-duke, and heir to the throne chance, that he was indebted for of Russia, he often caused the most absolute power, and that he had
it in his hands, not for the good ascended the throne of Russia, deof his subjects, but solely for his clare him for his successor; that befatisfaction. Adding therefore li- ing reserved for his caprice, which cence to absolute power, he made tended to the detriment of us and all the changes in the state, which of our fon, having an inclination to the weakness of his mind could overthrow the right that his aunt fuggelt, to the oppression of the had vested in him, and to make the people.
government of our native country Having effaced from his heart, pass into the hands of ftrangers; even the least traces to the holy contradicting this maxim of natural orthodox religion (although he had right, according to which nobody been sufficiently taught the princi- can transmit to another more than ples thereof) he began firit by root- he has received himself. ing out this true religion, establish- Although with great grief we ed so long in Russia, by absenting faw this intention, we did not behimself froin the house of God, lieve that we ourselves, and our and of prayers, in so open a man- most dear son, should have been exner, that some of his subjects, excit- posed to a persecution fo fevere : ed by conscience and honeity, see- but all persons of probity, having ing his isteverence and contempt of observed that the measures that he the rites of the church, or rather pursued, by their effects, manifesto the railleries be made of them, and ed that they had à natural tendency scandalizing them by his behaviour, to our ruin, and that of our dear dared to make remonftrances to him successor, their generous and pious concerning it; who, for so doing, hearts were jultly alarmed: Aniscarcely escaped the reseniment mated with zeal for the interest of which they might have expected their native country, and astonished from so capricious a sovereign,whose at our patience under these heavy power was not limited by any hu- persecutions, they secretly informed man laws. He even intended to us, that our life was in danger, in destroy the churches, and ordered order to engage us to undertake the some to be pulled down. He per- burthen of governing to large an mitted those to have chapels in their empire. own houses, whose infirmities hin. While the whole nation were on dered them from visiting the house the point of testifying their disapof God. Thus he would have do- probation of his measures, he nemineered over the faithful, in en- vertheless continued to chagrine deavouring to file in them the fear them the more, by subverting all of God, which the holy scripture those excellent arrangements estateaches us to be the beginning of blished by Peter the Great, our most wisdom.
dear predecessor, of glorious meFrom this want of zeal towards mory, which that true father of his God, and contempt of his laws, re- country accomplished by indefatisulted that scorn to the civil and na. gable pains and labour through the tural laws of his kingdom ; for, whole course of a reign of thirty having but an only son, which God years. The late Peter the Third had given us, the grand-duke Paul despised the laws of the empire, Petrowitz, he would not, when he and her most respectable tribunals,